Entomopathogenic fungi

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
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A synopsis of the abundant widespread neotropical fungi Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (likely a group of species) from Wikipedia [1] provides an introduction to this topic:

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis is an entomopathogen, or insect-pathogenising fungus, discovered by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace in 1859, and currently found predominantly in tropical forest ecosystems. O. unilateralis, also referred to as a zombie fungus, infects ants of the Camponotini tribe, with the full pathogenesis being characterized by alteration of the behavioral patterns of the infected ant. Infected hosts leave their canopy nests and foraging trails for the forest floor, an area with a temperature and humidity suitable for fungal growth; they then use their mandibles to affix themselves to a major vein on the underside of a leaf, where the host remains until its eventual death. The process leading to mortality takes 4–10 days, and includes a reproductive stage where fruiting bodies grow from the ant's head, rupturing to release the fungus's spores. O. unilateralis is in turn also susceptible to fungal infection itself, an occurrence which can limit its impact on ant populations, which has otherwise been known to devastate ant colonies.

The genus of ant infecting fungi were once all in the genus Cordyceps but most have been moved to the genus Ophiocordyceps (Sung et al. 2007).

Photo Gallery

  • Camponotus atriceps infected by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-atricipis, biting onto a leaf edge. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Camponotus atriceps infected by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-atricipis biting onto a liana, after a heavy rain at Brazilian Amazon. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Camponotus renggeri infected by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-renggeri, biting onto liana. The leg joints and antenna are covered by specialized cells that produce asexual spores that are transmitted by contact. The round structures (ascoma), suspended by the long stalks (stroma) produce sexual spores that will be released onto the forest 􀃓oor. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Camponotus nidulans infected by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-nidulantis on its typical display where the antennae are spread in order to optimize the transmission of asexual spores produced along the antenna. Dead on a summit position, aiming to spread the sexual spores. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Daceton armigerum infected by Ophiocordyceps dacetini. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Paraponera clavata infected by Ophiocordycceps ponerinarum. In this association, the fungus leads the ant to climb up on a tree, to die attached to the trunk. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Polyrhachis sp. infected by Ophiocordyceps buquetii, in Ghana. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Paltothyreus tarsatus biting onto a green stem. Once infected by an Ophiocordyceps species (still undescribed), it climbs up to a vertical stem to die biting onto it. In this case, the fungus we see is actually a hyerparasite of the Ophiocordyceps fungus, which overcame it and procuced these torrubielloid sexual structures. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Very tip of a palm leaf, showing Camponotus hippocrepis infected by Ophiocordyceps camponotihippocrepidis. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Campontus bispinosus biting onto a palm spine, as it typically dies from infection of Ophiocordyceps camponotibispinosi. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Camponotus floridanus attached to Spanish moss moments after the final manipulated biting behavior induced by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-floridani. Photo by Charissa de Bekker.
  • Likely killed by the fungus Desmidiospora myrmecophila. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Likely killed by the fungus Desmidiospora myrmecophila. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Likely killed by fungus Desmidiospora myrmecophila. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Camponotus ligniperda queen likely killed by the parasitic fungus Desmidiospora myrmecophila. Photo by Michal Kukla.

Fungal Species

Formica rufa with Aegeritella epizoic fungal infection. Photo by Michal Kukla.
Formica rufa with Aegeritella epizoic fungal infection. Photo by Michal Kukla.

Aegeritella superficialis

These fungi were first noted by Wisniewski in 1967 although their fungal nature was not proven then. The fungi grow over the cuticle like dark protuberances (= bulbils). On first sight, they look like dirt, and its form is usually a dome, rounded in perimeter, and up to 400 μm diameter. The number of bulbils may be from a single one to several hundred. The distribution of bulbils on the body of ants is heterogeneous, being more abundant at the rear part. The total number of bulbils is inversely related to ant size, with bigger ants having less bulbils than smaller ants. Bulbils have been detected in workers and queens.

The ant-fungus relationship has not been properly ascertained although a reduced life duration or activity level has been suggested. In a similar vein, Bałazy et al. note some workers with hundreds of bulbils, having immobilized bucal palps, all covered by hyphae. Nothing is known of the dynamics of infestation or transmission mechanisms of those enigmatic fungi, not even its phylogenetic position within the realm of Fungi.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Aegeritella maroccana

These fungi were first noted by Wisniewski in 1967 although their fungal nature was not proven then. The fungi grow over the cuticle like dark protuberances (= bulbils). On first sight, they look like dirt, and its form is usually a dome, rounded in perimeter, and up to 400 μm diameter. The number of bulbils may be from a single one to several hundred. The distribution of bulbils on the body of ants is heterogeneous, being more abundant at the rear part. The total number of bulbils is inversely related to ant size, with bigger ants having less bulbils than smaller ants. Bulbils have been detected in workers and queens.

The ant-fungus relationship has not been properly ascertained although a reduced life duration or activity level has been suggested. In a similar vein, Bałazy et al. note some workers with hundreds of bulbils, having immobilized bucal palps, all covered by hyphae. Nothing is known of the dynamics of infestation or transmission mechanisms of those enigmatic fungi, not even its phylogenetic position within the realm of Fungi.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Aegeritella roussillonensis

These fungi were first noted by Wisniewski in 1967 although their fungal nature was not proven then. The fungi grow over the cuticle like dark protuberances (= bulbils). On first sight, they look like dirt, and its form is usually a dome, rounded in perimeter, and up to 400 μm diameter. The number of bulbils may be from a single one to several hundred. The distribution of bulbils on the body of ants is heterogeneous, being more abundant at the rear part. The total number of bulbils is inversely related to ant size, with bigger ants having less bulbils than smaller ants. Bulbils have been detected in workers and queens.

The ant-fungus relationship has not been properly ascertained although a reduced life duration or activity level has been suggested. In a similar vein, Bałazy et al. note some workers with hundreds of bulbils, having immobilized bucal palps, all covered by hyphae. Nothing is known of the dynamics of infestation or transmission mechanisms of those enigmatic fungi, not even its phylogenetic position within the realm of Fungi.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Aegeritella superficialis

Aegeritella tuberculata

These fungi were first noted by Wisniewski in 1967 although their fungal nature was not proven then. The fungi grow over the cuticle like dark protuberances (= bulbils). On first sight, they look like dirt, and its form is usually a dome, rounded in perimeter, and up to 400 μm diameter. The number of bulbils may be from a single one to several hundred. The distribution of bulbils on the body of ants is heterogeneous, being more abundant at the rear part. The total number of bulbils is inversely related to ant size, with bigger ants having less bulbils than smaller ants. Bulbils have been detected in workers and queens.

The ant-fungus relationship has not been properly ascertained although a reduced life duration or activity level has been suggested. In a similar vein, Bałazy et al. note some workers with hundreds of bulbils, having immobilized bucal palps, all covered by hyphae. Nothing is known of the dynamics of infestation or transmission mechanisms of those enigmatic fungi, not even its phylogenetic position within the realm of Fungi.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Hormiscium myrmecophilum

The species was described from an Amazonian Pseudomyrmex and remained elusive since its original description until it was found in Europe eighty years later. The filamentous, somewhat dichotomic thallus is undifferentiated and grows directly out of different parts of the ant body, without any apparent attaching structure. Mycelia have a maximum length of 163 μm and constant width of 10 μm. Spores are unknown.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Laboulbeniales

Laboulbeniales - fungi found growing on adult ants; also associated with other arthropods

Laboulbenia camponoti

Under the binocular, the thallus of this species looks like a distorted ant hair and is found all over the body, albeit more abundant in dorsal surfaces and external surface of legs. Density is much lower than in other ant-specific Laboulbeniales. In the Holarctic, it has been detected exclusively in Camponotus species, all six from the subgenus Tanaemyrmex

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Laboulbenia formicarum

This is one of the smallest Laboulbeniales species (up to 0.3mm total length). Thalli can be extremely abundant on infested workers, which go foraging seemingly unaffected amid noninfested workers.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Myrmicinosporidium

This fungi were first noted by Holldobler although it was formally described later, in 1933. Its phylogenetic position is still unknown, and its true fungal nature has been only proved recently. Infested ants are usually well detected because the darker spores are visible through the integument; spores number may be very low, but usually they reach more than one hundred in a single ant. The caveat here is that the fungus may be much difficult to detect in ants having fuscous or black colouration. As a consequence, host range is probably biased. The usual aspect of concave spores, with a bow-like depression, is an artefact of fixation in alcohol.

Although the infested workers are almost certainly killed by the fungus when spores begin producing hyphae, life span seems not to be curtailed. Infested workers seem scarcely affected in its normal behaviour, and infested queens may participate in swarming flights and show normal fertility. Males have been found infected too. Life cycle and mode on infestation are unknown although reports of Myrmicinosporidium from callow workers in Pogonomyrmex badius indicate that the infection is carried over from immature stages. It is perhaps significant that the majority of diseased ants were collected in late summer and fall. After hibernation, those infected workers die. Its geographical distribution is ample as is also the range of hosts.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Rickia wasmannii

This species is extremely characteristic in its microscopic morphological aspect and is limited to several species of Myrmica. Infested ants may harbour from a few thalli to several hundred thalli all over the body. Heavy infestations are visible to the naked eye and give a greyish shade, a pulverulent image to living individuals. Worker and queens may be infested.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Ant Hosts

Taxon Fungus Locality Source Notes
Aphaenogaster baronii Aegeritella maroccana Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Atta cephalotes Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Asia, North and South America Shrestha et al., 2017
Bothroponera pachyderma Ophiocordyceps australis Africa Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus Ophiocordyceps albacongiuae Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus Ophiocordyceps blakebarnesii Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus Ophiocordyceps rami Shrestha et al. 2017; Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus Ophiocordyceps septa Shrestha et al. 2017; Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Asia, North and South America Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus Ophiocordyceps japonensis Asia, North and South America Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus Ophiocordyceps lloydii var. binata Asia, North and South America Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus Torrubiella formicarum Ghana Samson, et al., 1989
Camponotus aberrans Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Africa Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus aethiops Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus americanus Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis North America Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus atriceps Ophiocordyceps camponoti-atricipis South America Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017; Sobczak et al., 2017
Camponotus atriceps Ophiocordyceps lloydii Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus atriceps Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis North and South America Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus baldaccii Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus balzani Ophiocordyceps camponoti-balzani Brazil Araujo et al., 2018; Evans et al., 2011; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus bispinosus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-bispinosi South America Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus brutus Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus buchneri Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus castaneus Ophiocordyceps kimflemingiae Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus castaneus Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis sensu lato Mangold et al., 2019
Camponotus chartifex Ophiocordyceps camponoti-chartificis Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus cruentatus Ophiocordyceps halabalaensis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus cruentatus Ophiocordyceps ridleyi Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus femoratus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-femorati Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus floridanus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-floridani Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus hippocrepis Ophiocordyceps camponoti-hippocrepidis Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus indianus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-indiani Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus japonicus Ophiocordyceps formicarum Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus ligniperda Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus ligniperda Desmidiospora myrmecophila based on a photo by Michal Kukla, fungal identification by João Araújo
Camponotus melanoticus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-melanotici Brazil Araujo et al., 2018; Evans et al., 2011; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus nidulans Ophiocordyceps camponoti-nidulantis Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus novogranadensis Ophiocordyceps camponoti-novogranadensis Brazil Araujo et al., 2018; Evans et al., 2011; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus obscuripes Ophiocordyceps formicarum Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus obscuripes Ophiocordyceps pulvinata Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus obscuripes Ophiocordyceps sessilis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus paradoxus Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus pennsylvanicus Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus piceus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus pilicornis Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus punctatissimus Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020 identification of host needs confirmation
Camponotus renggeri Ophiocordyceps camponoti-renggeri Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus rufipes Ophiocordyceps camponoti-rufipedis Brazil Andersen et al., 2012; Araujo et al., 2018; Evans et al., 2011; Loreto et al., 2014; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus sanctaefidei leonhardi Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus sericeiventris Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus sexguttatus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-sexguttati Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus sylvaticus Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus universitatis Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus vividus Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Cataglyphis cursor Aegeritella roussillonensis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps cucumispora Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps evansii Sanjuan et al., 2015; Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Shrestha et al., 2017
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps niphofioides Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Colobopsis leonardi Ophiocordyceps camponoti-leonardi Andersen, Ferrari et al., 2012; Andersen, Hughes et al., 2012; Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Colobopsis saundersi Ophiocordyceps camponoti-saundersi Araujo et al., 2018
Daceton armigerum Ophiocordyceps dacetini Araujo et al., 2018
Dinomyrmex gigas Ophiocordyceps halabalaensis Araujo et al., 2018
Dinoponera gigantea Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Dolichoderus Ophiocordyceps pseudolloydii Philippines Sung et al., 2007; Evans & Samson, 1984
Dolichoderus attelaboides Ophiocordyceps cucumispora var. dolichoderi South America Evans & Samson 1982; Shrestha et al., 2017
Dolichoderus attelaboides Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides var. dolichoderi South America Evans & Samson 1982; Shrestha et al., 2017
Dolichoderus bispinosus Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides var. monacidis Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Dolichoderus thoracicus Mycodomus formicartus Thailand Jitjak & Sanoamuang, 2019
Echinopla melanarctos Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica Ophiocordyceps subunilateralis Shrestha et al. 2017
Formica argentea Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica aserva Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica curiosa Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica decipiens Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica exsecta Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica fusca Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica fusca Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica fusca Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica incerta Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica lasioides Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica lugubris Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica montana Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica neogagates Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica pallidefulva Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica polyctena Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica polyctena Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica pratensis Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica pratensis Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica pressilabris Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica puberula Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufa Aegeritella sp. photo by Michal Kukla
Formica rufa Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica rufa Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufa Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufibarbis Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica sanguinea Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica sanguinea Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subintegra Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subpolita Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subsericea Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica truncorum Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica vinculans Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius alienus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius distinguendus Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius flavus Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius grandis Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius grandis Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius murphyi Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius neglectus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius neoniger Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius nitidigaster Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius pallitarsis Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius pallitarsis Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius umbratus Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Megaponera analis Ophiocordyceps australis Shrestha et al., 2017
Megaponera analis Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Myrmecocystus mimicus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica curvithorax Rickia wasmannii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica rubra Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Myrmica rubra Rickia wasmannii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica sabuleti Hormiscium myrmecophilum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica sabuleti Rickia wasmannii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica scabrinodis Rickia wasmannii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica specioides Rickia wasmannii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica spinosior Rickia wasmannii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica vandeli Rickia wasmannii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Nylanderia vividula Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Odontomachus Cordyceps morakotii Shrestha et al., 2017
Oecophylla smaragdina Ophiocordyceps oecophyllae Araujo et al., 2018
Pachycondyla crassinoda Ophiocordyceps australis Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Pachycondyla harpax Ophiocordyceps evansii Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Pachycondyla impressa Ophiocordyceps evansii Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Pachycondyla striata Ophiocordyceps australis Shrestha et al., 2017
Paltothyreus tarsatus Ophiocordyceps australis Shrestha et al., 2017
Paltothyreus tarsatus Cordyceps carnata Shrestha et al., 2017
Paltothyreus tarsatus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Paraponera clavata Cordyceps doiana Colombia Kobayasi, 1981; Araujo et al., 2018; Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Paraponera clavata Ophiocordyceps australis Araujo et al., 2018; Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Paraponera clavata Ophiocordyceps ponerinarum Araujo et al., 2018; Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Pheidole bicarinata Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pheidole pallidula Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pheidole tysoni Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Phrynoponera Ophiocordyceps australis Shrestha et al., 2017
Plagiolepis pallescens Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Plagiolepis pygmaea Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pogonomyrmex badius Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pogonomyrmex barbatus Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Polyergus lucidus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Polyergus mexicanus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012 note that the ants involved were identified as ''P. breviceps'' and predate Trager's (2013) revision. It is likely that these are actually ''P. mexicanus'' but this has yet to be confirmed
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps ootakii Araujo et al., 2018
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps satoi Araujo et al., 2018
Polyrhachis armata Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis debilis Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis decemdentata Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis dives Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis fissa Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis furcata Ophiocordyceps polyrhachis-furcata Araujo et al., 2018
Polyrhachis furcata Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis hippomanes Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis illaudata Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis laboriosa Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis lamellidens Ophiocordyceps unilateralis var. clavata Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis latharis Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis latispina Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis latona Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis militaris Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis monista Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis proxima Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis revoili Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis robsoni Ophiocordyceps naomipierceae Araujo et al., 2018 identity of ant species uncertain
Polyrhachis rufofemorata Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis sulcata Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis vigilans Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis wolfi Ophiocordyceps unilaterialis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Prenolepis imparis Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Solenopsis carolinensis Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Solenopsis fugax Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Solenopsis invicta Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Strongylognathus caeciliae Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Strumigenys membranifera Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax affinis Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax albipennis Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax angustulus Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax exilis Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax lichtensteini Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax muellerianus Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax nylanderi Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax racovitzai Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax recedens Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax tuberum Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax unifasciatus Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Tetramorium caespitum Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Tetramorium semilaeve Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012

Unknown Ant Hosts

The following fungi have been reported from unknown species of ants.

Fungus Source Notes
Cordyceps myrmecogena Kobayasi & Shimizu, 1978
Cordyceps pilifera Kobayasi, 1981
Torrubiella liberiana Mains, 1949 Liberia

References

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