Crematogaster scutellaris

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Crematogaster scutellaris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Crematogaster
Species: C. scutellaris
Binomial name
Crematogaster scutellaris
(Olivier, 1792)

Crematogaster scutellaris casent0173120 profile 1.jpg

Crematogaster scutellaris casent0173120 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Subspecies
Synonyms

An extremely common, arboreal species reported from the Maghreb to western Russia (Rigato & Toni, 2011).

Photo Gallery

  • Worker. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Queen. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Worker and queen. Photo by Michal Kukla.

Identification

A member of the Crematogaster scutellaris group.

Head shining yellowish red contrasting with the brown alitrunk and dark gaster. Antennae 11 segmented. Length: 3.5-5.0 mm (Collingwood 1979).

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Karaman (2010) - Crematogaster scutellaris is distributed in Italy, Austria, France, Iberian Peninsula and south Germany (Hölzel, 1966; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969; Collingwood, 1978; Poldi et al., 1995; Seifert, 1996; Heller, 2004). The species is also found in Croatia on the island of Korčula (Bračko, 2006), and in the southeast Bosnia and Herzegovina on Baba Mtn (Fahringer, 1922). Cobelli (1906) cites Crematogaster scutellaris for Slovenia based on his collection of workers. However, the color pattern of the workers, reddish-brown head, thorax and petiole, and black abdomen, matches the description of C. schmidti. Petrov (2008) cite C. scutellaris for Montenegro, providing no locality data.

Crematogaster schmidti and C. scutellaris are allopatric species. The transgression zone between the two species is the region from Slovenia (east slopes of Julian Alpes) to the Adriatic coast of Croatia (Dalmatia), and the southeast Bosnia and Herzegovina. The two species do not hybridize because no intermediate forms have been found in the transgression zone [the territory of former Yugoslavia] (Atanassov & Dlusskij, 1992). Based on the current distribution of C. schmidti and C. scutellaris, we are expecting C. scutellaris to be found in Slovenia, and rejecting the possibility of the same species being present in Montenegro.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Andorra, Austria, Balearic Islands, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, France (type locality), Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Israel, Italy, Malta, Montenegro, Portugal, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Collingwood (1979) - This arboricolous species is frequently introduced with cork from South Europe or North Africa and has on occasion established itself temporarily in and around warehouses and cork factories in England.

Frizzi et al. (2015) - Crematogaster scutellaris is commonly found in both natural and human-managed ecosystems across the Mediterranean Basin. Nests are excavated in tree trunks or logs and can host up to several thousand workers. This is a dominant species that influences ant community dynamics and arthropod communities. Previous studies suggested C. scutellaris is monogynous, has polydomous nests and exhibits inter-nest aggressiveness which varies with distance. This study examined nestmate recognition in a large olive orchard near Florence, Italy, from March 2009 to September 2010. Nests were located by banging on the trunk of trees. Resident colonies would respond with a defensive swarm of ants that would emerge from their nest holes. Genetic, chemical (CHCs) and spatial characteristics (from 5 to 175 m distances) were examined and behavioral experiments (5 x 5 battles) performed for a range of within and between colony analyses. Polydomy was confirmed by genetic analysis. Many nests were spread across more than a single tree. Genetic analysis supported there being a single queen per colony, with a core nest containing the queen and a network of satellite nests. Genetic differences between nests were strong but were not correlated with distance. This implies a long distance spatial dispersal strategy during mating and/or prior to colony foundation. Cuticular chemical profiles varied significantly among both nests and colonies. This appeared to be explained by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Aggression between colonies was uneven, occurring in ~50% of the staged tests. Aggressiveness increased with both spatial proximity and similarity in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among colonies, suggesting a “nasty neighbor” effect.

Bordoni et al. (2018) experimentally showed how Crematogaster scutellaris workers exposed to the same pathogen as their mother exhibited increased survival compared to control workers. These results suggest social immunity, passed on from one generation to the next, can be important for social organisms. "They "found, for the first time in ants, that founding queens exposed to a non-lethal dose of an entomopathogenic fungus produce offspring with an increased resistance to the same pathogen. This phenomenon did not reveal apparent costs to foundresses and workers, at least with respect to their survival and reproductive output."

Guiliani et al. (2019) observed this species foraging on extrafloral nectaries of the invasive Reynoutria x bohemica (Polygonaceae) in Tuscany. The habitats examined were river banks and disturbed habitats.

Association with Other Organisms

  • This species is a host for the agaonid wasp Blastophaga psenes (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (associate).
  • This species is a host for the pteromalid wasp Philotrypesis caricae (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (associate).

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: monogynous (Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • scutellaris. Formica scutellaris Olivier, 1792: 497 (w.) FRANCE. Mayr, 1855: 469 (q.m.). Combination in Crematogaster: Mayr, 1855: 469; in C. (Acrocoelia): Emery, 1922e: 143; in C. (Crematogaster): Bolton, 1995b: 166. Senior synonym of rediana, rubriceps, ruficeps: Mayr, 1855: 469; of haematocephala: Roger, 1863b: 36; of grouvellei, lichtensteini: Bernard, 1967: 164; of corsica, degener: Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990a: 137. Material of the unavailable name hybrida referred here by Baroni Urbani, 1964a: 4. See also: Emery, 1912e: 652; Stitz, 1939: 128; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 79; Kutter, 1977c: 88; Radchenko, 2007: 33. Current subspecies: nominal plus alii, nigra (unresolved junior homonym), tenuispina.
  • haematocephala. Formica haematocephala Leach, 1825: 291 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Junior synonym of scutellaris: Roger, 1863b: 36.
  • rediana. Myrmica rediana Gené, 1841: 399 (w.) ITALY. Junior synonym of scutellaris: Mayr, 1855: 469.
  • rubriceps. Myrmica rubriceps Nylander, 1849: 44 (w.) ITALY (Sicily). Junior synonym of scutellaris: Mayr, 1855: 469; Radchenko, 2007: 33.
  • ruficeps. Acrocoelia ruficeps Mayr, 1853a: 147 (w.) AUSTRIA. Junior synonym of scutellaris: Mayr, 1855: 469.
  • grouvellei. Crematogaster scutellaris var. grouvellei Bondroit, 1918: 115 (w.q.) FRANCE. Junior synonym of scutellaris: Bernard, 1967: 164.
  • lichtensteini. Crtematogaster scutellaris var. lichtensteini Bondroit, 1918: 114 (w.) FRANCE. Junior synonym of scutellaris: Bernard, 1967: 164.
  • corsica. Crematogaster scutellaris var. corsica Santschi, 1921b: 435 (w.) FRANCE (Corsica). Junior synonym of scutellaris: Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990a: 137.
  • degener. Crematogaster scutellaris var. degener Santschi, 1937e: 310 (w.) TUNISIA. Junior synonym of scutellaris: Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990a: 137.

Description

References

  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1964a. Su alcune formiche raccolte in Turchia. Annu. Ist. Mus. Zool. Univ. Napoli 16: 1-12 (page 4, material of the unavailable name hybrida referred here)
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1971c. Catalogo delle specie di Formicidae d'Italia (Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia X). Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 50: 5-287 (page 79, see also)
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 164, Senior synonym of grouvellei and lichtensteini)
  • Bordoni, A., L. Dapporto, I. Tatini, M. Celli, M. Bercigli, S. R. Barrufet, B. Perito, and S. Turillazzi. 2018. Trans-generational immunization in the acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris. Biology Letters. 14:20170761. doi:doi:10.1098/rsbl.2017.0761
  • Casevitz-Weulersse, J. 1990b. Étude systématique de la myrmécofaune corse (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (Première partie). Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Sect. A Zool. Biol. Écol. Anim. (4) 12: 135-163 (page 137, Senior synonym of corsica and degener)
  • Emery, C. 1912e. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. Teil XI. Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1912: 651-672 (page 652, see also)
  • Emery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B: 95-206 (page 143, Combination in C. (Acrocoelia))
  • Frizzi, F., C. Ciofi, L. Dapporto, C. Natali, G. Chelazzi, S. Turillazzi, and G. Santini. 2015. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris. Plos One. 10. 15 pp. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137919
  • Giuliani, C., L. Lastrucci, L. Cresti, G. Santini, B. Fogg, and M. M. Lippi. 2019. The morphology and activity of the extrafloral nectaries in Reynoutria x bohemica (Polygonaceae). Plant Biology. 21:975-985. doi:10.1111/plb.13004
  • Karaman, M. G. 2010. New data of the genus Crematogaster Lund, 1831 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Crna Gora (Montenegro), Part I: Crematogaster scutellaris group of species. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 34:419-434. PF
  • Kutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 88, see also)
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 469, queen, male described, Combination in Crematogaster, page 469, Senior synonym of rediana, rubriceps and ruficeps)
  • Olivier, A. G. 1792. Encyclopédie méthodique. Histoire naturelle. Insectes. Tome 6. (pt. 2). Paris: Panckoucke, pp. 369-704. (page 497, worker described)
  • Rigato, F.; Toni, I. 2011. Short notes 21. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Pp. 873-882 in: Nardi, G.; Whitmore, D.; Bardiani, M.; Birtele, D.; Mason, F.; Spada, L.; Cerretti, P. (eds.) 2011. Biodiversity of Marganai and Montimannu (Sardinia). Research in the framework of the ICP Forests network. Conservazione Habitat Invertebrati, 5. Sommacampagna, Verona: Cierre Edizioni, 896 pp.
  • Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 36, Senior synonym of haematocephala)
  • Stitz, H. 1939. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. 37. Theil. Hautflüger oder Hymenoptera. I: Ameisen oder Formicidae. Jena: G. Fischer, 428 pp. (page 128, see also)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Abril S., C. Gómez. 2012. Lista actualizada de las especies de hormigas de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España) y primera cita de Monomorium andrei Saunders, 1890 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de la isla Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 50: 403-407.
  • Abril S., and C. Gomez. 2013. Rapid assessment of ant assemblages in public pine forests of the central Iberian Peninsula. Forest Ecology and Management 293: 79–84.
  • Acosta, F. J., M. D. Martínez Ibáñez, and M. A. Morales. "Contribución al conocimiento de la mirmecofauna del encinar peninsular. I." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 6 (2) (1983): 379-391.
  • Aissat L., and R. Moulai. 2016. Analysis of insect diversity of three islets in the North East Algeria. J. Entomol. Res. Soc. 18(2): 1-21.
  • Alvarez-Blanco P., S. Caut, X. Cerda, and E. Angulo. 2017. Native predators living in invaded areas: responses of terrestrial amphibian species to an Argentine ant invasion. Oecologia 185: 95-106.
  • Andoni V. 1977. Kontribut mbi Himenopteret e familjes Formicidae te vendit tone. Buletini I Shkencave te Natyres 31(2): 93-101.
  • AntArea. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://antarea.fr/fourmi/
  • Antarea (Personal Communication - Rumsais Blatrix- 27 April 2018)
  • Antarea (at www.antarea.fr on June 11th 2017)
  • Aras A., and N. Aktac. 1987. Faunistic study on meadow and pasture ants of Edirne provinces. Turkiye I. Entomoloji kongresi, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Izmir, 695-703.
  • Arnan, X., A. Rodrigo and J. Retana. 2006. Post-fire recovery of Mediterranean ground ant communities follows vegetation and dryness gradients. Journal of Biogeography 33(7):1246-1258
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2011. List of species collected during the Taxomara Lisboa 2010. Iberomyrmex 3: 32-33.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2011. List of species collected during the Taxomara Lisboa 2011. Iberomyrmex 3: 30-31.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2012. List of species collected during the Taxomara Tres Cantos 2012. Iberomyrmex 4: 17-18.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2013. List of species collected during the Taxomara 2013. Iberomyrmex 4: 35-36.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2015. List of species collected during the Taxomara Lisboa 2015 Iberomyrmex 7: 44-45.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2016. List of species collected during the Taxomara Murcia 2016. Iberomyrmex 8: 48-49.
  • Baroni Urbani C. 1968. Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. IV. La fauna mirmecologica delle isole Maltesi ed il suo significato ecologico e biogeografico. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Giacomo Doria 77: 408-559.
  • Baroni Urbani C. 1969. Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. VIII. L'Isola di Giannutri ed alcuni scogli minori dell'arcipelago Toscano. Atti Soc. Toscana Sci. Nat. Mem. Ser. B 75: 325-338.
  • Baroni Urbani C. 1974. Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. XII. Le Isole Pontine. Fragm. Entomol. 9: 225-252.
  • Baroni Urbani, C.. "Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. II. Formiche di Sicilia." Atti dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania (6) 16 (1964): 25-66.
  • Baroni Urbani, C.. "Su alcune formiche raccolte in Turchia." Annuario dell'Istituto e Museo di Zoologia dell'Università di Napoli 16 (1964): 1-12.
  • Barrett K. E. J. 1970. Ants in France, 1968-69. Entomologist 103: 270-274.
  • Bernadou A., V. Fourcassié, and X. Espadaler. 2013. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Andorra. Zookeys 277: 13-23.
  • Bernard F. 1959. Les fourmis de l'île de Port-Cros. Contribution à l'écologie des anciennes forêts méditerranéennes. Vie Milieu 9: 340-360.
  • Bernard F. 1967. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp.
  • Bernard F. 1970. Les fourmis de la forêt de Mâmora (Maroc). Revue d'Écologie et de Biologie du Sol 6:n483-513.
  • Bernard F. 1975. Rapports entre fourmis et vegetation pres des Gorges du Verdon. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Nice 2: 57-79.
  • Bernard F. 1977. Écologie des fourmis du Parc national de Port-Cros. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Écologie Générale (3)36: 53-82.
  • Bernard, F.. "Remarques sur le peuplement des Baléares en fourmis." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 47 (1956): 254-266.
  • Berville L., C. Santelli, J. Reybaud, M. Renucci, P. Ponel, O. Blight, and E. Provost. 2014. Suivi d’un site atelier dans le golfe de Fos: Une diversite myrmecologique insoupconne. Etudes Vauclusiennes 82: 71-78.
  • Berville L., M. Renucci, P. Vidal, and E. Provost. 2016. Peuplement myrmecologique et evaluation de l'invasion de Linepithema humile sur les iles de Marseille (Bouches-du-Rhone, France). Revue d'Ecologie (Terre et Vie) 71(3): 278-287.
  • Berville L., M. Renucci, and E. Provost. 2012. Mise en place de protocoles de contrôle de la fourmi d’Argentine (Linepithema humile) sur les îles de Port-Cros et de Porquerolles (Var, France). Sci. Rep. Port-Cros natl. Park, 26: 91-108.
  • Blaimer B. B. 2012. Acrobat ants go global – Origin, evolution and systematics of the genus Crematogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 421-436.
  • Blatrix R., C. Lebas, C. Galkowski, P. Wegnez, P. Pimenta, and D. Morichon. 2016. Vegetation cover and elevation drive diversity and composition of ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Mediterranean ecosystem. – Myrmecological News 22: 119-127.
  • Bonaric J. C. 1971. Contribution a l'etude systematique et ecologique des formicides du Bas-Languedoc. PhD thesis Universite des sciences et techniques du Languedoc, 175 pages.
  • Bonaric J. C. 1971. Étude systématique et écologique des fourmis de l’Hérault. Ann. Soc. Hortic. Hist. Nat. Hérault 111: 81-87.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., C. Galkowski, and S. Salata. 2015. What is Tetramorium semilaeve André, 1883? (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 512:39-62.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2012. Ants of Greece - Checklist, comments and new faunistic data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus 23(4): 461-563.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2015. Pheidole symbioticaWasmann, 1909, an enigmatic supposed social parasite, is a nematodeinfested form of Pheidole pallidula(Nylander, 1849) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Sociobiology 62(2): 181-186.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2017. New records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from southern Portugal. Acta Entomologica Silesiana 25(3): 1-10.
  • Boulay, R., J.M. Fedriani, A.J. Manzaneda and X. Cerda. 2005. Indirect Effects of Alternative Food Resources in an Ant-Plant Interaction. Oecologia 144(1):72-79
  • Bracko G. 2007. Checklist of the ants of Slovenia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Natura Sloveniae 9: 15-24
  • Bracko, G. 2006. Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Croatia. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 14(2): 131-156.
  • Bracko, G.. "Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Croatia." Acta Entomologica Slovenica Vol 14 st (2006): 131-156.
  • Cagniant, H. 2006. Liste actualisée des fourmis du Maroc. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8: 193-200.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Contribution à la connaissance des fourmis marocaines: Aphaenogaster baronii n. sp. (Hyménoptères, Formicoidea, Myrmicidae)." Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 124 (1988): 43-50.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Les Crematogaster du Maroc (Hym., Formicidae). Clé de détermination et commentaires." Orsis 20 (2005): 7-12.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Note sur le peuplement en fourmis d'une montagne de la région d'Alger, l'Atlas de Blida." Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 102 (1966): 278-284.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Nouvelle description d'Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) crocea (André) Hyménoptère Formicidae. Représentation des trois castes. Notes biologiques." Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 91 (1966): 61-69.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Étude de quelques fourmis marocaines. Statistique provisoire des Formicidae du Maroc." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 53 (1964): 83-118.
  • Cagniant, H.. Les peuplements de fourmis des forêts algériennes: écologie, biocénotique, essai biologique. Universite de Toulouse, 1973.
  • Camlitepe Y., and N. Aktac. 1987. Trakya bolgesi orman karinca faunasi uzerinde arastirmalar. Türkiye I. Entomoloji Kongresi, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Ízmir
  • Cammell, M. E., M. J. Way, and M. R. Paiva. "Diversity and structure of ant communities associated with oak, pine, eucalyptus and arable habitats in Portugal." Insectes Sociaux 43 (1996): 37-46.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J. 1990. Etude Systematique de la Myrmecofaune Corse (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), deuxieme partie. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. Paris. 4eme serie 12, section A(2): 415-442.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J. 1992. La myrmecofaune de la reserve naturelle de Scandola, inventaire spécifique (1984/85-1991). Trav. Sci. Parc nat. Res. Nat. Corse, Fr, 36: 85-108.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J. 2014. A propos des fourmis de la Corse: Plagiolepis delaugerrei n. sp., parasite de Plagiolepis taurica Santschi, 1920 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Le bulletin d’Arthropoda 47: 27-33.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and C. Galkowski. 2009. Liste actualisee des Fourmis de France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 114: 475-510.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse, J.. "Contribution a la connaisance des fourmis de la Corse (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." These de Doctorat Museum Nat (1989): 379pp.
  • Castillo-Miralbes M. 2001. Artropodos presentes en carrona de cerdos en la comarca de la litera (Huesca). Bol. S.E.A. 28: 133-140.
  • Castracani C., D. A. Grasso, A. Fanfani, and A. Mori. 2010. The ant fauna of Castelporziano Presidential Reserve (Rome, Italy) as a model for the analysis of ant community structure in relation to environmental variation in Mediterranean ecosystems. J Insect Conserv 14: 585–594.
  • Ceballos, G.. "Las tribus de los himenópteros de España. [FALTA ALGUNA PÁGINA]." Instituto Español de Entomología Madrid (1943): pp. 311-420.
  • Cecconi G. 1908. Contributo alla fauna delle Isole Tremiti. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della Reale Università di Torino 23(583): 1-53.
  • Colindre L. 2016. Les fourmis en Picardie: bilan des decouvertes et redecouvertes 2016 (Hymenoptera/ Formicidae). Entomologiste Picard 28: 11-12.
  • Collingwood C., and A. Prince. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5: 1-49.
  • Collingwood, C. A., and I. H. H. Yarrow. "A survey of Iberian Formicidae." EOS (Revista española de entomología) 44 (1969): 53-101.
  • Collingwood, C. A.. "A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste." EOS (Revista española de entomología) Nº LVII (1978): 65-95.
  • Comín del Río, P., and Andrés de Haro. "Datos iniciales para un estudio ecológico de las hormigas de Menorca." Bolletí de la Societat d´Historia Natural de les Balears 24 (1980): 23-48.
  • Comín del Río, P., and X. Espadaler. "Ants of the Pityusic islands." In Biogeography of the Pityusic Islands, edited by H. Kuhbler, J. A. Alcover and C. Guerau, 278-231. The Hague: Junk, 1984.
  • Comín del Río, P.. "Los Formícidos de Menorca. Contribución al estudio taxonómico, geográfico y biológico." Tesina de licenciatura Universida (1977): 135 pp.
  • Comín del Río, P.. Estudio de los formícidos de Baleares: Contribución al estudio taxonómico, geográfìco y biológico. Palma de Mallorca: Universidad de las Islas Baleares, 1988.
  • Consani M., and P. Zangheri. 1952. Fauna di Romagna. Imenotteri - Formicidi. Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 31: 38-48.
  • Crawley W. C. 1920. Ants from Mesopotamia and north-west Persia. Entomol. Rec. J. Var. 32: 162-166.
  • Csősz S., B. Markó, and L. Gallé. 2011. The myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Hungary: an updated checklist. North-Western Journal of Zoology 7: 55-62.
  • Cuní, M.. "Insectos observados en los alrededores de Barcelona." Anales de la Sociedad española de Historia Natural XVII (1888): 133.
  • Czechowski W., A. Radchenko, W. Czechowska and K. Vepsäläinen. 2012. The ants of Poland with reference to the myrmecofauna of Europe. Fauna Poloniae 4. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 1-496 pp
  • De Stefani T. 1889. Miscellanea imenotterologica sicula. Nat. Sicil. 8: 140-145.
  • Della Santa E. 1994. Guide pour l'identification des principales espèces de fourmis de Suisse. Miscellanea Faunistica Helvetiae 3: 1-124.
  • Della Santa E. 1995. Fourmis de Provence. Faune Provence 16: 5-37.
  • Delye G. 1983. Contribution a l'etude des peuplements des invertebres de milieux extremes: les fourmis des dunes littorales del aCamargue (B. d. Rh) et de l'Espiguette (Gard). Bull. Soc. Linneenne Provence 35: 121-124.
  • Delye, G., and J. L. Bonaric. "Fourmis du sud Marocain." Etude de certains milieux du Maroc et de leux evolution recente RCP 249 (1973).
  • Detrain, C., O. Tasse, M. Versaen and J.M. Pasteels. 2000. A field assessment of optimal foraging in ants: trail patterns and seed retrieval by the European harvester ant Messor barbarus. Insectes Sociaux 47:56-62
  • Diniz, M. A.. "Estado actual do conhecimento dos himenópteros de Portugal." Memorias e Estudos do Museu Zoologico da Universidade de Coimbra 259 (1959): 1-42.
  • Du Merle P. 1978. Les peuplements de fourmis et les peuplements d'acridiens du Mont Ventoux II. - Les peuplements de fourmis. Terre Vie 32(1): 161-218.
  • Eidmann, H.. "Die Ameisenfauna der Balearen." Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 6 (1926): 694-742.
  • Eidmann, H.. "Zur Kenntnis der Insektekfauna der Balearischen Inseln." Entomologische Mitteilungen 16 (1927): 24-37.
  • Emery C. 1878. Liste des fourmis de la collection de feu Camille van Volxem, avec la description d'une espèce nouvelle. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 21: viii-x.
  • Emery C. 1914. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Bearbeitung von O. Leonhard's Sammlungen. 5. Südeuropäische Ameisen (Hym.). Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin-Dahlem 3: 156-159.
  • Emery C. 1916. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47: 79-275.
  • Emery, C.. "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der palaearktischen Ameisen." Öfversigt af Finska Vetenskaps-Societetens Förhandlingar (Helsinki) 20 (1898): 124-151.
  • Emery, C.. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte seconda. Formiche dell'Europa e delle regioni limitrofe in Africa e in Asia." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 12 (1878): 43-59.
  • Emery, C.. "Crociera del Violante, comandato dal capitano armatore Enrico d'Albertis, durante l'anno 1877. Formiche." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 15 (1880): 389-398.
  • Emery, C.. "Exploration scientifique de la Tunisie. Zoologie. - Hyménoptères. Révision critique des fourmis de la Tunisie." Explor. Scient. De la Tunisie Zoll. Hym. (Folleto) Paris. Imp (1891): iii + 21 pp.
  • Emery, C.. "Liste des fourmis de la collection de feu Camille van Volxem, avec la description d'une espèce nouvelle." Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 21 (1878): viii-x.
  • Emery, C.. "Studi mirmecologici." Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana 2 (1870): 193-201.
  • Espadaler X. F. Garcia, K. Gomez, S. Serrano, and R. Vila. 2009. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Mont-Rebei gorge (Pallars Jussà). Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 44: 393–399.
  • Espadaler X., F. Garcia, X. Roig, and R. Vila. 2013. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Castell de Montesquiu park (Osona, north-east of the Iberian Peninsula). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.) 53: 223-227.
  • Espadaler, X. and Cagniant, H. Plagiolepis Xene Starcke, The First Inquiline Ant From The Balearic Islands (Spain). Psyche. 98:351-354.
  • Espadaler, X. and H. Cagniant. 1991. Psyche. 98: 351-354.
  • Espadaler, X., J. Pujade-Villar, and A. Bernadou. "Contribució al coneixement de la taxonomia i la fenologia de les formigues (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) d'Andorra." Butlletí de l' Institució Catalana d'Història Natural 74 (2006): 81-90.
  • Espadaler, X., and H. Cagniant. "Plagiolepis xene Starckë, the first inquiline ant from the Balearic Islands (Spain)." Psyche 98 (4) (1992): 351-354.
  • Espadaler, X., and J. L. Nieves. "Hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) pobladoras de agallas abandonadas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) sobre Quercus sp. en la Península Ibérica." Boletín de la Estación Central de Ecología 12 (1983): 89-93.
  • Espadaler, X., and J. Reyes-López. "Dos nuevas localidades para una (¿rara?) hormiga endémica ibérica,Temnothorax blascoi (Espadaler, 1997) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 42 (2008): 449-450.
  • Espadaler, X., and L. Lopez Soria. "Rareness of certain Mediterranean ant species: fact or artifact?" Insectes Sociaux 38 (1991): 365-377.
  • Espadaler, X., and X. Roig. "Ants from the Montnegre-Corredor Natural Park with description of the male lasius cinereus Seifert." Miscellanea Zoologica 23 (2) (2001): 45-53. Abstract
  • Espadaler, X.. "Formicidos de las sierras de Cazorla, del Pozo y Segura (Jaén, España)." Ecología 11 (1997): 489-499.
  • Espadaler, X.. "Formigues del garraf: Coneixement actual i clau d'identificació." I trobada d'estudiosos de garraf: Monografies 19 (1992): 9-13.
  • Fernández-Haeger, J., and A. Rodríguez-González. "Les peuplements de fourmis dans la Sierra Morena centrale (Espagne). Rapports avec l'exposition et la vegetation." Insectes Sociaux 29 (1982): 358-368.
  • Finzi, B.. "Formiche dell'isola d'Elba e Monte Argentario." Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 56 (1924): 12-15.
  • Finzi, B.. "Quarto contributo alla conoscenza della fauna mirmecologica della Venezia Giulia." Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 60 (1928): 128-130.
  • Finzi, B.. "Raccolte entomologiche nell'Isola di Capraia fatte da C. Mancini e F. Capra (1927-1931). II. Formicidae." Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana 11 (1933): 162-165.
  • Forel A. 1886. Études myrmécologiques en 1886.. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 30: 131-215.
  • Forel A. 1890. Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34: lxi-lxxvi.
  • Forel A. 1904. Miscellanea myrmécologiques. Rev. Suisse Zool. 12: 1-52.
  • Forel A. 1904. Note sur les fourmis du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences à St. Pétersbourg. Ezheg. Zool. Muz. 8: 368-388.
  • Forel A. 1911. Fourmis nouvelles ou intéressantes. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 47: 331-400.
  • Forel, A. 1894. Les formicides de la province d'Oran (Algerie). Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 30: 1-45.
  • Forel, A.. "Ameisen aus den Sporaden, den Cykladen und Griechenland, gesammelt 1887 von Herrn von Oertzen." Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 32 (1889): 255-265.
  • Forel, A.. "Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algerie orientale recoltees et decrites par Auguste Forel." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34 (1890): lxi-lxxvi.
  • Forel, A.. "Les Formicides de la Province d'Oran (Algérie)." Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 30 (1894): 1-45.
  • Forel, A.. "Les fourmis du Sahara algérien récoltées par M. le Professeur A. Lameere et le Dr. A. Diehl." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 46 (1902): 147-158.
  • Forel, A.. "Nouvelles fourmis de Grèce récoltées par M. E. von Oertzen." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 30 (1886): clix-clxviii.
  • Forel, A.. "Südpalaearctische Ameisen." Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gessellschaft 9 (1895): 227-234.
  • Fromantin J., and J. Soulié. 1961. Notes systématiques sur le genre Cremastogaster avec description de trois espèces nouvelles du Cambodge (Hymenoptera Formicoidea). Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 96: 87-112.
  • GRETIA. 2017. Bilan annuel de l'enquete sur la repartition des fourmis armoricaines. 23 pages.
  • Galkowski C. 2011. Une liste des fourmis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) récoltées dans la région de Grasse, avec la mention d’une nouvelle espèce de la faune de France. Bulletin de la Société linnéenne de Provence, 62 : 41-44.
  • Galkowski C. 2013. Nouvelles données sur la répartition de Strongylognathus huberi Forel, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) en France. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux (n.s.) 41: 167-174.
  • Galkowski C., and C. Foin. 2013. Nouvelles données sur la répartition de Strongylognathus huberi Forel, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) en France. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux (n.s.) 41: 167-174.
  • Galkowski C., and J. Casevitz-Weulersse. 2008. Temnothorax clypeatus (Mayr) en France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae). L'Entomologiste 64(4): 233-238.
  • Garcia F., X. Espadaler, and K. Gomez. 2009. First record of Amblyopone impressifrons (Emery, 1869) from the Iberian Peninsula and of Proceratium melinum (Roger, 1860) from Catalonia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 45: 357-360.
  • Garcia Garcia F., and A. D. Cuesta-Esgura. 2017. First catalogue of the ants of Burgos province, Spain (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 60: 245–258.
  • Giacalone I., and M. Moretti. 2001. Contributo alla conoscenza della mirmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) dei castagneti al Sud delle Alpi (ticino, Svizzera). Bollettino della Societa ticinese di Scienze naturali 89(1-2): 51-60.
  • Goetsch, W.. "Beiträge zur Biologie spanischer Ameisen." EOS (Revista española de entomología) 18 (1942): 175-241.
  • Gomez C., D. Casellas, J. Oliveras, and J. M. Bas. 2003. Structure of ground-foraging ant assemblages in relation to land-use change in the northwestern Mediterranean region. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 2135–2146.
  • Gomez K. 2017. Two species of exotic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) new to Malta. Boletin de la Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa (S.E.A.) 61: 233-235.
  • Gomez K., D. Martinez, and X. Espadaler. 2018. Phylogeny of the ant genus Aphaenogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberian Peninsula, with the description of a new species. Sociobiology 65: 215-224.
  • Gomez, C., P. Pons and J.M. Bas. 2003. Effects of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile on Seed Dispersal and Seedling Emergence of Rhamnus alaternus. Ecography 26(4):532-538
  • González Martín J. D., and X. Espadaler. 2011. Formicidos del País Vasco (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Nuevas aportaciones. Heteropterus Revista de Entomologia 11(1): 109-122.
  • Gonçalves M. F., and J. A. Pereira. 2012. Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem. Journal of Insect Science 12:20 available online: insectscience.org/12.20
  • Grandi G. 1935. Contributi alla conoscenza degli Imenotteri Aculeati. XV. Boll. R. Ist. Entomol. Univ. Studi Bologna 8: 27-121.
  • Guillem, R.. "A survey of the ants of Minorca (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with two new species for the island: Hypoponera punctatissima (Roger, 1859) and Temnothorax algiricus (Forel, 1894)." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 33, no. 3-4 (2010): 447-460.
  • Gómez C., and S. Abril. 2011. Selective logging in public pine forests of the central Iberian Peninsula: Effects of the recovery process on ant assemblages Forest Ecology and Management 262: 1061-1066.
  • Hernandez Cuba O., C. Perez Banon, and M. A. Marcos Garcia. 2008. Los formicidos (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) del Parque natural de la Font Roja. Iberis 6: 9-20.
  • Hernandez Cuba O., J. L. Perez-Bote, and J. M. Garcia Jimenez. 2006. Los formicidos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del Parque Natural de Cornaldo (suroeste de la Peninsula Iberica). Boletin Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa 38: 356-358.
  • Hosoishi, S., S. Yamane and K. Ogata. 2010. Subterranean species of the ant genus Crematogaster in Asia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological Science 13:345-350.
  • IZIKO South Africa Museum Collection
  • Izhaki I., B. Idelovich, R. Laster, and Y. Ofer. 2009. The impact of macro- vs micro environmental factors on the structure of ant communities inhabiting East-Mediterranean Aleppo pine forests. Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 129-146.
  • Jansen G., R. Savolainen, K. Vespalainen. 2010. Phylogeny, divergence-time estimation, biogeography and social parasite–host relationships of the Holarctic ant genusMyrmica(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 294-304.
  • Karavaiev V. 1912. Ameisen aus Tunesien und Algerien, nebst einigen unterwegs in Italien gesammelten Arten. Rus. Entomol. Obozr. 12: 1-22.
  • Kiran K., and C. Karaman. 2012. First annotated checklist of the ant fauna of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3548: 1-38.
  • Kiran K., and N. Aktac. 2006. The vertical distribution of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Samanh Mountains, Turkey. Linzer Biol. Beitr. 38(2): 1105-1122.
  • Korlevic, A.. "Prilozi fauni hrvatskih opnokrilaca." Glasn. Hrv. Narav. Dr. 5 (1890): 189-250.
  • Krausse, A. H.. "Ueber sardische Ameisen." Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin A 78(7) (1912): 162-166.
  • Lapeva-Gjonova, L., V. Antonova, A. G. Radchenko, and M. Atanasova. "Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria." ZooKeys 62 (2010): 1-124.
  • Le Moli F., and M. R. Rose. 1991. Atti della Societa Italiana di Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milan. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 132:25-40.
  • Lebas C., C. Galkowski, P. Wegnez, X. Espadaler, and R. Blatrix. 2015. The exceptional diversity of ants on mount Coronat (Pyrénées-Orientales), and Temnothorax gredosi(Hymenoptera, Formicidae) new to France. R.A.R.E., T. XXIV (1): 24 – 33
  • Legakis A. 1983. The Zoological Museum of the University of Athens 2. The collection of ants from Greece. Biologia Gallo-Hellenica 11(1): 85-87.
  • Legakis A. 2001. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) collected in the eastern Pyrenees and surrounding area, September 1999. Proceedings of the International Colloqium of the European Invertebrate Survey: Cartography and Conservation of Biodiversity Marcevol Priory, Arboussols, france 30.8-4.9.1999. OPIE.
  • Legakis Collection Database
  • Lomnicki, J.. "Une contribution à la connaissance de la faune des fourmis des îles Baléares." Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne - Bulletin Entomologique de Pologne 4 (1925): 1-3.
  • Marlier J. F., B. Schatz, and J. C. de Biseau, 2002. Influence de Crematogaster scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae) sur deux communautés de fourmis. Colloque UIEIS, Versailles: 68-72.
  • Martinez J. J. 2008. Firebreaks in planted pine forests in Israel: patches for Mediterranean Bata ants. Vie et Milieu 58(3/4): 233-236.
  • Martorell, M.. "Catálogos sinonímicos de insectos encontrados en Cataluña." Barcelona (1879).
  • Martínez Ibáñez, M. D., and X. Espadaler. "Revisión de las hormigas ibéricas de la colección M. Medina y nuevos datos de distribución." Actas de las VIII Jornadas de la Asociación Española de Entomología (1986): 1022-1034.
  • Mayr, G.. "Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten." Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 5 (1855): 273-478.
  • Medina, M.. "Catálogo provisional de las hormigas de Andalucía." Actas de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 20 (1891): 95-104.
  • Mei M. 1995. Arthropoda di Lampedusa, Linosa e Pantelleria (Canale di Sicilia, Mar Mediterraneo). Hymenoptera Formicidae (con diagnosi di due nuove specie). Il Naturalista Siciliano (4)19(suppl.): 753-772.
  • Menozzi C. 1918. Primo contributo alla conoscenza della fauna mirmecologica del Modenese. Atti della Società dei Naturalisti e Matematici di Modena. (5)4: 81-88.
  • Menozzi, C.. "Zur Kenntnis der Ameisenfauna der Balearen." Zoologischer Anzeiger 66 (1926): 180-182.
  • Monteserín Real, S.. "Invertebrados de la Reserva Natural Integral de Muniellos, Asturias: Formicidae." Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio e Infraestructuras del Principado de Asturias KRK edicio (2003): 269.
  • Morillo C. 1981. Inventario y fenologia de los Formicidae de un encinar de Espana central. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 18(2): 243-251.
  • Müller G. 1921. Due nuove formiche della regione Adriatica. Boll. Soc. Adriat. Sci. Nat. Trieste 27(2): 46-49.
  • Müller, G.. "Le formiche della Venezia Guilia e della Dalmazia." Bollettino della Società Adriatica di Scienze Naturali in Trieste 28 (1923): 11-180.
  • Neto-Silva A., R. J. Dinis-Oliveira, and C. Prado e Castro. 2018. Diversity of the Formicidae (Hymenoptera) carrion communities in Lisbon (Portugal): preliminary approach as seasonal and geographic indicators. Forensic Sciences Research 3(1): 65-73.
  • Neumeyer R., and B. Seifert. 2005. Commented check list of free living ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species of Switzerland. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique Suisse 78: 1-17.
  • Nicoli Aldini R., Anaclerio M., and P. Cravedi. 2014. Ants (Hymenoptera Formicidae) and the food industry: observations in factory premises in central Italy. Redia 17: 195-199.
  • Nylander, W.. "Synopsis des Formicides de France et d'Algérie." Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie (4)5 (1856): 51-109.
  • Obregon R., J. Lopez, J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2014. A catalogue of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Sierra Mágina (Jaén, southern Spain). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 54: 370–374.
  • Ordóñez-Urbano C., J. Reyes-López, and S. Carpintero-Ortega. 2007. Estudio faunísidos de los formícidos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) asociados a los bosques de ribera en la Provincia de Córdoba (España). Primeras Aportaciones. Boletin Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 40: 367-375.
  • Ortiz, F. J.. "Formícidos del litoral granadino." Memoria de Licenciatura Universida (1985): 206 pp.
  • Ottonetti L., L. Tucci, and G. Santini. 2006. Recolonization Patterns of Ants in a Rehabilitated Lignite Mine in Central Italy: Potential for the Use of Mediterranean Ants as Indicators of Restoration Processes. Restoration Ecology 14(1): 60–66.
  • Oussalah N., F. Marniche, X. Espadaler, and M. Biche. 2019. Exotic ants from the Maghreb (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with first report of the Hairy Alien Ant Nylanderia jaegerskioeldi (Mayr) in Algeria. Arxius de Miscel·lania Zoologica 17: 45–58.
  • Ovazza M. 1953. Contributions a l'etude biologique de la Camargue , Formicides. Vie et Milieu 4(4) : 751-753.
  • Paiva, M. R., M. J. Way, and M. E. Cammell. "Estudo preliminar sobre a distribuçao das formigas nos sistemas florestais em Portugal." Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências Naturais 119 (1990): 197-205.
  • Paraschivescu D. 1978. Elemente balcanice in mirmecofauna R. S. Romania. Nymphaea 6: 463- 474.
  • Passera L. 1977. Peuplement myrmecologique du cordon littoral du Languedoc-Roussillon modifications anthropiques. Vie et Milieu 27: 249-265.
  • Petrov I. Z., and C. A. Collingwood. 1992. Survey of the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Yugoslavia. Archives of Biological Sciences (Belgrade) 44: 79-91.
  • Poldi B., M. Mei, and F. Rigato. 1995. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Vol 102. Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana: 1-10.
  • Radchenko A. G. 2007. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the collection of William Nylander. Fragmenta Faunistica (Warsaw) 50: 27-41.
  • Retana J., and X. Cerdá X. 2000. Patterns of diversity and composition of Mediterranean ground ant communites tracking spatial and temporal variability in the thermal environment. Oecologia 123: 436-444.
  • Retana, J., X. Cerdá, V. Cavia, J. Arnal, and D. Company. "La comunidad de hormigas (Hym. Formicidae) del Boalar de Jaca (Jaca, Huesca)." Lucas Mallada 1 (1989): 133-150.
  • Rigato F., and J. K. Wetterer. 2018. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of San Marino. Natural History Sciences. Atti Soc. it. Sci. nat. Museo civ. Stor. nat. Milano, 5(2): https://doi.org/10.4081/nhs.2018.367
  • Rigato S., and I. Toni. 2011. Short notes 21. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Pp. 873-882 in: Nardi, G.; Whitmore, D.; Bardiani, M.; Birtele, D.; Mason, F.; Spada, L.; Cerretti, P. (eds.) 2011. Biodiversity of Marganai and Montimannu (Sardinia). Research in the framework of the ICP Forests network. Conservazione Habitat Invertebrati, 5. Sommacampagna, Verona: Cierre Edizioni, 896 pp.
  • Rodríguez, A.. "Contribución al conocimiento de las hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de Sierra Morena Central." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 5 (1982): 181-188.
  • Roig X., X. Espadaler, R. Cusco, F. Garcia, K. Gomez, S. Serrano, and R. Vila. 2008. Ants in gypsum areas. First record from Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula) of Cardiocondyla batesii Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with an updated list of Catalan Formicidae. Boletin Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa 42: 189-192.
  • Rosenhauer, W. G.. "Die Thiere Andalusiens." Erlangen (1856).
  • Salata S., and L Borowiec. 2017. Species of Tetramorium semilaeve complex from Balkans and western Turkey, with description of two new species of (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 62:279–313.
  • Salgueiro, J.. "Primeiros registros de Formicídeos (Hymenoptera) para dúas áreas protegidas portuguesas. Adiçao de duas novas especies á mirmecofauna de Portugal." Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 32 (2003): 109-110.
  • Sanchez-Gil Jimeno R., and J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2016. Study of ants species of the Sierra de San Carlos del Valle (Ciudad Real) and updating the provincial check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 40 (1-2): 93-109.
  • Santschi F. 1925. Fourmis d'Espagne et autres espéces paléartiques EOS (Revista española de entomología) 1: 339-360.
  • Santschi, F. 1937. Contribution à l'étude des Crematogaster paléarctiques. Memoires de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 5: 295-317.
  • Santschi, F.. "Contribution à l'étude des Crematogaster paléarctiques." Mém. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 5 (1937): 295-317.
  • Santschi, F.. "Inventa entomologica itineris Hispanici et Maroccani, quod a. 1926 fecerunt Harald et Håkan Lindberg. Fourmis du Bassin Méditerranéen occidental et du Maroc récoltées par MM. Lindberg." Societas Scientiarum Fennica (Helsingfors) 3 (14) (1931): 1-13.
  • Saunders, E.. "Aculeate Hymenoptera collected by J. J. Walker, at Gibraltar and in North Africa. (Part I - Heterogyna)." Entomologists' Monthly Magazine XXVI (1890): 201-206 y 289-291.
  • Saunders, E.. "Hymenoptera aculeata from Majorca and Spain. I Majorca (1901)." Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (1904): 597-598.
  • Saunders, E.. "Hymenoptera aculeata from Majorca and Spain. II Spain (1901-1902)." Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (1904): 624-660.
  • Schembri, Stephen P. and Cedric A. Collingwood. A Revision of the Myrmecofauna of the Maltese Islands. 417-442.
  • Schmitz, H.. "Ein Verzeichnis portugiesischer Ameisen (Formicidae, Hymenoptera)." Brotéria Ser. Cienc. Nat. 24 (1955): 27-37.
  • Scupola A., and R. Poggi. 2014. Ricerche zoologiche della nave oceanografica "minerva" (C.N.R.) sulle isole circumsarde. XXXIII. Formiche. Estratto dagli Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria” 106: 93-131.
  • Scupola I. 2009. Le formiche delle Isole Egadi (Sicilia) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona Botanica Zoologia 33: 97-103
  • Sommer F. 1984. Etude de la myrmécofaune de la réserve de la Massane. Laboratoire Arago, Banyuls sur Mer (66), 29 pages.
  • Sommer F., and H. Cagniant. 1988. Peuplements de fourmis des Albères Orientales (Pyrénées-Orientales, France) (Première partie). Vie Milieu 38: 189-200.
  • Soyer B. 1951. Les fourmis des collines des environs de Marseille. Bull Soc Linn Provence 18: 3-6.
  • Steiner F. M., S. Schödl, and B. C. Schlick-Steiner. 2002. Liste der Ameisen Österreichs (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Stand Oktober 2002. Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik 3: 17-25.
  • Suay-Cano, V. A., A. Tinaut, and J. Selfa. "Las hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) asociadas a pulgones (Hemiptera, Aphididae) en la provincia de Valencia." Graellsia 58(1) (2002): 21-37.
  • Suñer i Escriche, David. "Contribució al coneixement mirmecologic de Gavarres, Montgrí, Guilleríes i la Serralada Transversal." Tesis Doctoral Universida (1991): 577 pp.
  • Taheri A., J. Reyes-Lopez, and N. Bennas. 2014. Contribution a l'etude de la fauna myrmecologique du parc national de Talassemtane (nord du Maroc): biodiversite, biogeographie et especes indicatrices. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 54: 225–236.
  • Taheri A., J. Reyes-Lopez, and X. Espadaler. 2010. Citas nuevas o interesantes de hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) para Marruevos. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.) 47: 299?300.
  • Tinaut A. 2016. Ants of the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Mountains Natural Park (Andalusia, Spain) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent., 40 (1-2): 125-159.
  • Tinaut A., and F. J. Ortiz. 1988. Introduccion al conocimiento de las hormigas de la provincia de Almeria (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Publicaciones del Instituto de Estudios Almerienses. Boletín (Ciencias) 8: 223-231.
  • Tinaut, A., J. Jiménez Rojas, and R. Pascual. "Estudio de la mirmecofauna de los bosques de Quercus Linneo 1753 de la provincia de Granada." Ecología 8 (1995): 429-438.
  • Tinaut, A.. "Contribución al conocimiento de los formícidos del Parque Nacional de Doñana." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 15 (1991): 57-63.
  • Tolg, F., and J. Fahringer. "Beitrag zur Dipteren- und Hymenopterenfauna Bosniens der Herzegowina und Dalmatiens, II." Mitt. Naturw. Ver. Univ. Wien 9 (1911): 23-28.
  • Trigos Peral G., and J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2015. New record of Temnothorax algiricus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Iberian Peninsula and ten additional new records for the ant fauna from Málaga, with preliminary list of species from Natural Park Sierras de Tejeda, Almijara y Alhama (Andalusia, Spain). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 39 (3-4): 411-416.
  • Trigos Peral G., and J. Reyes Lopez. 2016. Ants as bioindicators for monitoring of urban green in the south of the Iberian Peninsula. Proposal of functional groups. Iberomyrmex 8: 37-38.
  • Trigos-Peral G., and J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2013. Primera relacion de los formicidos (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de la Reserva Natural Lagunas de Campillos (Malaga). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 37 (3-4): 217-224.
  • Vesni? A. 2011: Revidirani sistematski prijegled mrava Bosne i Hercegovine. Unutar : S. Lelo (urednik), Fauna Bosne i Hercegovine – Biosistematski pregledi. 7. izmijenjeno i popravljeno interno izdanje Udruženja za inventarizaciju i zaštitu životinja, Ilijaš, Kanton Sarajevo, pp: 205-207.
  • Vicidomini S., and C. Pignataro. 2007. Contributo alla conoscenza della biodiversità del Parco Nazionale del Cilento e Vallo di Diano: gli Imenotteri veleniferi più comuni e check-list delle specie di Apoidea e Formicidae della provincia di Salerno. Il Naturalista Campano 34: 1-15.
  • Vogrin, V.. "Prilog fauni Hymenoptera - Aculeata Jugoslavije." Zast. Bilja 31(suppl.) (1955): 1-74.
  • Wheeler, W. M.. "Ants of the Balearic Islands." Folia Myrmecologica et Termitologica 1 (1926): 1-6.
  • Zimmermann, S.. "Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Ameisenfauna Süddalmatiens." Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanisch Gesellschaft in Wien 84 (1935): 1-65.
  • Zina V., M. Branco, and J. C. Franco. 2017. Ant community associated to citrus canopy in Southern Portugal over a century after the invasion by the Argentine ant. Phytoparasitica 45:183–200.
  • de Haro, Andrés, C. A. Collingwood, and P. Comín del Río. "Prospección mirmecológica por Ibiza y Formentera (Baleares)." Orsis 2 (1986): 115-120.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por Andalucia." Boletín de la Estación Central de Ecología 6 (12) (1977): 85-90.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por Extremadura (España) y Sao Brás-Almodovar, Alcácer do Sal, Serra da Estrela (Portugal)." Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia Suplemento 3(1) (1992): 95-104.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por la península Tingitana al norte del Rif (Marruecos)." Orsis (Organismes i Sistemes) 12 (1997): 93-99.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por las sierras de Aitana-Alfaro y los cabos de la Nao-San Antonio (Alicante) y su comparación con la fauna balear y de Córcega-Cerdeña." Orsis 3 (1988): 165-172.
  • de Haro, Andrés. "Formícidos del Valle de las Batuecas y parte occidental de la Cordillera Central (Salamanca)." Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia natural (Madrid) 72 (1974): 229-235.
  • von Heyden, L.. "Bericht uber die von der Herren Dr. Moll und Dr. Grenacher auf Tenerife gesammelten Insekten." Ber. Senckenb. Naturf. Ges. 1872 (1872): 74-90.