Formica

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Formica
Temporal range: 48.6–0 Ma
Eocene – Recent
Formica rufa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Formica
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Formica rufa
Diversity
279 species
68 fossil species
(Species Checklist)

Formica rufa casent0173862 profile 1.jpg

Formica rufa

Formica rufa casent0173862 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Formicinae

Myrmelachistini
  (2 genera)




Lasiini
  (10 genera)




Melophorini
  (9 genera)




Formicini


Polyergus
  (15 species)




Formica
  (279 species)



Iberoformica
  (1 species)






Bajcaridris
  (3 species)




Proformica
  (28 species)




Cataglyphis
  (110 species)



Rossomyrmex
  (4 species)










Gesomyrmex, Oecophylla



Plagiolepidini
  (9 genera)





Gigantiops, Myrmoteras, Santschiella



Camponotini
  (8 genera)








Based on Ward et al. 2016.

A large holarctic genus that are common in many northern temperate areas. For many reasons this genus as a whole has many well studied species. The taxonomy is fractured into many smaller subdivisions (both subgenera and species groups; see Formica species groups), many of which have no official taxonomic designation and are poorly delineated. In some cases older group names have been replaced by newer names, and new arrangements of species, but the older groups remain in use by some myrmecologists and not others.

Photo Gallery

  • Formica sanguinea group workers tending aphids at Grafton, Massachusetts. Photo by Tom Murray.
  • Formica 6954.jpg

Identification

Formica species groups

Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Biology

Subgeneric Phylogentics Romiguier et al. (2018) "resolved the phylogenetic relationships among palearctic Formica subgenera (Formica str. s., Coptoformica, Raptiformica and Serviformica). Interestingly, our phylogenetic tree reveals that the free-living Serviformica species do not form a monophyletic clade, and that parasitic colony founding in wood ants and Raptiformica slave-makers is likely to have a single origin. Our results suggest that parasitic colony founding is likely to be an intermediary step between free-living hosts and slave-maker parasites in the Formica genus. Similar studies in other genera containing slave-making species (e.g. Temnothorax, Harpagoxenus, Myrmoxenus, Protomognathus…) will be necessary to get a better global picture of the evolution of slave-making in ants."

Association with Other Organisms

Species Uncertain

An unknown species of Formica is a host for the nematode Diploscapter lycostoma (Wahab, 1962).

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Formica host nematode Diploscapter lycostoma parasite Wahab, 1962
Formica accreta host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica adamsi alpina slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica aerata host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica altipetens host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica altipetens host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica altipetens host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker
Formica aquilonia host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica archboldi host ant Polyergus oligergus slave maker
Formica archboldi host cricket Myrmecophila pergandei myrmecophile
Formica argentea host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica argentea host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica argentea host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica argentea host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica aserva host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica aserva host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica aserva slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host Wheeler and Wheeler, 1986
Formica aserva slave maker ant Formica podzolica host
Formica biophilica host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica biophilica host ant Polyergus ruber slave maker
Formica bradleyi host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica bradleyi host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica canadensis host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker
Formica candida host ant Polyergus nigerrimus slave maker
Formica ciliata host ant Formicoxenus hirticornis xenobiont
Formica cinerea host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica cinerea host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker
Formica cinerea mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica clara host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker
Formica cunicularia host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica cunicularia host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker Romani et al., 2006
Formica cunicularia mutualist butterfly Zizeeria knysna Obregon et al. 2015
Formica curiosa host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica fusca host
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica lepida host
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica montana host
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica pallidefulva host
Formica dakotensis temporary parasite ant Formica subsericea host
Formica decipiens host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica argentea host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica fusca host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica neogagates host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica subpolita host
Formica densiventris slave maker ant Formica subsericea host
Formica difficilis host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica difficilis temporary parasite ant Formica incerta host
Formica dolosa host ant Polyergus sanwaldi slave maker Goodloe and Sanwald, 1985; Goodloe, Sanwald and Topoff, 1987
Formica dolosa host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica dolosa host ant Polyergus longicornis slave maker
Formica exsecta host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica exsecta host fungus Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica exsecta temporary parasite ant Formica fusca
Formica exsecta temporary parasite ant Formica lemani
Formica exsectoides host ''Microdon'' fly Microdon abstrusus predator Maryland (type), Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia Thompson, 1981
Formica foreliana host ant Polyergus topoffi slave maker
Formica forsslundi mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica forsslundi temporary parasite ant Formica transkaucasica host
Formica fossaceps host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica fukaii host ant Polyergus samurai slave maker a relatively rare host
Formica fusca host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica fusca host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica fusca host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica fusca host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica fusca host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica fusca host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica fusca host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker
Formica fusca host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica fusca host ant Formica exsecta temporary parasite
Formica fusca host ant Formica ulkei temporary parasite
Formica fusca host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica fusca host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica fusca host fungus Aegeritella tuberculata pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica fusca host nematode Comanimermis clujensis parasite Coman, 1953
Formica fusca mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica gagates host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker
Formica gagatoides host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica gerardi host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker
Formica glabridorsis host ant Polyergus samurai slave maker
Formica gnava host ant Polyergus topoffi slave maker
Formica hayashi host ant Polyergus samurai slave maker a relatively rare host
Formica hewitti host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica incerta host ''Microdon'' fly Microdon ocellaris predator Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania (type), South Carolina Curran, 1924
Formica incerta host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica incerta host ant Polyergus lucidus slave maker
Formica incerta host ant Formica difficilis temporary parasite
Formica incerta host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica integroides host ant Formicoxenus hirticornis xenobiont
Formica japonica host ant Polyergus samurai slave maker
Formica japonica host butterfly Lampides argyrognomon myrmecophile Mizuno et al., 2018
Formica kozlovi host ant Polyergus nigerrimus slave maker
Formica lasioides host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica lasioides host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica lasioides host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica lemani host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica lemani host ant Formica exsecta temporary parasite
Formica lepida host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica lepida host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica lepida host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica lugubris host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica lugubris host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica manni host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica microphthalma host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica moki host ant Polyergus vinosus slave maker
Formica montana host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica montana host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker
Formica montana host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica montana host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica neoclara host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica neoclara host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker
Formica neoclara host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica neogagates host ant Formica densiventris slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica neogagates host ant Formica pergandei slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica neogagates host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica neogagates host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica neogagates host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica neogagates host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica adamsi alpina slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica aserva slave maker Wheeler and Wheeler 1986
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Formica wheeleri slave maker
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Polyergus bicolor slave maker
Formica neorufibarbis host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker Mackay and Mackay 2002 as ''Polyergus breviceps''
Formica obscuripes host ''Microdon'' fly Microdon xanthopilis predator California (type), Idaho, Washington Townsend, 1895
Formica obscuripes host ant Formica talbotae workerless inquiline British Columbia, Canada
Formica obscuripes host ant Formicoxenus diversipilosus xenobiont
Formica obscuripes host ant Formicoxenus hirticornis xenobiont
Formica obscuripes temporary parasite ant Formica pacifica host
Formica obscuriventris host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica obscuriventris host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica obtusopilosa host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica occulta host ant Polyergus breviceps slave maker Mackay and Mackay, 2002
Formica occulta host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica pacifica host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica pacifica host ant Formica obscuripes temporary parasite British Columbia, Canada J. Roth, pers. comm., 2019
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica rubicunda slave maker
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica subintegra slave maker Mackay and Mackay, 2002
Formica pallidefulva host ant Polyergus montivagus slave maker
Formica pallidefulva host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica pallidefulva host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica biophilica host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica difficilis host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica dolosa host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica fusca host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica incerta host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica neogagates host Mackay and Mackay, 2002
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica obscuriventris host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica pallidefulva host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica podzolica host
Formica pergandei slave maker ant Formica subsericea host
Formica picea host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica pisarskii host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica podzolica host ant Formica aserva slave maker
Formica podzolica host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica podzolica host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica polyctena host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica polyctena host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica polyctena host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica pratensis host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica pratensis host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica pratensis host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica pratensis mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica pressilabris host fungus Aegeritella tuberculata pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica puberula host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica ravida host ant Formicoxenus hirticornis xenobiont
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica lepida host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica montana host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica neoclara host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica neogagates host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica obscuriventris host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica obtusopilosa host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica pallidefulva host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica subsericea host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Myrmica host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica altipetens host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica argentea host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica aserva host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica bradleyi host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica fossaceps host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica fusca host
Formica rubicunda slave maker ant Formica lasioides host
Formica rufa host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica rufa host fungus Aegeritella sp. pathogen photo by Michal Kukla
Formica rufa host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica rufa host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufa host fungus Aegeritella tuberculata pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufa host nematode Oscheius dolichurus parasite Janet, 1893; Wahab, 1962
Formica rufa host nematode Pristionchus lheritieri parasite Wahab, 1962
Formica rufibarbis host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica rufibarbis host ant Polyergus rufescens slave maker
Formica rufibarbis host fungus Aegeritella tuberculata pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica sanguinea host bacterium Wolbachia Haapaniemi and Pamilo, 2015 51% infection frequency
Formica sanguinea host bacterium Spiroplasma Haapaniemi and Pamilo, 2015 80% infection frequency
Formica sanguinea host bacterium Entomoplasma Haapaniemi and Pamilo, 2015 ~20% infection frequency
Formica sanguinea host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila pathogen Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica sanguinea host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica sanguinea mutualist butterfly Glaucopsyche alexis Obregon et al. 2015
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica cinerea host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica cunicularia host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica fusca host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica gagatoides host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica lemani host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica picea host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica rufibarbis host
Formica sanguinea slave maker ant Formica transkaucasica host
Formica subaenescens host ant Polyergus bicolor slave maker
Formica subcyanea host ant Polyergus topoffi slave maker
Formica subintegra host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subintegra slave maker ant Formica pallidefulva host Mackay and Mackay 2002
Formica subpolita host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica subpolita host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica subpolita host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subsericea host ant Formica densiventris slave maker
Formica subsericea host ant Formica pergandei slave maker
Formica subsericea host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica subsericea host ant Formica dakotensis temporary parasite
Formica subsericea host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica talbotae workerless inquiline ant Formica obscuripes host
Formica transkaucasica host ant Formica sanguinea slave maker
Formica transkaucasica host ant Formica forsslundi temporary parasite
Formica transkaucasica host ant Formica uralensis temporary parasite
Formica truncorum host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica truncorum host fungus Aegeritella superficialis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica ulkei temporary parasite ant Formica fusca host
Formica uralensis host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Holldobler & Wilson 1990; Busch 2001; Martin et al. 2007
Formica uralensis temporary parasite ant Formica transkaucasica host
Formica vinculans host ant Polyergus mexicanus slave maker
Formica vinculans host fungus Laboulbenia formicarum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica wheeleri Creighton slave maker ant Formica altipetens host
Formica wheeleri Creighton slave maker ant Formica bradleyi host
Formica wheeleri Creighton slave maker ant Formica fusca host
Formica wheeleri Creighton slave maker ant Formica lasioides host
Formica wheeleri Creighton slave maker ant Formica lepida host
Formica wheeleri Creighton slave maker ant Formica neogagates host Mackay and Mackay, 2002
Formica wheeleri Creighton slave maker ant Formica neorufibarbis host

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club absent • Palp formula 6,4; 5,4 • Total dental count 7-10(0-3) • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple • Eyes present, ocelli present • Scrobes absent • Caste some with marked size-variation • Sting absent

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • Formica sp.3: n = 27 (Crozier, 1975) ('Formica fusca group).
  • Formica sp.4: n = 26 (Crozier, 1975).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

Explore Karyotype Data: All, Drilldown
Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Formica 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica 27 Crozier, 1975 'Formica fusca'' group
Formica aquilonia 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica candida 6 52 Japan Imai, 1969 as ''F. picea''
Formica cinerea 27 54 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica cunicularia 27 54 France Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica dakotensis 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica exsecta 26 52 Switzerland Agosti & Hauschteck-Jungen, 1987; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica frontalis 52 Spain Lorite et al., 2002b; Lorite et al., 2004a
Formica fusca 27 54 Germany; Japan; Switerland Imai, 1969 ; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica gagates 27 54 France; old Yugoslavia Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica gerardi 27 Spain Lorite et al., 1998a; Lorite et al., 2002b
Formica japonica 27 54 Japan Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Crozier, 1975
Formica lemani 54 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica lugubris 26 52 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica montana 27 54 USA Hung, 1969
Formica obscuripes 26 USA Hung, 1969
Formica pergandei 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica picea 26 52 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica polyctena 26 52 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica pratensis 26 52 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica pressilabris 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica reflexa 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica rufa 26 52 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica rufibarbis 27 54 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica sanguinea 26 52 Japan; Switzerland Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica subintegra 26 USA Hung, 1969
Formica transkaucasica 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980 as ''F. transkaucasica'' (incertae sedis)
Formica truncorum 26 52 Finland; Japan; Switzerland Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1969; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica truncorum 28 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980 Only one pupa analyzed was ''n=27
Formica ulkei 26 USA Hung, 1969
Formica uralensis 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica yessensis 26 52 Japan Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • FORMICA [Formicinae: Formicini]
    • Formica Linnaeus, 1758: 579. Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Curtis, 1839: 752.
    • Formica senior synonym of Formicina: Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • Formica senior synonym of Raptiformica, Serviformica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote).
    • Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica): Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448.
    • Formica senior synonym of Neoformica: Buren, 1968a: 39.
    • Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica, Formicina, Neoformica, Raptiformica, Serviformica: Agosti, 1994a: 106.
  • ADFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Adformica Lomnicki, 1925a: 164 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica exsecta, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1927b: 316.
    • Adformica junior synonym of Coptoformica: Stitz, 1939: 306 (as Adformica and Coptoformica share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
  • COPTOFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Coptoformica Müller, 1923: 146 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica exsecta, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1941f: 37.
    • Coptoformica senior synonym of Adformica: Stitz, 1939: 306 (as Adformica and Coptoformica share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
    • Coptoformica junior synonym of Formica: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • FORMICINA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Formicina Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 172. Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • [Type-species not Formica flava, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1916a: 61 (footnote); repeated by Emery, 1916b: 239 and Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 170.]
    • Formicina junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • Formicina incorrectly as replacement name for Lasius Fabricius: Emery, 1916a: 60; Emery, 1916b: 239; Bondroit, 1918: 19.
    • Formicina incorrectly as subgenus of Lasius: Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 172.
    • Formicina incorrectly as junior synonym of Lasius: Emery, 1925b: 226; Brown, 1973b: 180.
    • Formicina incorrectly as junior synonym of Acanthomyops: Donisthorpe, 1927b: 209.
    • Formicina junior synonym of Formica: Agosti, 1994a: 106.
    • [Formica and Formicina share the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute.]
  • NEOFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Neoformica Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 82 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica pallidefulva, by original designation.
    • [Neoformica also described as new by Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 548.]
    • Neoformica junior synonym of Formica: Buren, 1968a: 39; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • RAPTIFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Raptiformica Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica sanguinea, by original designation.
    • Raptiformica subgenus of Formica: Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 258; Creighton, 1950a: 460.
    • Raptiformica junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • SERVIFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Serviformica Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica fusca, by original designation.
    • Serviformica subgenus of Formica: Forel, 1913i: 361; Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 245.
    • Serviformica junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Francoeur, 1973: 34; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 106.

References

  • Agosti, D. 1991. Revision of the oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 16: 293-310 (page 295, Formica in Formicinae, Formica genus group)
  • Agosti, D. 1994b. The phylogeny of the ant tribe Formicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the description of a new genus. Syst. Entomol. 19: 93-117 (page 106, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Formicina, Hypochira, Iberoformica, Neoformica, Raptiformica, and Serviformica)
  • Agosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 60: 261-293 (page 285, Balkans)
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