Dipteran Associates

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The Diptera, or true flies, are a large group with an estimated 1,000,000 species (Mayhew, 2007), of which an estimated 16,000 species in 21 families are parasitoids (Eggleton & Belshaw, 1992; Feener Jr & Brown, 1997). Parasitoidism as a life cycle evolved over 100 times in the Diptera, from ancestors that were mostly saprophagous (Eggleton & Belshaw, 1992; Feener Jr & Brown, 1997).

Quevillon & Hughes (2018) report 492 records of Diptera from six families, the Chloropidae, Ephydridae, Phoridae, Tachinidae, Helosciomyzidae and Syrphidae, as parasites and parasitoids of ants. The Phoridae are parasitoids of adult ants and very occasionally ant brood. The Tachinidae and Helosciomyzidae are typically parasites and parasitoids of other insects, but few records have been found of them infecting ants. The Syrphidae have long been known as predators living inside ant nests, and only recently have they been recorded as true primary parasites of ants.

Chloropidae

Gonzalez et al. (2016) found that Pseudogaurax paratolmos, a fly in the family Chloropidae, parasitizes larvae of Apterostigma dentigerum. Larval flies are solitary ectoparasitoids, each of which attaches to a single ant larva and develops from larva to pupa in 2 wk, consuming nearly the entire host, and then ecloses as an adult 1 wk later. Overall parasitism prevalence was 6.8% of 203 nests, and flies were active during both the dry and rainy seasons. Intensity of parasitism ranged from 18.2 to 100% of larvae attacked per parasitized nest. No other species of Apterostigma that nested in the same localities were parasitized by the flies, including Apterostigma pilosum (n = 93 nests) and Apterostigma auriculatum (n = 10 nests). All immature ants, parasitized or not, as well as immature stages of Pseudogaurax paratolmos, were attended by adult ants that exhibited normal brood care behavior, including covering immatures with mycelia, grooming, and maintaining brood in the fungus garden.

Phoridae

See Phorid Flies for further details.

List of Ants Known to Host Phorid Flies

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Acromyrmex Apocephalus cantleyi phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex Apocephalus luteihalteratus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex Apocephalus neivai phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex Apocephalus onorei phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex coronatus Apocephalus luteihalteratus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex coronatus Apocephalus pseudocercus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex lundii Apocephalus luteihalteratus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex lundii Apocephalus rionegrensis phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex niger Apocephalus lamellatus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex niger Apocephalus luteihalteratus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex subterraneus Apocephalus dubitatus phorid.net attacked
Acromyrmex subterraneus Apocephalus rionegrensis phorid.net attacked
Aphaenogaster texana Apocephalus portalensis phorid.net attacked
Atta Apocephalus vicosae phorid.net attacked
Atta cephalotes Apocephalus asymmetricus phorid.net attacked
Atta cephalotes Apocephalus ritualis phorid.net attacked
Atta cephalotes Apocephalus spinosus phorid.net attacked
Atta colombica Apocephalus colombicus phorid.net attacked
Atta laevigata Apocephalus attophilus phorid.net attacked
Atta laevigata Eibesfeldtphora Souza & Pereira, 2020
Atta laevigata Myrmosicarius Souza & Pereira, 2020
Atta sexdens Apocephalus attophilus Farder-Gomes et al., 2020
Atta sexdens Eibesfeldtphora tonhascai Farder-Gomes et al., 2020; Souza & Pereira, 2020 Souza & Pereira, 2020 - genus-level identification only
Atta sexdens Myrmosicarius Souza & Pereira, 2020 very rare
Atta sexdens Neodohrniphora sp. Braganca et al., 1998
Atta texana Apocephalus wallerae phorid.net attacked
Azteca Apocephalus aztecae phorid.net attacked
Camponotus Apocephalus crucicauda phorid.net attacked
Camponotus Apocephalus similis phorid.net attacked
Camponotus banghaasi Apocephalus brochus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus banghaasi Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus banghaasi Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus banghaasi Rhyncophoromyia trivittata Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus blandus Apocephalus mucronatus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus cingulatus Apocephalus bispinosus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus cingulatus Diocopbora disparifons Brazil Borgmeier, 1959; Brown & Fenner, 1998
Camponotus crassus Apocephalus crucicauda phorid.net attacked
Camponotus crassus Apocephalus setiventris phorid.net attacked
Camponotus crassus Diocopbora disparifons Brazil Borgmeier, 1959; Brown & Fenner, 1998
Camponotus femoratus Apocephalus laceyi phorid.net attacked
Camponotus femoratus Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus femoratus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus foersteri Apocephalus coquilletti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus holosericeus Megaselia holosericei Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus holosericeus Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus maculatus Apocephalus coquilletti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus pennsylvanicus Apocephalus concisus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus pennsylvanicus Apocephalus coquilletti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus pennsylvanicus Apocephalus pergandei phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rapax Apocephalus brochus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rapax Apodicrania molinai Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rapax Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rapax Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus rapax Rhyncophoromyia maculineura Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rapax Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rapax Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus rapax Rhyncophoromyia trivittata Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Camponotus rufipes Apocephalus angustinervis phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rufipes Apocephalus camponoti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rufipes Apocephalus lanceatus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rufipes Apocephalus setiventris phorid.net attacked
Camponotus rufipes Diocopbora disparifons Brazil Borgmeier, 1959; Brown & Fenner, 1998
Camponotus sansabeanus Apocephalus coquilletti phorid.net attacked
Camponotus sansabeanus Apocephalus similis phorid.net attacked
Camponotus sericeiventris Apocephalus emargilatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Apocephalus emargilatus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus sericeiventris Apocephalus magnicauda phorid.net attacked
Camponotus sericeiventris Apodicrania molinai Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Rhyncophoromyia maculineura Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Rhyncophoromyia nubilifurca Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus sericeiventris Rhyncophoromyia trivittata Brown et al., 2015 injured
Camponotus vicinus Apocephalus horridus phorid.net attacked
Camponotus vicinus Apocephalus similis phorid.net attacked
Cephalotes atratus Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Cephalotes atratus Apocephalus roeschardae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Cephalotes atratus Apocephalus roeschardae phorid.net attacked
Cephalotes atratus Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Cephalotes atratus Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Daceton armigerum Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera Apocephalus gigantivorus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera Apocephalus miricauda Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera australis Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera gigantea Apocephalus gigantivorus phorid.net attacked
Dinoponera gigantea Apocephalus miricauda phorid.net attacked
Dinoponera longipes Apocephalus dinoponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera longipes Apocephalus dinoponerae phorid.net attacked
Dinoponera longipes Apocephalus kungae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera longipes Apocephalus kungae phorid.net attacked
Dinoponera longipes Apodicrania sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera longipes Metopina-gp sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dinoponera longipes Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Apocephalus melinus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Apocephalus melinus phorid.net attacked
Dolichoderus attelaboides Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus attelaboides Puliciphora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus bidens Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus bispinosus Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus bispinosus Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus bispinosus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus decollatus Apocephalus melinus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus decollatus Apocephalus melinus phorid.net attacked
Dolichoderus decollatus Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus decollatus Diocophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus decollatus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus lugens Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus lugens Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Dolichoderus quadridenticulatus Rhyncophoromyia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Eciton burchellii Apocephalus cultellatus phorid.net attacked
Eciton burchellii Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Eciton lucanoides Apocephalus conecitonis phorid.net attacked
Eciton lucanoides Apocephalus pachycondylae phorid.net attacked
Eciton quadriglume Apocephalus quadriglumis phorid.net attacked
Eciton vagans Apocephalus cultellatus phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma goninion Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma lugens Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma lugens Dohrniphora sp (not D. longi-gp) Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma ruidum Apocephalus glabriventris phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus comosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus lobicauda Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus lobicauda phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum Apocephalus paraponerae phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma tuberculatum Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Gnamptogenys Apocephalus brevifrons phorid.net attacked
Gnamptogenys bispinosa Apocephalus asyndetus Costa Rica phorid.net; Brown & Fenner, 1998 attacked
Labidus coecus Apocephalus analis phorid.net attacked
Labidus coecus Apocephalus comatus phorid.net attacked
Labidus coecus Apocephalus inimicus phorid.net attacked
Labidus praedator Dacnophora sp. Costa Rica Brown & Fenner, 1998
Neivamyrmex nigrescens Cremersia sp. Arizona, USA Brown & Fenner, 1998
Neivamyrmex nigrescens Dacnophora pectinatus Arizona, USA Brown & Fenner, 1998
Neoponera apicalis Apocephalus constrictus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera apicalis Apocephalus crassilatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera apicalis Apocephalus crassilatus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera apicalis Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera commutata Apocephalus deceptus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera commutata Apocephalus deceptus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera commutata Apocephalus melinus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera commutata Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera commutata Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera obscuricornis Apocepbalus sp. 84 La Selva, Costa Rica Brown & Fenner, 1998
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus atrimarginatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus atrimarginatus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus constrictus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus crassilatus Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Neoponera unidentata Apocephalus crassilatus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera unidentata Dohrniphora sp (not D. longi-gp) Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera unidentata Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus constrictus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus crassilatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus crassilatus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus globosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus globosus phorid.net attacked
Neoponera villosa Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Neoponera villosa Dohrniphora sp (not D. longi-gp) Brown et al., 2015 injured
Nomamyrmex esenbeckii Apocephalus infradentatus phorid.net attacked
Nomamyrmex esenbeckii Apocephalus persecutor phorid.net attacked
Nomamyrmex hartigii Cremersia sp. Panama Brown & Fenner, 1998
Nylanderia fulva Pseudacteon convexicauda Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Odontomachus Dohrniphora longirostrata Brown et al. 2015
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus atrimarginatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus barbiventris Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus barbiventris phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus bauri Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus bauri Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus chelifer Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus chelifer Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus chelifer Apocephalus paldiae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus chelifer Apocephalus paldiae phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus chelifer Dohrniphora sp (not D. longi-gp) Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus haematodus Apocephalus lopesi Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus haematodus Apocephalus lopesi phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus haematodus Dohrniphora sp (longi-gp_females Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus hastatus Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus hastatus Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus laticeps Apocephalus atrimarginatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus laticeps Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus laticeps Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Odontomachus laticeps Apocephalus comosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus laticeps Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus laticeps Myriophora sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Odontomachus mormo Dohrniphora sp (longi-gp_females Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus densepilosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus densepilosus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus trifidus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla crassinoda Apocephalus trifidus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus eurydomus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus sp. Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus sp. Wheeler and Wheeler, 1952
Pachycondyla harpax Metopina pachycondylae Wheeler and Wheeler, 1952;
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus catholicus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus catholicus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus collatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus collatus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus constrictus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus contortiventris phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus crassilatus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus crassilatus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus latinsulosus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla impressa Apocephalus latinsulosus phorid.net attacked
Pachycondyla impressa Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla striata Apocephalus piliventris Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pachycondyla striata Apocephalus piliventris phorid.net attacked
Paraponera clavata Apocephalus paraponerae Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Paraponera clavata Apocephalus paraponerae phorid.net attacked
Paraponera clavata Apocephalus tanyurus Brown et al., 2015 injured
Paraponera clavata Apocephalus tanyurus phorid.net attacked
Paraponera clavata Beckerina sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Paraponera clavata Megaselia aurea Brown et al., 2015 injured
Paraponera clavata Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pheidole Apocepbalus sp. Pakitza, Peru Brown & Fenner, 1998
Pheidole hyatti Apocephalus brunneiventris phorid.net attacked
Pheidole obtusospinosa Apocepbalus sp. 29 Pefia Blanca Lake, AZ, USA Brown & Fenner, 1998 as ''Pheidole subdentata''
Pheidole perpilosa Apocephalus brunneiventris phorid.net attacked
Polyrhachis bellicosa Megaselia holosericei Brown et al., 2015 injured
Polyrhachis bellicosa Megaselia sp Brown et al., 2015 injured
Polyrhachis illaudata Megaselia holosericei Brown et al., 2015 injured
Pseudolasius Pseudacteon sp. Thailand Brown & Fenner, 1998
Solenopsis gayi Pseudacteon obtusus Chile Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis geminata Pseudacteon arcuatus Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis geminata Pseudacteon bifidus Porter et al. 2018
Solenopsis geminata Pseudacteon pesqueroi Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis geminata Pseudacteon plowesi Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon calderensis Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon curvatus Argentina, Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon litoralis Bolivia, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon nocens Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon notocaudatus Argentina, Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon nudicornis Argentina, Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon obtusus Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon pradei Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis interrupta Pseudacteon tricuspis Argentina, Bolivia Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon cultellatus Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon curvatus Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon litoralis Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon nocens Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon nudicornis Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon obtusitus Argentina, Uruguay Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon obtusus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon pradei Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon solenopsidis Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon tricuspis Argentina, Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis invicta Pseudacteon wasmanni Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis macdonaghi Pseudacteon obtusus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon borgmeieri Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon cultellatus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon curvatus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon obtusus Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis richteri Pseudacteon tricuspis Argentina Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon affinis Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon cultellatus Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon dentiger Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon disneyi Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon fowleri Brazil Pereira et al. 2015; Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon lenkoi Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon nudicornis Brazil Williams et al., 1973; Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon pesqueroi Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon pradei Brazil Williams et al., 1973; Pereira et al. 2015
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon solenopsidis Brazil Sanchez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon tricuspis Brazil Williams et al., 1973
Solenopsis saevissima Pseudacteon wasmanni Brazil Williams et al., 1973