Parasites and Parasitoids

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A parasite is an organism that lives in or on another species (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other's expense, resulting in the death of the host. A parasitoid is an insect whose larvae live as parasites that eventually kill their hosts (typically other insects).

This differs from social parasitism, where the "parasite" does not feed directly on their host, but rather benefits from exploiting the host's colony.

Diptera

Chloropidae

Gonzalez et al. (2016) found that Pseudogaurax paratolmos, a fly in the family Chloropidae, parasitizes larvae of Apterostigma dentigerum. Larval flies are solitary ectoparasitoids, each of which attaches to a single ant larva and develops from larva to pupa in 2 wk, consuming nearly the entire host, and then ecloses as an adult 1 wk later. Overall parasitism prevalence was 6.8% of 203 nests, and flies were active during both the dry and rainy seasons. Intensity of parasitism ranged from 18.2 to 100% of larvae attacked per parasitized nest. No other species of Apterostigma that nested in the same localities were parasitized by the flies, including Apterostigma pilosum (n = 93 nests) and Apterostigma auriculatum (n = 10 nests). All immature ants, parasitized or not, as well as immature stages of Pseudogaurax paratolmos, were attended by adult ants that exhibited normal brood care behavior, including covering immatures with mycelia, grooming, and maintaining brood in the fungus garden.

Phoridae

See Phorid Flies for further details.

List of Ants Known to Host Phorid Flies

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Acromyrmex Apocephalus cantleyi phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex Apocephalus luteihalteratus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex Apocephalus neivai phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex Apocephalus onorei phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex coronatus Apocephalus luteihalteratus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex coronatus Apocephalus pseudocercus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex lundii Apocephalus luteihalteratus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex lundii Apocephalus rionegrensis phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex niger Apocephalus lamellatus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex niger Apocephalus luteihalteratus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex subterraneus Apocephalus dubitatus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex subterraneus Apocephalus rionegrensis phorid.net attacked
Aphaenogaster texana Apocephalus portalensis phorid.net attacked
Atta Apocephalus vicosae phorid.net attacked
Atta cephalotes Apocephalus asymmetricus phorid.net attacked
Atta cephalotes Apocephalus ritualis phorid.net attacked
Atta cephalotes Apocephalus spinosus phorid.net attacked
Atta colombica Apocephalus colombicus phorid.net attacked
Atta laevigata Apocephalus attophilus phorid.net attacked
Atta laevigata Eibesfeldtphora Souza & Pereira, 2020
Atta laevigata Myrmosicarius Souza & Pereira, 2020
Atta sexdens Apocephalus attophilus Farder-Gomes et al., 2020
Atta sexdens Eibesfeldtphora tonhascai Farder-Gomes et al., 2020; Souza & Pereira, 2020 Souza & Pereira, 2020 - genus-level identification only
Atta sexdens Myrmosicarius Souza & Pereira, 2020 very rare
Atta sexdens Neodohrniphora sp. Braganca et al., 1998
Atta texana Apocephalus wallerae phorid.net attacked
Azteca Apocephalus aztecae phorid.net attacked
Camponotus Apocephalus crucicauda phorid.net attacked
Camponotus Apocephalus similis phorid.net attacked
Camponotus banghaasi Apocephalus brochus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus banghaasi Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus banghaasi Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus banghaasi Rhyncophoromyia trivittata Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus blandus Apocephalus mucronatus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus cingulatus Apocephalus bispinosus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus cingulatus Diocopbora disparifons Brazil Borgmeier, 1959; Brown & Fenner, 1998
Camponotus crassus Apocephalus crucicauda phorid.net attacked
Camponotus crassus Apocephalus setiventris phorid.net attacked
Camponotus crassus Diocopbora disparifons Brazil Borgmeier, 1959; Brown & Fenner, 1998
Camponotus femoratus Apocephalus laceyi phorid.net attacked
Camponotus femoratus Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus femoratus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus foersteri Apocephalus coquilletti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus holosericeus Megaselia holosericei Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus holosericeus Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus maculatus Apocephalus coquilletti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus pennsylvanicus Apocephalus concisus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus pennsylvanicus Apocephalus coquilletti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus pennsylvanicus Apocephalus pergandei phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rapax Apocephalus brochus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rapax Apodicrania molinai Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rapax Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rapax Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus rapax Rhyncophoromyia maculineura Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rapax Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rapax Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus rapax Rhyncophoromyia trivittata Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rufipes Apocephalus angustinervis phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rufipes Apocephalus camponoti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rufipes Apocephalus lanceatus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rufipes Apocephalus setiventris phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rufipes Diocopbora disparifons Brazil Borgmeier, 1959; Brown & Fenner, 1998
Camponotus sansabeanus Apocephalus coquilletti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus sansabeanus Apocephalus similis phorid.net attacked
Camponotus sericeiventris Apocephalus emargilatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Apocephalus emargilatus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus sericeiventris Apocephalus magnicauda phorid.net attacked
Camponotus sericeiventris Apodicrania molinai Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Rhyncophoromyia maculineura Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Rhyncophoromyia nubilifurca Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Rhyncophoromyia trivittata Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus vicinus Apocephalus horridus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus vicinus Apocephalus similis phorid.net attacked
Cephalotes atratus Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Cephalotes atratus Apocephalus roeschardae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Cephalotes atratus Apocephalus roeschardae phorid.net attacked
Cephalotes atratus Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Cephalotes atratus Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Daceton armigerum Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera Apocephalus gigantivorus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera Apocephalus miricauda Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera australis Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera gigantea Apocephalus gigantivorus phorid.net attacked
Dinoponera gigantea Apocephalus miricauda phorid.net attacked
Dinoponera longipes Apocephalus dinoponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera longipes Apocephalus dinoponerae phorid.net attacked
Dinoponera longipes Apocephalus kungae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera longipes Apocephalus kungae phorid.net attacked
Dinoponera longipes Apodicrania sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera longipes Metopina-gp sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera longipes Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Apocephalus melinus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Apocephalus melinus phorid.net attacked
Dolichoderus attelaboides Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Puliciphora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus bidens Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus bispinosus Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus bispinosus Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus bispinosus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus decollatus Apocephalus melinus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus decollatus Apocephalus melinus phorid.net attacked
Dolichoderus decollatus Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus decollatus Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus decollatus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus lugens Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus lugens Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus quadridenticulatus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Eciton burchellii Apocephalus cultellatus phorid.net attacked
Eciton burchellii Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Eciton lucanoides Apocephalus conecitonis phorid.net attacked
Eciton lucanoides Apocephalus pachycondylae phorid.net attacked
Eciton quadriglume Apocephalus quadriglumis phorid.net attacked
Eciton vagans Apocephalus cultellatus phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma goninion Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma lugens Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma lugens Dohrniphora sp (not D. longi-gp) Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma ruidum Apocephalus glabriventris phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus comosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus lobicauda Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus lobicauda phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus paraponerae phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma tuberculatum Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Gnamptogenys Apocephalus brevifrons phorid.net attacked
Gnamptogenys bispinosa Apocephalus asyndetus Costa Rica phorid.net; Brown & Fenner, 1998 attacked
Labidus coecus Apocephalus analis phorid.net attacked
Labidus coecus Apocephalus comatus phorid.net attacked
Labidus coecus Apocephalus inimicus phorid.net attacked
Labidus praedator Dacnophora sp. Costa Rica Brown & Fenner, 1998
Neivamyrmex nigrescens Cremersia sp. Arizona, USA Brown & Fenner, 1998
Neivamyrmex nigrescens Dacnophora pectinatus Arizona, USA Brown & Fenner, 1998
Neoponera apicalis Apocephalus constrictus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera apicalis Apocephalus crassilatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera apicalis Apocephalus crassilatus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera apicalis Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera commutata Apocephalus deceptus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera commutata Apocephalus deceptus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera commutata Apocephalus melinus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera commutata Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera commutata Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera obscuricornis Apocepbalus sp. 84 La Selva, Costa Rica Brown & Fenner, 1998
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus atrimarginatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus atrimarginatus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus constrictus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus crassilatus Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus crassilatus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera unidentata Dohrniphora sp (not D. longi-gp) Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera unidentata Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus constrictus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus crassilatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus crassilatus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus globosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus globosus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera villosa Dohrniphora sp (not D. longi-gp) Brown et al., 2015 injured
Nomamyrmex esenbeckii Apocephalus infradentatus phorid.net attacked
Nomamyrmex esenbeckii Apocephalus persecutor phorid.net attacked
Nomamyrmex hartigii Cremersia sp. Panama Brown & Fenner, 1998
Nylanderia fulva Pseudacteon convexicauda Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Odontomachus Dohrniphora longirostrata Brown et al. 2015
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus atrimarginatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus barbiventris Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus barbiventris phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus bauri Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus chelifer Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus chelifer Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus chelifer Apocephalus paldiae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus chelifer Apocephalus paldiae phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus chelifer Dohrniphora sp (not D. longi-gp) Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus haematodus Apocephalus lopesi Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus haematodus Apocephalus lopesi phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus haematodus Dohrniphora sp (longi-gp_females Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus hastatus Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus hastatus Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus laticeps Apocephalus atrimarginatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus laticeps Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus laticeps Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus laticeps Apocephalus comosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus laticeps Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus laticeps Myriophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus mormo Dohrniphora sp (longi-gp_females Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus densepilosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus densepilosus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus trifidus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus trifidus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus eurydomus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus sp. Wheeler and Wheeler, 1952
Pachycondyla harpax Metopina pachycondylae Wheeler and Wheeler, 1952;
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus collatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus collatus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus constrictus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus contortiventris phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus crassilatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus crassilatus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus latinsulosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus latinsulosus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla striata Apocephalus piliventris Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla striata Apocephalus piliventris phorid.net attacked
Paraponera clavata Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Paraponera clavata Apocephalus paraponerae phorid.net attacked
Paraponera clavata Apocephalus tanyurus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Paraponera clavata Apocephalus tanyurus phorid.net attacked
Paraponera clavata Beckerina sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Paraponera clavata Megaselia aurea Brown et al., 2015 injured
Paraponera clavata Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pheidole Apocepbalus sp. Pakitza, Peru Brown & Fenner, 1998
Pheidole hyatti Apocephalus brunneiventris phorid.net attacked
Pheidole obtusospinosa Apocepbalus sp. 29 Pefia Blanca Lake, AZ, USA Brown & Fenner, 1998 as ''Pheidole subdentata''
Pheidole perpilosa Apocephalus brunneiventris phorid.net attacked
Polyrhachis bellicosa Megaselia holosericei Brown et al., 2015 injured
Polyrhachis bellicosa Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Polyrhachis illaudata Megaselia holosericei Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pseudolasius Pseudacteon sp. Thailand Brown & Fenner, 1998
Solenopsis gayi Pseudacteon obtusus Chile Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis geminata Pseudacteon arcuatus Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis geminata Pseudacteon bifidus Porter et al. 2018
Solenopsis geminata Pseudacteon pesqueroi Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis geminata Pseudacteon plowesi Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon calderensis Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon curvatus Argentina, Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon litoralis Bolivia, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon nocens Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon notocaudatus Argentina, Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon nudicornis Argentina, Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon obtusus Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon pradei Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon tricuspis Argentina, Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon cultellatus Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon curvatus Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon litoralis Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon nocens Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon nudicornis Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon obtusitus Argentina, Uruguay Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon obtusus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon pradei Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon solenopsidis Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon tricuspis Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon wasmanni Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis macdonaghi Pseudacteon obtusus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon borgmeieri Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon cultellatus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon curvatus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon obtusus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon tricuspis Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon affinis Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon cultellatus Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon dentiger Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon disneyi Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon fowleri Brazil Pereira et al. 2015; Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon lenkoi Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon nudicornis Brazil Williams et al., 1973; Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon pesqueroi Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon pradei Brazil Williams et al., 1973; Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon solenopsidis Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon tricuspis Brazil Williams et al., 1973
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon wasmanni Brazil Williams et al., 1973

Hymenoptera

Agaonidae

The family Agaonidae is a group of pollinating and non-pollinating fig wasps. They spend their larval stage inside the fruits of figs. The pollinating wasps (Agaoninae, Kradibiinae, and Tetrapusiinae) are the mutualistic partners of the fig trees. The non-pollinating fig wasps are parasitic.

List of Ants Known to Host Agaonid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Crematogaster scutellaris Blastophaga psenes Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Aphelinidae

The Aphelinidae are a moderate-sized family of tiny parasitic wasps, with about 1160 described species in some 35 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack pupae, and others are hyperparasites). Males and females may have different hosts and different life histories. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents.

List of Ants Known to Host Aphelinid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Camponotus nylanderi Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Coccophagus chaetosus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Coccophagus saltator Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Coccophagus tetrastichoides Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster dohrni Coccophagus saltator Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus Coccophagus pumilus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus thoracicus Coccophagus diminutus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus thoracicus Coccophagus pumilus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aerata Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Cales noacki Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Eretmocerus sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Solenopsis xyloni Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Tapinoma erraticum Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Chalcididae

The Chalcididae are a moderate-sized family within the Chalcidoidea, composed mostly of parasitoids and a few hyperparasitoids. As presently defined, there are over 85 genera and over 1460 species worldwide.

List of Ants Known to Host Chalcid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Camponotus compressus Epitranus chilkaensis Narendran, 1989; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Oecophylla smaragdina Smicromorpha doddi Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Oecophylla smaragdina Smicromorpha keralensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Oecophylla smaragdina Smicromorpha masneri Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Pheidole titanis Notaspidium sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Diapriidae

The Diapriidae are a family of parasitoid wasps. These tiny insects have an average length of 2–4 mm and never exceed 8 mm. They typically attack larvae and pupae of a wide range of insects, especially flies. The about 2,300 described species in 150 genera occur world-wide.

List of Ants Known to Host Diapriid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Acromyrmex ambiguus Szelenyiopria lucens Brazil, Uruguay Loiacono, 1987; Loiacono et al., 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Acromyrmex lobicornis Szelenyiopria pampeana Argentina Loiácono et al., 2000; Loiácono & Margaría, 2009; Loiacono et al., 2013; Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Acromyrmex lobicornis Trichopria formicans Argentina Loiacono et al., 2000; Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Acromyrmex lundii Bruchopria hexatoma Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Acromyrmex lundii Doliopria myrmecobia Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Acromyrmex subterraneus Szelenyiopria talitae Brazil Loiacono et al., 2013
Cyphomyrmex minutus Acanthopria spp Puerto Rico Fernández-Marín et al., 2006
Cyphomyrmex rimosus Acanthopria spp Panama Fernández-Marín et al., 2006 at least 4 species of ''Acanthopria'' involved
Cyphomyrmex rimosus Mimopriella sp Panama Fernández-Marín et al., 2006
Eciton Szelenyiopria sp. Loiacono, 1987; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Eciton burchellii Doliopria collegii Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Eciton dulcium Notoxoides pronotalis Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Eciton quadriglume Doliopria collegii Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Eciton quadriglume Szelenyiopria reichenspergeri Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Linepithema humile Basalys sp. Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Linepithema humile Trichopria sp. Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Mycetomoellerius zeteki Acanthopria sp. Panama Pérez-Ortega et al., 2010 ant species as ''Trachymyrmex'' cf. ''zeteki''
Mycetomoellerius zeteki Mimopriella sp. Panama Pérez-Ortega et al., 2010 ant species as ''Trachymyrmex'' cf. ''zeteki''
Mycetomoellerius zeteki Oxypria sp. Panama Pérez-Ortega et al., 2010 ant species as ''Trachymyrmex'' cf. ''zeteki''
Mycetomoellerius zeteki Szelenyiopria sp. Panama Pérez-Ortega et al., 2010 ant species as ''Trachymyrmex'' cf. ''zeteki''
Neivamyrmex carettei Asolenopsia rufa Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Neivamyrmex legionis Szelenyiopria reichenspergeri Brazil, Argentina Loiacono, 1987; Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Neivamyrmex pseudops Notoxoides pedissequus Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Neivamyrmex sulcatus Notaxoides pronatalis Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Solenopsis richteri Bruchopria hexatoma Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Solenopsis richteri Bruchopria pentatoma Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Solenopsis richteri Trichopria myrmecophila Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Solenopsis saevissima Pentapria cf. nodicornis Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016

Encyrtidae

Encyrtidae is a large family of parasitic wasps, with some 3710 described species in about 455 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack larvae, others are hyperparasites, and some Encyrtidae develop as parasitoids of ticks). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents.

List of Ants Known to Host Encyrtid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Azteca xanthochroa Aenasius tachigaliae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus Arketypon vaderi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus acvapimensis Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus brutus Ooencyrtus sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus flavomarginatus Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus nylanderi Leptomastix dactylopii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Aenasius tachigaliae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Astymachus phainae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Encyrtus ingae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Encyrtus ludmilae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Metaphycus monastyrskii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster curvispinosa Aenasius tachigaliae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster dohrni Encyrtus ingae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster luctans Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus Microterys roseni Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus thoracicus Microterys roseni Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Iridomyrmex rufoniger Ananusia longiscapus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Anicetus beneficus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Bothriothorax intermedius Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Syrphophagus aphidivorus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lepisiota capensis Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Comperiella bifasciata Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Leptomastix dactylopii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Metaphycus anneckei Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Metaphycus hageni Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Metaphycus lounsburyi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Monomorium Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Myrmica rubra Syrphophagus aphidivorus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Myrmicaria opaciventris Ooencyrtus sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Neoponera goeldii Blanchardiscus pollux Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ochetellus glaber Ananusia australis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Oecophylla longinoda Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Oecophylla smaragdina Paraphaenodiscus udayveeri Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole Holcencyrtus wheeleri Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala Anagyrus ananatis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala Anagyrus saccharicola Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala Blepyrus schwarzi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole tepicana Holcencyrtus wheeleri Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Solenopsis xyloni Comperiella bifasciata Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Tapinoma erraticum Leptomastix dactylopii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Eucharitidae

Parasitic eucharitid wasp.

The Eucharitidae are a family of parasitic wasps and are members of the superfamily Chalcidoidea with 55 genera and 417 species. They are found in tropical regions of the world.

Eucharitids are specialized parasitoids of ants, with each species usually only parasitic of one genus of ant. They are one of the few parasitoids that have been able to use ants as hosts, despite ants’ effective defence systems against most parasitoids. Eucharitid parasitism occurs year-round, with a majority of it occurring during hot and humid months. However, the amount of parasitism that occurs depends primarily on the size of the ant colony and the number of host pupae in them, and not on the season.

See Eucharitid Wasps for further details.

List of Ants Known to Host Eucharitid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Anoplolepis Athairocharis vannoorti Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Calomyrmex purpureus Stilbuloida calomyrmecis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Ancylotropus manipurensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Lophyrocera variabilis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Mateucharis rugulosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Pseudochalcura gibbosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Pseudochalcura nigrocyanea Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus Rhipipalloidea madangensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Rhipipalloidea sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Stilbuloida doddi Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Zulucharis campbelli Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus aethiops Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus atriceps Obeza floridana Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus herculeanus Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus maculatus Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus novaeboracensis Pseudochalcura gibbosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus planatus Pseudochalcura sculpturata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Cataglyphis bicolor Eucharis bedeli Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Cataglyphis bicolor Eucharis bytinskisalzi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate and primary host
Cataglyphis nodus Eucharis microcephala Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Diacamma scalpratum Schizaspidia diacammae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Diacamma scalpratum Schizaspidia diacammae Thailand Peeters et al. 2015
Dinoponera lucida Kapala sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Eciton burchellii Isomerala azteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Eciton quadriglume Orasema rapo Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host; questionable, needs confirmation
Ectatomma Tricoryna ectatommae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Ectatomma brunneum Dicoelothorax platycerus Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma ruidum Isomerala azteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma ruidum Isomerala coronata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma ruidum Kapala sulcifacies Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma tuberculatum Dilocantha lachaudii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Ectatomma tuberculatum Isomerala azteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Ectatomma tuberculatum Isomerala coronata Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica Eucharis adscendens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica Eucharis esakii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica fusca Eucharis esakii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica oreas Orasema coloradensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica rufa Eucharis adscendens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica rufa Eucharis bedeli Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica subnitens Orasema coloradensis Wheeler, 1907; Johnson et al., 1986; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database questionable, needs confirmation
Gnamptogenys menadensis Pogonocharis browni Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Hypoponera Neolosbanus gemma Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Hypoponera Neolosbanus palgravei Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Lasius Pseudometagea schwarzii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Lasius fuliginosus Pseudometagea sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Lasius neoniger Pseudometagea schwarzii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor Eucharis adscendens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor Eucharis punctata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor barbarus Eucharis adscendens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor barbarus Eucharis punctata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor concolor Eucharis punctata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Monomorium Zuparka monomoria Heraty, 2000; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia Austeucharis sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia Chalcura affinis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia forficata Austeucharis fasciiventris Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia forficata Austeucharis myrmeciae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia gulosa Austeucharis fasciiventris Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia pilosula Austeucharis implexa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus Kapala sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Odontomachus chelifer Latina rugosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Odontomachus haematodus Chalcura deprivata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus haematodus Kapala terminalis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus haematodus Schizaspidia convergens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus insularis Kapala terminalis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus rixosus Schizaspidia nasua Heraty et al., 2015; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus ruficeps Chalcura affinis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pachycondyla crassinoda Kapala cuprea Myers, 1931:276
Pachycondyla crassinoda Kapala cuprea Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Australosema valgius Girault, 1913; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Hayatosema assectator Das, 1963; Kerrich, 1963; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Losbanus "sp. nr. rugulosa" Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019 primary host
Pheidole Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019 ''Pheidole'' nr. ''californica''
Pheidole Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019 ''Pheidole'' nr. ''clementensis''
Pheidole Orasema minuta Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host; ''Pheidole'' nr. ''tetra''
Pheidole Orasema minutissima Mann, 1918; Heraty, 1994; Wetterer & Porter, 2003; Burks et al. 2018; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole Orasema sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Orasema susanae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host; ''Pheidole'' nr. ''tetra''
Pheidole Orasema tolteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Orasema wayqecha Herreid, 2015; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole Orasemorpha eribotes Boucek, 1988; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Orasemorpha myrmicae Heraty, 1994; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole alfaroi Orasema wayqecha Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole bicarinata Orasema coloradensis Wheeler, 1907; Johnson et al., 1986; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole bicarinata Oresema sp. Arizona Stefan Cover (pers. obs.)
Pheidole capensis Timioderus acuminatus Heraty, 2000; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole ceres Orasema wheeleri Wheeler, 1907; Gahan, 1940; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole dentata Orasema achkola Heraty, 1994; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole dentata Orasema evansi Burks et al., 2018; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole dentata Orasema robertsoni Van Pelt, 1950; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole desertorum Orasema simulatrix Carey et al., 2012; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole flavens Orasema costaricensis Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937; Kempf, 1972; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole gibba Orasema chunpi Brazil Silva & Casadei-Ferreira, 2020
Pheidole hirtula Orasema tolteca Mann, 1914; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole hyatti Orasema tolteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole megacephala Ivieosema fraudulenta Reichensperger, 1913; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole nitidula Orasema argentina Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole nitidula Orasema worcesteri Gemignani, 1933; Heraty et al., 1993; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole pilifera Orasema occidentalis Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole proxima Orasemorpha tridentata Brues, 1934; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole radoszkowskii Orasema worcesteri Gemignani, 1933; Heraty et al., 1993; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole sciophila Orasema wheeleri Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole tasmaniensis Orasemorpha xeniades Heraty, 1994; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole tepicana Orasema viridis Wheeler, 1907; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole tepicana Orasema wheeleri Wheeler, 1907; Gahan, 1940; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole vallifica Orasema costaricensis Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937; Kempf, 1972; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole veteratrix Ibitya commnunis Burks et al., 2017; Baker et al., 2019
Pogonomyrmex badius Kapala floridana Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pogonomyrmex serpens Galearia coleopteroides Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Polyrhachis Rhipipalloidea sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Polyrhachis Stilbula arenae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host; ''Polyrhachis'' sp., ''Cyrtomyrma'' sp.
Polyrhachis dives Stilbula polyrhachicida Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Polyrhachis femorata Rhipipalloidea mira Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera Tricoryna ectatommae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera Tricoryna iello Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera metallica Chalcura nigricyanea Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera metallica Tricoryna chalcoponerae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera metallica Tricoryna minor Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera victoriae Tricoryna minor Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera violacea Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera violacea Tricoryna sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis Orasema pireta Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019 primary host
Solenopsis geminata Orasema taii Heraty, 1990; Chien & Heraty, 2018; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host; ''Solenopsis geminata'' X ''xyloni'' hybrid
Solenopsis invicta Orasema salebrosa Heraty et al., 1993; Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis invicta Orasema simplex Heraty et al., 1993; Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis invicta Orasema sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Solenopsis invicta Orasema xanthopus Silveira-Guido et al., 1964; Heraty et al., 1993; Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis macdonaghi Orasema salebrosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis macdonaghi Orasema simplex Heraty et al., 1993; Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019
Solenopsis molesta Orasema coloradensis Wheeler, 1907; Johnson et al., 1986; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis quinquecuspis Orasema aenea Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis quinquecuspis Orasema freychei Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019;
Solenopsis quinquecuspis Orasema simplex Heraty et al., 1993; Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019;
Solenopsis quinquecuspis Orasema xanthopus Silveira-Guido et al., 1964; Heraty et al., 1993; Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019 primary host
Solenopsis richteri Orasema salebrosa Heraty et al., 1993; Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis richteri Orasema simplex Heraty et al., 1993; Varone et al., 2010; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis richteri Orasema xanthopus Silveira-Guido et al., 1964; Heraty et al., 1993; Varone et al. 2010; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis saevissima Orasema xanthopus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Solenopsis tenuis Orasema sixaolae Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis xyloni Orasema taii Heraty, 1990; Chien & Heraty, 2018; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host; ''Solenopsis geminata'' X ''xyloni'' hybrid
Temnothorax allardycei Orasema minuta Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Tetramorium Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" Heraty 1990; Baker et al., 2019 primary host
Wasmannia auropunctata Orasema minutissima Mann, 1918; Heraty, 1994; Wetterer & Porter, 2003; Burks et al., 2018; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Wasmannia sigmoidea Orasema minutissima Mann, 1918; Heraty, 1994; Wetterer & Porter, 2003; Burks et al., 2018; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host

Eulophidae

The Eulophidae are a large family of hymenopteran insects, with over 4,300 described species in some 300 genera. The larvae of a very few species feed on plants, but the majority are primary parasitoids on a huge range of arthropods at all stages of development. Eulophids are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats (one is even aquatic, parasitising psephenid beetles).

List of Ants Known to Host Eulophid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Camponotus Horismenus microdonophagus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus Horismenus myrmecophagus Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus atriceps Horismenus floridensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Crematogaster Myrmokata diparoides Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Crematogaster Myrmokata sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Crematogaster crinosa Melittobia australica Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Crematogaster depressa Pediobius acraconae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus Myrmobomyia malayana Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Achrysocharoides niveipes Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis assis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis collaris Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis nephereus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis orbicularis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis pilicoxa Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Cirrospilus curvineurus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Cirrospilus vittatus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Derostenus gemmeus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Dicladocerus westwoodii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Elachertus artaeus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Pediobius metallicus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Pnigalio longulus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Pnigalio pectinicornis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Sympiesis gordius Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Sympiesis sericeicornis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Sympiesis xanthostoma Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica fusca Melittobia acasta Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica pratensis Melittobia acasta Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica sanguinea Melittobia acasta Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Lepisiota Pediobius marjoriae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Technomyrmex fulvus Microdonophagus woodleyi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Eupelmidae

Eupelmidae is a family of parasitic wasps in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. As presently defined, there are over 905 described species in 45 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids, commonly on beetle larvae, though many other hosts are attacked, including spiders, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs and others are hyperparasites). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats.

List of Ants Known to Host Eupelmid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Pseudomyrmex elongatulus Anastatus reduvii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Temnothorax purpuratus Anastatus myrmecobius Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Eurytomidae

The Eurytomidae are a family within the superfamily Chalcidoidea. As presently defined, some 1420 species in 87 genera are described. Unlike most chalcidoids, the larvae of many are phytophagous (feeding in stems, seeds, or galls), while others are more typical parasitoids, though even then the hosts are usually found within plant tissues. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and a few are considered pests.

List of Ants Known to Host Eurytomid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Azteca Aximopsis affinis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Azteca alfari Aximopsis aztecicida Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Azteca constructor Aximopsis aztecicida Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Camponotophilus delvarei Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica obscuripes Sycophila sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Pteromalidae

The Pteromalidae are a very large family of mostly parasitoid wasps, with some 3,450 described species in about 640 genera. The majority are (as with most chalcidoids) parasitoids of other insects. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and many are important as biological control agents.

List of Ants Known to Host Pteromalid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Atta mexicana Spalangia attae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Atta texana Spalangia attae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster scutellaris Philotrypesis caricae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius fuliginosus Spalangia crassicornis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius fuliginosus Spalangia nigripes Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Asaphes vulgaris Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Caenacis sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Pachyneuron aphidis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Myrmica rubra Asaphes vulgaris Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Myrmica rubra Pachyneuron aphidis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Strepsiptera

The Strepsiptera are endoparasites in other insects, such as ants, bees, wasps, leafhoppers, silverfish, and cockroaches. Females of most species never emerge from the host after entering its body, ultimate dying inside it. The early-stage larvae do emerge as they must find an unoccupied living host, and the short-lived males must emerge to seek a receptive female in her host.

List of Ants Known to Host Strepsipterans

Ant Strepsipteran Species Locality Source Notes
Camponotus crassus Stichotrema beckeri Cook, 2019
Camponotus planatus Caenocholax fenyesi Cook, 2019
Camponotus punctulatus cruentus Caenocholax fenyesi Cook, 2019
Camponotus punctulatus cruentus Myrmecolax ogloblini Cook, 2019 reported as "''Camponotus punctulatus cruentatus'' Forel"
Camponotus punctulatus cruentus Stichotrema beckeri Cook, 2019
Crematogaster Stichotrema angolensis Cook, 2019
Crematogaster Stichotrema barrosmachadoi Cook, 2019
Crematogaster laeviuscula Caenocholax fenyesi Cook, 2019
Dolichoderus bispinosus Caenocholax fenyesi Cook, 2019
Eciton dulcium Myrmecolax borgmeieri Cook, 2019
Myrmelachista zeledoni Caenocholax fenyesi Cook, 2019
Neoponera apicalis Myrmecolax incautus Cook, 2019
Neoponera verenae Myrmecolax incautus Cook, 2019
Pheidole Stichotrema robertsoni Cook, 2019
Pheidole jelskii Caenocholax fenyesi Cook, 2019
Pheidole radoszkowskii Caenocholax fenyesi Cook, 2019
Pseudomyrmex acanthobius virgo Stichotrema beckeri Cook, 2019
Solenopsis invicta Caenocholax fenyesi Cook, 2019
Solenopsis richteri Stichotrema beckeri Cook, 2019

References