Formica

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Formica
Temporal range: 48.6–0 Ma Eocene – Recent
Formica rufa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Formica
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Formica rufa
Diversity
283 species
69 fossil species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Formica rufa casent0173862 profile 1.jpg

Formica rufa

Formica rufa casent0173862 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Formicinae

Myrmelachistini
  (2 genera)




Lasiini
  (11 genera)




Melophorini
  (9 genera)




Formicini


Polyergus
  (15 species)




Formica
  (283 species)



Iberoformica
  (1 species)






Bajcaridris
  (3 species)




Proformica
  (30 species)




Cataglyphis
  (118 species)



Rossomyrmex
  (4 species)










Gesomyrmex, Oecophylla



Plagiolepidini
  (9 genera)





Gigantiops, Myrmoteras, Santschiella



Camponotini
  (8 genera)








Based on Ward et al. 2016.

A large holarctic genus that are common in many northern temperate areas. For many reasons this genus as a whole has many well studied species. The taxonomy is fractured into many smaller subdivisions (both subgenera and species groups; see Formica species groups), many of which have no official taxonomic designation and are poorly delineated. In some cases older group names have been replaced by newer names, and new arrangements of species, but the older groups remain in use by some myrmecologists and not others.


Photo Gallery

  • Formica sanguinea group workers tending aphids at Grafton, Massachusetts. Photo by Tom Murray.
  • Formica 6954.jpg

Identification

Formica species groups

AntWeb icon 02.png See images of species within this genus

Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Fossils

Fossils are known from: Aix-en-Provence, France (Late Oligocene), Auxillac, Auvergne, France (Early Oligocene), Baltic amber (Bartonian, Middle to Late Eocene), Bitterfeld amber (Bartonian, Middle to Late Eocene), Bol’shaya Svetlovodnaya, Sikhote-Alin, Russia (Priabonian, Late Eocene), Bournemouth, Dorset, U.K. (Bartonian, Middle Eocene), Danish-Scandinavian amber (Bartonian, Middle to Late Eocene), Florissant, Colorado, United States (Late Eocene), Joursac, Auvergne, France (Late Miocene), Kishenehn Formation shale, Montana, United States (Lutetian, Middle Eocene), Kleinkems, Germany (Early Oligocene), Lac Chambon, Auvergne, France (Pliocene), Mokrina (Krottensee), Czech Republic (Late Burdigalian, Early Miocene), Oeningen, Switzerland (Messinian, Late Miocene), Ormety, Georgia (Serravallian, Miocene), Quesnel, British Columbia, Canada (Early Miocene?), Radoboj, Croatia (Burdigalian, Early Miocene), Rovno amber (Priabonian, Late Eocene), Rott, Westphalia, Germany (Late Oligocene), Shanwang, China (Early Miocene), Mossy Creek, near Wellborn, Texas, United States (Late Eocene).

Biology

Subgeneric Phylogentics Romiguier et al. (2018) "resolved the phylogenetic relationships among palearctic Formica subgenera (Formica str. s., Coptoformica, Raptiformica and Serviformica). Interestingly, our phylogenetic tree reveals that the free-living Serviformica species do not form a monophyletic clade, and that parasitic colony founding in wood ants and Raptiformica slave-makers is likely to have a single origin. Our results suggest that parasitic colony founding is likely to be an intermediary step between free-living hosts and slave-maker parasites in the Formica genus. Similar studies in other genera containing slave-making species (e.g. Temnothorax, Harpagoxenus, Myrmoxenus, Protomognathus…) will be necessary to get a better global picture of the evolution of slave-making in ants."

Association with Other Organisms

Species Uncertain

  • An unknown species is a host for the braconid wasp Elasmosoma vigilans (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the braconid wasp Elasmosoma berolinense (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a associate (details unknown) for the ichneumonid wasp Pseomachus sp. (a associate (details unknown)) (Quevillon, 2018).
  • An unknown species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Eucharis adscendens (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Eucharis esakii (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Eucharis adscendens (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (primary host).
  • An unknown species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Eucharis esakii (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (primary host).
  • An unknown species is a host for the fungus Beauveria bassiana (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the fungus Ophiocordyceps subunilateralis (a pathogen) (Shrestha et al. 2017).
  • An unknown species is a host for the nematode Diploscapter lycostoma (a parasite) (Quevillon, 2018) (multiple encounter modes; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the nematode Diploscapter lycostoma (a parasite) (Wahab, 1962).
  • An unknown species is a prey for the tiger beetle Cicindela tranquebarica (a predator) in United States (Valenti & Gaimari, 2000; Polidori et al., 2020).
  • An unknown species is a prey for the tiger beetle Cicindelidia marginipennis (a predator) in United States (Valenti & Gaimari, 2000; Polidori et al., 2020).

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
Click here to show/hide associate data.
Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Formica associate (details unknown) ichneumonid wasp Pseomachus sp. associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica host braconid wasp Elasmosoma berolinense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica host braconid wasp Elasmosoma vigilans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica host eucharitid wasp Eucharis adscendens parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica host eucharitid wasp Eucharis adscendens parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica host eucharitid wasp Eucharis esakii parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica host eucharitid wasp Eucharis esakii parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica host fungus Beauveria bassiana parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica host fungus Ophiocordyceps subunilateralis pathogen Shrestha et al. 2017
Formica host nematode Diploscapter lycostoma parasite Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica host nematode Diploscapter lycostoma parasite Wahab, 1962
Formica prey tiger beetle Cicindela tranquebarica predator United States Valenti & Gaimari, 2000; Polidori et al., 2020
Formica prey tiger beetle Cicindelidia marginipennis predator United States Valenti & Gaimari, 2000; Polidori et al., 2020
Formica accreta host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021 properly ''Polyergus umbratus''
Formica accreta prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon albicomatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica accreta prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon cothurnatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica accreta prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon piperi predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica adamsi temporary parasite ant Formica neorufibarbis host
Formica adamsi alpina slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica adamsi whymperi prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon cothurnatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica adamsi whymperi prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon piperi predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica aerata associate (details unknown) encyrtid wasp Comperiella bifasciata associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aerata host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker properly ''Polyergus umbratus''
Formica aerata host aphelinid wasp Aphytis melinus parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica altipetens host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica altipetens host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica altipetens host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica altipetens host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker Trager, 2013; Torres & Tsutsui, 2016; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Chrysocharis assis associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Chrysocharis collaris associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Chrysocharis nephereus associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Chrysocharis orbicularis associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Chrysocharis pilicoxa associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Cirrospilus curvineurus associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Cirrospilus vittatus associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Derostenus gemmeus associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Dicladocerus westwoodii associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Elachterus artaeus associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Pediobius metallicus associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Pnigalio longulus associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Pnigalio pectinicornis associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Sympiesis gordius associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Sympiesis sericeicornis associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia associate (details unknown) eulophid wasp Sympiesis xanthostoma associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica aquilonia host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica aquilonia host beetle Monotoma angusticollis (Coleopotera: Monotomidae) myrmecophile Europe Wagner et al., 2020
Formica aquilonia host braconid wasp Elasmosoma berolinense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica aquilonia host braconid wasp Neoneurus auctus parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Achrysocharoides niveipes parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Chrysocharis assis parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Chrysocharis collaris parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Chrysocharis nephereus parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Chrysocharis orbicularis parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Chrysocharis pilicoxa parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Cirrospilus curvineurus parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Cirrospilus vittatus parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Derostenus gemmeus parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Dicladocerus westwoodii parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Elachertus artaeus parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Pediobius metallicus parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Pnigalio longulus parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Pnigalio pectinicornis parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Sympiesis gordius parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Sympiesis sericeicornis parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia host eulophid wasp Sympiesis xanthostoma parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica archboldi host ant Polyergus oligergus slave maker King & Trager, 2007; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021 as ''Polyergus lucidus'' in early records
Formica archboldi host cricket Myrmecophila pergandei myrmecophile
Formica argentea host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica argentea host ant Formica gynocrates slave maker Bono et al., 2006; de la Mora et al., 2021 host as ''Formica'' sp. cf. ''argentea''
Formica argentea host ant Formica microgyna temporary parasite Gregg, 1963; Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica argentea host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica argentea host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Moffett, 2010; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica argentea host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica argentea host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica argentea prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon lanceolatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica aserva host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker doubtful, needs confirmation
Formica aserva host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica aserva host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica aserva host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasite Canada (Alberta) van Paridon et al., 2017; Martin-Vega et al., 2018; Criscione et al., 2020
Formica aserva prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon albicomatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica aserva prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon cothurnatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica aserva prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon piperi predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica aserva prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon tristis predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica aserva slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host Wheeler and Wheeler, 1986
Formica aserva slave maker ant Formica podzolica host Ruano et al., 2019; Savolainen & Deslippe, 2001; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica biophilica host ant Formica densiventris slave maker doubtful, possible misidentification of host species
Formica biophilica host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica biophilica host ant Polyergus ruber slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica bradleyi host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica bradleyi host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker doubtful, slave maker possibly ''Formica pergandei''
Formica bradleyi host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica bruni temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica brunneonitida temporary parasite ant Formica candida host Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica canadensis host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica candida host ant Formica brunneonitida temporary parasite Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica candida host ant Formica pisarskii temporary parasite Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica candida host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica candida host ant Polyergus nigerrimus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica caucasicola temporary parasite ant Formica picea host Georgia Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica ciliata host ant Formicoxenus hirticornis xenobiont
Formica cinerea associate (details unknown) bacterium Serratia symbiotica associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica cinerea host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica cinerea host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Trager, 2013; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica cinerea host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica cinerea host trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum parasite Armenia Arakelian et al., 1997 as ''Formica cinerea armeniaca''
Formica cinerea mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica clara host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Trager, 2013; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica creightoni slave maker ant Formica neogagates host J. Trager (pers. comm.)
Formica creightoni slave maker ant Formica pallidefulva host J. Trager (pers. comm.)
Formica cunicularia host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker Ruano et al., 2019; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica cunicularia host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Romani et al., 2006; D'Ettorre et al., 2000; Mori et al., 2000; Visiccio et al., 2000; Visiccio et al., 2001; Romani et al., 2006; Seifert, 2018; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica cunicularia host braconid wasp Elasmosoma luxemburgense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica cunicularia host braconid wasp Neoneurus vesculus parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica cunicularia host eucharitid wasp Eucharis adscendens parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica cunicularia host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasite Germany Hohorst & Graefe, 1961
Formica cunicularia host trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum parasite Armenia Arakelian et al., 1997
Formica cunicularia mutualist butterfly Zizeeria knysna Obregon et al. 2015
Formica curiosa host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica curiosa host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica fusca host
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica glacialis host J. Trager, pers. comm. sometimes as a cohabiting inquiline
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica lepida host
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica montana host
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica pallidefulva host
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica subaenescens host Gregg, 1963; Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica subsericea host
Formica decipiens host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica densiventris prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon manitobensis predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica argentea host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica biophilica host doubtful, possible misidentification of host species
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica neogagates host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica puberula host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica subaenescens host host given as ''Formica fusca'', but likely ''Formica subaenescens'', needs confirmation
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica subpolita host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica subsericea host host possibly ''Formica podzolica'', needs confirmation
Formica difficilis host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica difficilis prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon tristis predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica difficilis temporary parasite ant Formica incerta host
Formica dirksi temporary parasite ant Formica subaenescens host
Formica dolosa host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica dolosa host ant Polyergus longicornis slave maker Goodloe & Sanwald, 1985; MacGown & Brown, 2006; King & Trager, 2007; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021 slave-maker misidentified as ''Polyergus lucidus''
Formica dolosa host ant Polyergus sanwaldi slave maker Goodloe and Sanwald, 1985; Goodloe, Sanwald and Topoff, 1987; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica exsecta host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica exsecta host beetle Monotoma angusticollis (Coleopotera: Monotomidae) myrmecophile Europe Wagner et al., 2020
Formica exsecta host fungus Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica exsecta host fungus Pandora formicae pathogen Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica exsecta host fungus Pandora myrmecophaga pathogen Romania Csata et al., 2013
Formica exsecta host phorid fly Aenigmatias lubbocki parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica exsecta temporary parasite ant Formica fusca
Formica exsecta temporary parasite ant Formica lemani
Formica exsectoides host ''Microdon'' fly Microdon abstrusus predator Maryland (type), Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia Thompson, 1981
Formica fennica temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica foreli temporary parasite ant unknown host primary host likely to be ''F. fusca'', ''F. cunicularia'' or ''F. rufibarbis''
Formica foreliana host ant Polyergus topoffi slave maker Trager, 2013
Formica forsslundi mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica forsslundi temporary parasite ant Formica picea host
Formica forsslundi temporary parasite ant Formica transkaucasica host
Formica fossaceps host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica fossaceps slave maker ant Formica montana host
Formica fukaii host ant Polyergus samurai slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021 a relatively rare host
Formica fukaii temporary parasite ant Formica japonica host Kubota & Kondoh, 1954; Hayashida, 1963
Formica fukaii temporary parasite ant Formica lemani host Yamaoka, 1977
Formica fusca host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica fusca host ant Formica exsecta temporary parasite
Formica fusca host ant Formica rufa temporary parasite
Formica fusca host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker Ruano et al., 2019; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica fusca host ant Formica suecica temporary parasite
Formica fusca host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; Sulger et al., 2014; de la Mora et al., 2021 properly ''Polyergus umbratus''
Formica fusca host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Trager, 2013; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica fusca host braconid wasp Elasmosoma berolinense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica fusca host diapriid wasp Trichopria formicaria parasite www.diapriid.org
Formica fusca host eucharitid wasp Eucharis esakii parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica fusca host eulophid wasp Melittobia acasta parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica fusca host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica fusca host fungus Aegeritella tuberculata pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica fusca host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica fusca host fungus Pandora formicae pathogen Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica fusca host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Spain Espadaler & Riasol, 1981; Elton, 1991
Formica fusca host nematode Comanimermis clujensis parasite Coman, 1953
Formica fusca host nematode Mermithidae (unspecified "Mermix") parasite Germany Gosswald, 1930; Laciny, 2021
Formica fusca host phorid fly Aenigmatias dorni parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica fusca host phorid fly Aenigmatias lubbocki parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica fusca host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasite de Bekker et al., 2018
Formica fusca host trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum parasite Armenia Arakelian et al., 1997
Formica fusca mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica fusca prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon albicomatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica fusca prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon sp. predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica fuscocinerea host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica gagates host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Trager, 2013; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica gagates host trematode Dicrocoelium chinensis parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica gagates host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica gagatoides host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica gerardi host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica glabridorsis host ant Polyergus samurai slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica glacialis host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite J. Trager, pers. comm. sometimes as a cohabiting inquiline
Formica glacialis host ant Formica pergandei slave maker Apple et al., 2014; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica glacialis host ant Formica subintegra slave maker Apple et al., 2014; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica gnava host ant Polyergus topoffi slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica gynocrates slave maker ant Formica argentea host Bono et al., 2006; de la Mora et al., 2021 host as ''Formica'' sp. cf. ''argentea''
Formica gynocrates slave maker ant Formica lasioides host Snelling & Buren, 1985 uncommon
Formica gynocrates slave maker ant Formica neogagates host Snelling & Buren, 1985 uncommon
Formica gynocrates slave maker ant Formica perpilosa host S. Cover, MCZbase
Formica gynocrates slave maker ant Formica vinculans host Snelling & Buren, 1985
Formica hayashi host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker Japanese Ant Image Database
Formica hayashi host ant Polyergus samurai slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021 a relatively rare host
Formica hewitti host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica hewitti host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica impexa slave maker ant Formica subaenescens host
Formica incerta host Microdon ocellaris predator Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania (type), South Carolina Curran, 1924
Formica incerta host ant Formica difficilis temporary parasite
Formica incerta host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica incerta host ant Polyergus lucidus slave maker Goodloe & Sanwald, 1985; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica incerta host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica incerta host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica indianensis temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica integra host braconid wasp Elasmosoma pergandei parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica integra host braconid wasp Elasmosoma petulans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica integroides host ant Formicoxenus hirticornis xenobiont
Formica japonica host ant Formica fukaii temporary parasite Kubota & Kondoh, 1954; Hayashida, 1963
Formica japonica host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker Ruano et al., 2019; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica japonica host ant Polyergus samurai slave maker Tsuneoka, 2008; Tsuneoka & Akino, 2009; Tsuneoka & Akino, 2012; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica japonica host braconid wasp Elasmosoma berolinense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica japonica host butterfly Lampides argyrognomon myrmecophile Mizuno et al., 2018
Formica japonica host eucharitid wasp Eucharis esakii parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica japonica host histerid beetle Hetaerius gratus myrmecophile Kubota, 1965
Formica japonica host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Japan Sonobe, 1974; Elton, 1991
Formica japonica host Staphylinid beetle Kigatrodes gracilis myrmecophile Sawada, 1974
Formica japonica prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon kidai predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica japonica prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon yokohamai predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica japonica xenobiont ant Formica lemani xenobiont Yamaoka, 1977; Kvifte and Soule, 2017 plesiobiotic
Formica knighti temporary parasite ant Formica subsericea host needs confirmation
Formica kozlovi host ant Polyergus nigerrimus slave maker
Formica lasioides host ant Formica gynocrates slave maker Snelling & Buren, 1985 uncommon
Formica lasioides host ant Formica microgyna temporary parasite Gregg, 1963; Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica lasioides host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica lasioides host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica lasioides host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica lasioides host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica lasioides host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica lemani host ant Formica exsecta temporary parasite
Formica lemani host ant Formica fukaii temporary parasite
Formica lemani host ant Formica pressilabris temporary parasite
Formica lemani host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker Ruano et al., 2019; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica lemani host ant Formica suecica temporary parasite
Formica lemani host fungus Pandora formicae parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica lemani host fungus Pandora myrmecophaga pathogen Boer, 2008; Csata et al., 2013 ant identification as ''Formica'' cf. ''lemani''
Formica lemani host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Spain Collingwood, 1956; Espadaler & Riasol, 1981; Elton, 1991
Formica lemani prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon murayami predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica lemani prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon mutabilis predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica lemani xenobiont ant Formica japonica xenobiont Yamaoka, 1977; Kvifte and Soule, 2017 plesiobiotic
Formica lepida host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica lepida host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica lepida host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica lepida host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica lugubris host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica lugubris host beetle Monotoma angusticollis (Coleopotera: Monotomidae) myrmecophile Europe Wagner et al., 2020
Formica lugubris host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica lugubris host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Spain Espadaler & Riasol, 1981; Elton, 1991
Formica lugubris host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica manchu temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica manni host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica mesasiatica host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica mesasiatica temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica microgyna temporary parasite ant Formica argentea host Gregg, 1963; Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica microgyna temporary parasite ant Formica lasioides host Gregg, 1963; Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica microgyna temporary parasite ant Formica neogagates host Gregg, 1963; Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica microgyna temporary parasite ant Formica subaenescens host Gregg, 1963; Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica microphthalma host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021 properly ''Polyergus umbratus''
Formica moki host ant Polyergus vinosus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica moki xenobiont ant Temnothorax andrei xenobiont Mann, 1911 nature of relationship unknown
Formica montana host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica montana host ant Formica fossaceps slave maker
Formica montana host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica montana host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica montana host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica montana host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica montana host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica morsei temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica neoclara host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica neoclara host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica neoclara host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica neoclara host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica neoclara prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon albicomatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica neoclara prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon cothurnatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica neoclara prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon manitobensis predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica neoclara prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon piperi predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica neogagates host ant Formica creightoni slave maker J. Trager (pers. comm.)
Formica neogagates host ant Formica densiventris slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica neogagates host ant Formica gynocrates slave maker Snelling & Buren, 1985 uncommon
Formica neogagates host ant Formica microgyna temporary parasite Gregg, 1963; Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica neogagates host ant Formica pergandei slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica neogagates host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica neogagates host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica neogagates host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica neogagates host fungus Laboulbenia formicarium parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica neogagates host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica neogagates prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon lanceolatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica adamsi temporary parasite Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica adamsi alpina slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica aserva slave maker Wheeler and Wheeler 1986
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Polyergus bicolor slave maker
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021 as ''Polyergus breviceps''
Formica neorufibarbis host cricket Myrmecophilus nebrascensis myrmecophile United States
Formica neorufibarbis host eucharitid wasp Eucharis sp. parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica neorufibarbis prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon albicomatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica neorufibarbis prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon piperi predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica nepticula temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica nevadensis temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica obscuripes host ''Microdon'' fly Microdon xanthopilis predator California (type), Idaho, Washington Townsend, 1895
Formica obscuripes host ant Formica talbotae workerless inquiline British Columbia, Canada
Formica obscuripes host ant Formicoxenus diversipilosus xenobiont
Formica obscuripes host ant Formicoxenus hirticornis xenobiont
Formica obscuripes host braconid wasp Elasmosoma michaeli parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica obscuripes host cricket Myrmecophilus manni myrmecophile Mexico, United States
Formica obscuripes host cricket Myrmecophilus nebrascensis myrmecophile United States
Formica obscuripes host eurytomid wasp Sycophila sp. parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica obscuripes host tenebrionid beetle Alaudes singularis myrmecophile
Formica obscuripes prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon albicomatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica obscuripes prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon cothurnatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica obscuripes prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon piperi predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica obscuripes prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon tristis predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica obscuripes temporary parasite ant Formica pacifica host
Formica obscuriventris host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica obscuriventris host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica obscuriventris host braconid wasp Elasmosoma michaeli parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica obscuriventris host braconid wasp Elasmosoma sp. parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica obscuriventris host cricket Myrmecophilus pergandei myrmecophile United States
Formica obscuriventris prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon cothurnatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica obscuriventris prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon piperi predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica obtusopilosa host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica occulta host ant Formica puberula slave maker Bono et al., 2006; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica occulta host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker Mackay and Mackay, 2002; Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021; Bono et al., 2006; Bono et al., 2007; Johnson, 2000; Johnson et al., 2005
Formica occulta host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021 as ''Formica'' cf. ''occulta''
Formica occulta xenobiont ant Lasius latipes xenobiont
Formica occulta xenobiont ant Lasius sitiens xenobiont
Formica occulta xenobiont ant Myrmica hamulata xenobiont
Formica opaciventris host braconid wasp Elasmosoma petulans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica oreas host eucharitid wasp Orasema coloradensis parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica oreas host eucharitid wasp Orasema coloradensis parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode independent; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica oreas host eucharitid wasp Orasema sp. nr coloradensis parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode independent; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica pacifica host ant Formica obscuripes temporary parasite British Columbia, Canada J. Roth, pers. comm., 2019
Formica pacifica host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica creightoni slave maker J. Trager (pers. comm.)
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica subintegra slave maker Mackay and Mackay, 2002
Formica pallidefulva host ant Polyergus montivagus slave maker King & Trager, 2007; de la Mora et al., 2021 slave-maker misidentified as ''Polyergus lucidus'' in some publications
Formica pallidefulva host braconid wasp Elasmosoma schwarzi parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica pallidefulva host cricket Myrmecophilus pergandei myrmecophile United States
Formica pallidefulva host fungus Laboulbenia formicarium parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica pallidefulva host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica pallidefulva prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon ocellaris predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica pallidefulva prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon tristis predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica pallidefulva prey tiger beetle Cicindela bellissima predator United States Valenti & Gaimari, 2000; Polidori et al., 2020
Formica pergandei host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica pergandei host braconid wasp Elasmosoma petulans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica biophilica host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica difficilis host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica dolosa host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica glacialis host Apple et al., 2014; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica incerta host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica neogagates host Mackay and Mackay, 2002
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica obscuriventris host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica pallidefulva host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica podzolica host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica querquetulana host J. Trager, pers. comm.
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica subaenescens host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica subsericea host
Formica perpilosa host ant Formica gynocrates slave maker S. Cover, MCZbase
Formica perpilosa host braconid wasp Elasmosoma vigilans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica picea host ant Formica caucasicola temporary parasite Georgia Seifert, 2021
Formica picea host ant Formica forsslundi temporary parasite
Formica picea host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica picea host phorid fly Aenigmatias lubbocki parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica picea host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica pisarskii host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica pisarskii temporary parasite ant Formica candida host Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica podzolica host ant Formica aserva slave maker Ruano et al., 2019; Savolainen & Deslippe, 2001; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica podzolica host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica podzolica host ant Formica subintegra slave maker Savolainen & Deslippe, 2001; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica podzolica host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica podzolica host braconid wasp Neoneurus mantis parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica podzolica prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon cothurnatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica polyctena host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica polyctena host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica polyctena host beetle Monotoma angusticollis (Coleopotera: Monotomidae) myrmecophile Europe Wagner et al., 2020
Formica polyctena host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Pascovici, 1983; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica polyctena host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica polyctena host fungus Pandora formicae pathogen Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica polyctena host fungus Pandora myrmecophaga parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica polyctena host fungus Pandora myrmecophaga pathogen Boer, 2008; Csata et al., 2013
Formica polyctena host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Elton, 1991
Formica polyctena host nematode Oscheius dolichura parasite Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica polyctena host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasite Denmark Botnevik et al, 2016; de Bekker et al., 2018
Formica postoculata temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica pratensis host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker Ruano et al., 2019; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021 probable ephemeral host
Formica pratensis host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica pratensis host beetle Monotoma angusticollis (Coleopotera: Monotomidae) myrmecophile Europe Wagner et al., 2020
Formica pratensis host braconid wasp Elasmosoma berolinense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica pratensis host braconid wasp Kollasmosoma marikovskii parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica pratensis host braconid wasp Neoneurus auctus parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica pratensis host eulophid wasp Melittobia acasta parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica pratensis host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Pascovici, 1983; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica pratensis host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica pratensis host fungus Pandora formicae pathogen Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica pratensis host fungus Pandora myrmecophaga pathogen Boer, 2008; Csata et al., 2013
Formica pratensis host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Japan Elton, 1991 as ''Formica nigricans'', needs confirmation
Formica pratensis host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasite de Bekker et al., 2018
Formica pratensis host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica pratensis mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica pressilabris host fungus Aegeritella tuberculata pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica pressilabris temporary parasite ant Formica lemani host
Formica puberula host ant Formica pergandei slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula host fungus Laboulbenia formicarium parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica puberula host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica subpolita host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica altipetens host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica bradleyi host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica densiventris host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica hewitti host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica lasioides host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica lepida host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica montana host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica neoclara host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica occulta host Bono et al., 2006; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica pallidefulva host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica puberula slave maker ant Formica subaenescens host Mackay & Mackay, 2002 reported as ''Formica fusca''
Formica querquetulana host ant Formica pergandei slave maker J. Trager, pers. comm.
Formica querquetulana temporary parasite ant Formica subaenescens host
Formica ravida host ant Formicoxenus hirticornis xenobiont
Formica ravida prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon cothurnatus predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica ravida prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon piperi predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica ravida xenobiont ant Temnothorax andrei xenobiont Mackay & Mackay, 1984 nature of relationship unknown
Formica rubicunda host braconid wasp Elasmosoma petulans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica altipetens host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica argentea host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica aserva host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica bradleyi host doubtful, slave maker possibly ''Formica pergandei''
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica fossaceps host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica lasioides host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica lepida host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica montana host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica neoclara host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica neogagates host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica obscuriventris host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica obtusopilosa host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica pallidefulva host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica subaenescens host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica subsericea host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Myrmica host possibly a prey item rather than a slave
Formica rufa host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker Ruano et al., 2019; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021 probable ephemeral host
Formica rufa host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica rufa host beetle Monotoma angusticollis (Coleopotera: Monotomidae) myrmecophile Europe Wagner et al., 2020
Formica rufa host braconid wasp Elasmosoma berolinense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host braconid wasp Neoneurus auctus parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host braconid wasp Neoneurus clypeatus parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host cestode Raillietina friedbergeri parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host diapriid wasp Synacra sociabilis parasite www.diapriid.org found with or associated with
Formica rufa host diapriid wasp Trichopria aequata parasite www.diapriid.org potential host
Formica rufa host diapriid wasp Trichopria verticillata parasite www.diapriid.org found with or associated with
Formica rufa host eucharitid wasp Chalcura sp. parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host eucharitid wasp Eucharis adscendens parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica rufa host eucharitid wasp Eucharis bedeli parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica rufa host fungus Aegeritella sp. pathogen photo by Michal Kukla
Formica rufa host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufa host fungus Aegeritella tuberculata pathogen Pascovici, 1983; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufa host fungus Alternaria tenuis parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica rufa host fungus Pandora formicae pathogen Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica rufa host fungus Pandora myrmecophaga pathogen Turian & Wuest, 1977; Bałazy, 1993; Sosnowska et al., 2004; Boer, 2008; Csata et al., 2013
Formica rufa host ichneumonid wasp Eurypterna cremieri parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host ichneumonid wasp Hybrizon buccatus parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host ichneumonid wasp Hybrizon cremieri parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Elton, 1975; Elton, 1991
Formica rufa host milichiid fly Phyllomyza formicae myrmecophile Denmark, Switzerland, United Kingdom Donisthorpe, 1927; Hennig, 1937; Hennig, 1952; Milichiidae online
Formica rufa host milichiid fly Phyllomyza securicornis myrmecophile United Kingdom Verrall, 1894; Hennig, 1937; Milichiidae online
Formica rufa host nematode Mermithidae (unspecified "Mermix") parasite Germany Gosswald, 1930; Laciny, 2021
Formica rufa host nematode Oscheius dolichura parasite Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa host nematode Oscheius dolichura parasite Janet, 1893; Wahab, 1962
Formica rufa host nematode Pristionchus lheritieri parasite Wahab, 1962
Formica rufa host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasite de Bekker et al., 2018
Formica rufa host trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum parasite Armenia Arakelian et al., 1997 Arakelian et al. (1997) note this infection is questionable
Formica rufa host virus Chronic bee paralysis virus parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica rufa prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon sp. predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica rufa temporary parasite ant Formica fusca host
Formica rufibarbis host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica rufibarbis host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Mori et al., 2000; Trager, 2013; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica rufibarbis host braconid wasp Elasmosoma luxemburgense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufibarbis host fungus Aegeritella tuberculata pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufibarbis host ichneumonid wasp Hybrizon buccatus parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufibarbis host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Elton, 1991
Formica rufibarbis host nematode Mermithidae (unspecified "Mermix") parasite Germany Gosswald, 1930; Laciny, 2021
Formica rufibarbis host phorid fly Aenigmatias brevifrons parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufibarbis host phorid fly Aenigmatias dorni parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufibarbis host phorid fly Aenigmatias lubbocki parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufibarbis host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasite de Bekker et al., 2018
Formica rufibarbis host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasite Germany Hohorst & Graefe, 1961
Formica rufibarbis host trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum parasite Armenia Arakelian et al., 1997
Formica rufibarbis prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon sp. predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica sanguinea host bacterium Entomoplasma Haapaniemi and Pamilo, 2015 ~20% infection frequency
Formica sanguinea host bacterium Spiroplasma Haapaniemi and Pamilo, 2015 80% infection frequency
Formica sanguinea host bacterium Wolbachia Haapaniemi and Pamilo, 2015 51% infection frequency
Formica sanguinea host braconid wasp Elasmosoma berolinense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica sanguinea host braconid wasp Elasmosoma luxemburgense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica sanguinea host braconid wasp Elasmosoma petulans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica sanguinea host eulophid wasp Melittobia acasta parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica sanguinea host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica sanguinea host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica sanguinea host ichneumonid wasp Hybrizon buccatus parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica sanguinea host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Elton, 1991
Formica sanguinea host nematode Mermithidae (unspecified "Mermix") parasite Germany Gosswald, 1930; Laciny, 2021
Formica sanguinea host phorid fly Aenigmatias lubbocki parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica sanguinea host phorid fly Pseudacteon formicarum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica sanguinea host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica sanguinea host trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum parasite Armenia Arakelian et al., 1997
Formica sanguinea mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica sanguinea prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon sp. predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica candida host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica cinerea host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica cunicularia host Ruano et al., 2019; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica fusca host Ruano et al., 2019; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica gagatoides host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica hayashi host Japanese Ant Image Database
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica japonica host Ruano et al., 2019; de la Mora et al., 2021; Japanese Ant Image Database
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica lemani host Ruano et al., 2019; de la Mora et al., 2021; Japanese Ant Image Database
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica picea host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica polyctena host Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica pratensis host Ruano et al., 2019; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021 probable ephemeral host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica rufa host Ruano et al., 2019; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021 probable ephemeral host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica rufibarbis host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica transkaucasica host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Myrmica jessensis host Hayashida, 1966
Formica scitula temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica selysi associate (details unknown) fungus Aspergillus parasiticus associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi associate (details unknown) fungus Penicillium sizovae associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi associate (details unknown) fungus Penicillium skrjabinii associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi associate (details unknown) fungus Petromyces alliaceus associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi associate (details unknown) fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi host fungus Aspergillus flavus parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica selysi host fungus Beauveria bassiana parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica selysi host fungus Metarhizium brunneum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica spatulata temporary parasite ant unknown host
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica dakotensis
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica dirksi temporary parasite Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica impexa slave maker
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica microgyna temporary parasite Gregg, 1963; Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica querquetulana temporary parasite
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica ulkei temporary parasite
Formica subaenescens host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica subaenescens host ant Polyergus bicolor slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica subaenescens host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica subcyanea host ant Polyergus topoffi slave maker
Formica subintegra host braconid wasp Elasmosoma petulans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica subintegra host fungus Laboulbenia formicarium parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica subintegra host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subintegra slave maker ant Formica glacialis host Apple et al., 2014; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica subintegra slave maker ant Formica pallidefulva host Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica subintegra slave maker ant Formica podzolica host Savolainen & Deslippe, 2001; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica subnitens host eucharitid wasp Orasema coloradensis parasite Wheeler, 1907; Johnson et al., 1986; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database questionable, needs confirmation
Formica subpolita host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica subpolita host ant Formica puberula slave maker Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica subpolita host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica subpolita host braconid wasp Elasmosoma vigilans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica subpolita host fungus Laboulbenia formicarium parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica subpolita host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subsericea host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica subsericea host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica subsericea host ant Formica knighti temporary parasite needs confirmation
Formica subsericea host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica subsericea host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica subsericea host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica subsericea host braconid wasp Elasmosoma pergandei parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica subsericea host braconid wasp Elasmosoma petulans parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica subsericea host cricket Myrmecophilus pergandei myrmecophile United States
Formica subsericea host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica subsericea host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subsericea prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon megalogaster predator Quevillon, 2018
Formica suecica temporary parasite ant Formica fusca host needs confirmation
Formica suecica temporary parasite ant Formica lemani host
Formica suecica temporary parasite ant Formica transkaucasica host
Formica talbotae workerless inquiline ant Formica obscuripes host
Formica tianshanica host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica transkaucasica host ant Formica forsslundi temporary parasite
Formica transkaucasica host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica transkaucasica host ant Formica suecica temporary parasite
Formica transkaucasica host ant Formica uralensis temporary parasite
Formica transkaucasica host phorid fly Aenigmatias lubbocki parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica transkaucasica host trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum parasite Armenia Arakelian et al., 1997
Formica truncorum host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica truncorum host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica ulkei temporary parasite ant Formica subaenescens host
Formica uralensis host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica uralensis host labial gland disease unknown agent parasite Japan Elton, 1991 needs confirmation
Formica uralensis temporary parasite ant Formica transkaucasica host
Formica vinculans host ant Formica gynocrates slave maker Snelling & Buren, 1985
Formica vinculans host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Trager, 2013; de la Mora et al., 2021
Formica vinculans host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum parasite Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica vinculans host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica wheeleri slave maker ant Formica altipetens host
Formica wheeleri slave maker ant Formica bradleyi host
Formica wheeleri slave maker ant Formica lasioides host
Formica wheeleri slave maker ant Formica lepida host
Formica wheeleri slave maker ant Formica neogagates host Mackay and Mackay, 2002
Formica wheeleri slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host
Formica wheeleri slave maker ant Formica subaenescens host given as ''Formica fusca'' but probably ''Formica subaenescens''

Flight Period

All Flight Records for Genus

Explore Data: All, Drilldown
Click here to show/hide flight data.
Taxon Month Source Notes
Formica altipetens Jul Aug Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica aquilonia Jun Jul antkeeping.info
Formica argentea Jul Aug Mackay & Mackay, 2002
Formica aserva Jun Jul antkeeping.info
Formica biophilica Jun Jul antkeeping.info
Formica bruni Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica brunneonitida Jun Jul Aug Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica caucasicola Jul Aug Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica cinerea Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica clara Jun Jul Seifert & Schultz, 2009; antkeeping.info
Formica cunicularia Jun Jul antkeeping.info
Formica exsecta Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica exsectoides Jul antkeeping.info
Formica foreli Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica forsslundi Jul antkeeping.info
Formica francoeuri Apr May Jun antkeeping.info
Formica fusca Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica fuscocinerea Jun Jul Aug Sep antkeeping.info
Formica gagates Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica gagatoides Jul Aug
Formica glacialis Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica glauca Jun Jul antkeeping.info
Formica incerta Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica integra May antkeeping.info
Formica integroides Apr antkeeping.info
Formica japonica Jun July Aug Sep early June to mid July in Tokyo, Japan (Kawai, 1942) and from August to September in Kochi, Japan (Okamoto, 1957)
Formica lemani Jun Jul Aug Sep Collingwood, 1979; Japanese Ant Image Database; antkeeping.info
Formica lugubris May Jun Jul antkeeping.info
Formica manchu Jun Jul Aug Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica mesasiatica Jun Jul Aug Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica moki Jun Jul antkeeping.info
Formica neogagates Aug antkeeping.info
Formica obscuripes Apr May antkeeping.info (April) Washington (May)
Formica obscuriventris Jun antkeeping.info
Formica pacifica Apr antkeeping.info
Formica paralugubris May Jun Jul antkeeping.info
Formica pisarskii Aug Seifert & Schultz, 2021
Formica podzolica Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica polyctena Apr May Jun antkeeping.info
Formica pratensis Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep antkeeping.info; Collingwood, 1979
Formica pressilabris Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica ravida May Jun Jul antkeeping.info
Formica rubicunda Jul antkeeping.info
Formica rufa May Jun antkeeping.info
Formica rufibarbis Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica sanguinea May Jun Jul Aug sep antkeeping.info Japan
Formica selysi Jun Jul Aug Sep antkeeping.info
Formica subaenescens Aug antkeeping.info
Formica subpolita Jun antkeeping.info
Formica subsericea Apr May Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica transkaucasica Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica transmontanis Oct Nov antkeeping.info
Formica truncorum Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica ulkei Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica uralensis Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Formica yessensis Aug Ito & Imamura, 1974 Japan

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 500-300000000 (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: dulosis; inquilinism; temperary parasite (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: omnivore (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging behaviour: cooperative (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

• Antennal segment count: 12 • Antennal club: absent • Palp formula: 6,4; 5,4 • Total dental count: 7-10(0-3) • Spur formula: 1 simple, 1 simple • Eyes: >100 ommatidia • Ocelli: present • Scrobes: absent • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: absent • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: monomorphic, some with marked size-variation • Sting: absent • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: polymorphic

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • Formica sp.3: n = 27 (Crozier, 1975) ('Formica fusca group).
  • Formica sp.4: n = 26 (Crozier, 1975).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

Explore Data: All, Drilldown
Click here to show/hide karyotype data.
Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Formica 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica 27 Crozier, 1975 'Formica fusca'' group
Formica aquilonia 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica candida 6 52 Japan Imai, 1969 as ''F. picea''
Formica cinerea 27 54 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica cunicularia 27 54 France Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica dakotensis 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica exsecta 26 52 Switzerland Agosti & Hauschteck-Jungen, 1987; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica frontalis 52 Spain Lorite et al., 2002b; Lorite et al., 2004a
Formica fusca 27 54 Germany; Japan; Switerland Imai, 1969 ; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica gagates 27 54 France; old Yugoslavia Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica gerardi 27 Spain Lorite et al., 1998a; Lorite et al., 2002b
Formica japonica 27 54 Japan Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Crozier, 1975
Formica lemani 54 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica lugubris 26 52 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica montana 27 54 USA Hung, 1969
Formica obscuripes 26 USA Hung, 1969
Formica pergandei 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica picea 26 52 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica polyctena 26 52 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica pratensis 26 52 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica pressilabris 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica reflexa 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica rufa 26 52 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica rufibarbis 27 54 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica sanguinea 26 52 Japan; Switzerland Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica subintegra 26 USA Hung, 1969
Formica transkaucasica 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980 as ''F. transkaucasica'' (incertae sedis)
Formica truncorum 26 52 Finland; Japan; Switzerland Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1969; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica truncorum 28 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980 Only one pupa analyzed was ''n=27
Formica ulkei 26 USA Hung, 1969
Formica uralensis 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica yessensis 26 52 Japan Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • FORMICA [Formicinae: Formicini]
    • Formica Linnaeus, 1758: 579. Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Curtis, 1839: 752.
    • Formica senior synonym of Formicina: Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • Formica senior synonym of Raptiformica, Serviformica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote).
    • Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica): Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448.
    • Formica senior synonym of Neoformica: Buren, 1968a: 39.
    • Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica, Formicina, Neoformica, Raptiformica, Serviformica: Agosti, 1994a: 106.
  • ADFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Adformica Lomnicki, 1925a: 164 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica exsecta, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1927b: 316.
    • Adformica junior synonym of Coptoformica: Stitz, 1939: 306 (as Adformica and Coptoformica share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
  • COPTOFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Coptoformica Müller, 1923: 146 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica exsecta, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1941f: 37.
    • Coptoformica senior synonym of Adformica: Stitz, 1939: 306 (as Adformica and Coptoformica share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
    • Coptoformica junior synonym of Formica: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • FORMICINA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Formicina Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 172. Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • [Type-species not Formica flava, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1916a: 61 (footnote); repeated by Emery, 1916b: 239 and Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 170.]
    • Formicina junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • Formicina incorrectly as replacement name for Lasius Fabricius: Emery, 1916a: 60; Emery, 1916b: 239; Bondroit, 1918: 19.
    • Formicina incorrectly as subgenus of Lasius: Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 172.
    • Formicina incorrectly as junior synonym of Lasius: Emery, 1925b: 226; Brown, 1973b: 180.
    • Formicina incorrectly as junior synonym of Acanthomyops: Donisthorpe, 1927b: 209.
    • Formicina junior synonym of Formica: Agosti, 1994a: 106.
    • [Formica and Formicina share the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute.]
  • NEOFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Neoformica Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 82 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica pallidefulva, by original designation.
    • [Neoformica also described as new by Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 548.]
    • Neoformica junior synonym of Formica: Buren, 1968a: 39; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • RAPTIFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Raptiformica Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica sanguinea, by original designation.
    • Raptiformica subgenus of Formica: Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 258; Creighton, 1950a: 460.
    • Raptiformica junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • SERVIFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Serviformica Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica fusca, by original designation.
    • Serviformica subgenus of Formica: Forel, 1913i: 361; Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 245.
    • Serviformica junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Francoeur, 1973: 34; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 106.

References