Crematogaster schmidti

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Crematogaster schmidti
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Crematogaster
Species: C. schmidti
Binomial name
Crematogaster schmidti
(Mayr, 1853)

Crematogaster schmidti casent0080779 profile 1.jpg

Crematogaster schmidti casent0080779 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


The most common species of Crematogaster in the mediterranean and submediterranean part of Montenegro. It is also one of the commonest Greek ants, known from all provinces. Crematogaster schmidti is a dendrophilous species, nesting inside dry trunks and branches of various shrubs and trees from where it penetrates the entire shrub or tree and its surroundings (Borowiec & Salata, 2021).


Keys including this Species


Karaman (2010) - Northern bank of Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, from Slovenia in the west to Ukraine in the east. Altitude: 0-800 m a.s.l.

Crematogaster schmidti and Crematogaster scutellaris are allopatric species. The transgression zone between the two species is the region from Slovenia (east slopes of Julian Alpes) to the Adriatic coast of Croatia (Dalmatia), and the southeast Bosnia and Herzegovina. The two species do not hybridize because no intermediate forms have been found in the transgression zone [the territory of former Yugoslavia] (Atanassov & Dlusskij, 1992). Based on the current distribution of C. schmidti and C. scutellaris, we are expecting C. scutellaris to be found in Slovenia, and rejecting the possibility of the same species being present in Montenegro.

This is a common species, known from all Greek provinces, but based on our unpublished genetic studies status of populations from Crete is unclear and maybe they include a cryptic undescribed species (Borowiec et al., 2022).

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 45.648611° to 32.249974°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Armenia, Austria (type locality), Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Karaman (2010) - During our field work we observed that colonies of C. schmidti were active during the whole 24h period from May until September. Workers often tend aphids and form a line to the nest. Colonies are found at the base of trees and shrubs, in cavities of threes and sedges or in dead wood. When nests are disturbed workers emerge in great numbers and are very aggressive; they usually bite with mandibles and rarely exude quantities of liquid from the tip of the gaster.

Association with Other Organisms

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This species is associated with the aphids Aphis craccivora, Aphis pseudocardui, Chaitophorus israeliticus and Thelaxes californica (Saddiqui et al., 2019 and included references).



Images from AntWeb

Crematogaster schmidti casent0080805 head 1.jpgCrematogaster schmidti casent0080805 profile 1.jpgCrematogaster schmidti casent0080805 dorsal 1.jpgCrematogaster schmidti casent0080805 label 1.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0080805. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Crematogaster schmidti casent0080810 head 1.jpgCrematogaster schmidti casent0080810 profile 1.jpgCrematogaster schmidti casent0080810 dorsal 1.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0080810. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.


Crematogaster schmidti 9.jpg


Crematogaster schmidti 10.jpgCrematogaster schmidti 11.jpgCrematogaster schmidti 12.jpg


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • schmidti. Acrocoelia schmidti Mayr, 1853a: 149 (w.q.) SLOVENIA.
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Slovenia: Krain, Wibacher Thale (F. Schmidt).
    • Type-depository: NHMW.
    • [Misspelled as schmitti by Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1916: 170.]
    • Ruzsky, 1905b: 491 (m.).
    • Combination in Crematogaster: Mayr, 1855: 469;
    • combination in C. (Acrocoelia): Emery, 1922e: 143;
    • combination in C. (Crematogaster): Bolton, 1995b: 166.
    • Junior synonym of scutellaris: Mayr, 1855: 469; Nylander, 1856b: 100; Lucas, 1856: xxi; Smith, F. 1858b: 135; Roger, 1863b: 36; Mayr, 1863: 405; Dours, 1873: 169; André, 1874: 204 (in list); Forel, 1874: 100 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 464; Fromantin & Soulié, 1961: 95; Baroni Urbani, 1964a: 4; Bernard, 1967: 164.
    • Subspecies of scutellaris: Forel, 1904b: 372; Ruzsky, 1905b: 491; Forel, 1911d: 340; Emery, 1912e: 654; Emery, 1914d: 157; Emery, 1915h: 1; Emery, 1916b: 155; Stitz, 1917: 340; Crawley, 1920a: 165; Emery, 1922e: 143; Finzi, 1922: 120; Finzi, 1923: 3; Müller, 1923b: 72; Viehmeyer, 1923: 89; Santschi, 1926f: 287; Karavaiev, 1927a: 289; Karavaiev, 1927d: 335; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929b: 43; Santschi, 1929e: 148; Finzi, 1930d: 313; Menozzi, 1933b: 61 (in key); Santschi, 1934d: 276; Zimmermann, 1935: 23; Menozzi, 1936d: 283; Santschi, 1937e: 311 (in key); Finzi, 1939c: 155; Finzi, 1940: 160; Arnol'di, 1948: 211 (in list); Consani & Zangheri, 1952: 40.
    • Status as species: Emery, 1891b: 14; Dalla Torre, 1893: 85; Collingwood, 1961a: 64; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 538 (in key); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 54; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 272 (in key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 244; Collingwood, 1993b: 194; Arakelian, 1994: 45; Bolton, 1995b: 162; Poldi, et al. 1995: 4; Gallé, et al. 1998: 214; Markó & Csösz, 2002: 116; Karaman, M.G. & Karaman, 2003: 42; Karaman, G.S. & Karaman, 2005: 56; Bračko, 2006: 136; Markó, Sipos, et al. 2006: 69; Petrov, 2006: 93 (in key); Bračko, 2007: 17; Karaman, M.G. 2008: 20 (in key), Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 138; Paknia, et al. 2008: 154; Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 18; Karaman, M.G. 2010: 422 (redescription); Csösz, et al. 2011: 56; Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 24; Legakis, 2011: 13; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 489; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 18; Borowiec, L. 2014: 68; Bračko, et al. 2014: 13; Lebas, et al. 2016: 272; Radchenko, 2016: 264; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 44; Seifert, 2018: 180; Bračko, 2019: 170; Madl, 2019: 15.
    • Senior synonym of christowitchii: Emery, 1922e: 143; Bolton, 1995b: 162; Radchenko, 2016: 264.
    • Senior synonym of karawaewi: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 244; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 184; Bolton, 1995b: 162; Radchenko, 2016: 264.
    • Senior synonym of medispina: Emery, 1922e: 143; Müller, 1923b: 72; Bolton, 1995b: 162; Radchenko, 2016: 264.
    • Distribution: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine.
  • christowitchii. Crematogaster scutellaris var. christowitchii Forel, 1892i: 316 (w.) BULGARIA.
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-localities: Bulgaria: Tatar-Bazardjik, Sliven (Balkan), Aëtos (Black Sea), Sare-Mussa, Stanimaka (Rhodope), 1891 (A. Forel).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Subspecies of scutellaris: Dalla Torre, 1893: 86.
    • Junior synonym of schmidti: Emery, 1922e: 143; Bolton, 1995b: 150; Radchenko, 2016: 264.
  • karawaewi. Crematogaster auberti subsp. karawaewi Ruzsky, 1905b: 497 (w.) RUSSIA (Crimea).
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Russia: Crimea, vic. Magaracha, 31.vii.1896 (Ruzsky).
    • Type-depository: ZMUM.
    • Combination in C. (Acrocoelia): Emery, 1922e: 142;
    • combination in C. (Mesocrema): Santschi, 1937e: 310.
    • Subspecies of auberti: Emery, 1912e: 661; Emery, 1922e: 142; Karavaiev, 1927a: 290; Arnol’di & Dlussky, 1978: 538 (in key).
    • Subspecies of inermis: Emery, 1926: 3.
    • Status as species: Santschi, 1937e: 310.
    • Junior synonym of schmidti: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 244; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 184; Bolton, 1995b: 155; Radchenko, 2016: 264.
  • medispina. Crematogaster scutellaris var. medispina Forel, 1905b: 178 (w.q.) ITALY.
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Italy: Trieste (Graeffe).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Junior synonym of scutellaris: Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 80.
    • Junior synonym of schmidti: Emery, 1922e: 143; Müller, 1923b: 72; Bolton, 1995b: 157; Radchenko, 2016: 264.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Karaman (2010) - TL 4.6mm, 4.0mm, 3.5mm, 3.2mm; HW 1119.25, 971.25, 943.50, 841.75; HL 1045.25, 915.75, 888.00, 814.00; CI 107.08, 106.06, 106.25, 103.41; SL 823.25, 749.25, 730.75, 647.50; SI 73.55, 77.14, 77.45, 76.92; LM 1147.00, 1017.50, 962.00, 915.75; PS 203.50, 180.37, 148.00, 129.50; A10 296.00, 259.00, 286.75, 212.75; A9 166.50, 148.00, 129.50, 138.75; A8 157.25, 115.63, 92.50, 120.25; DBT 545.75, 471.75, 388.50, 360.75; PW 388.50, 323.75, 342.25, 268.25; PPW 333.0, 296.00, 268.25, 231.25; PI 116.66, 109.37, 127.58, 116.00; PPI 29.75, 30.47, 28.43, 27.47; PnW 582.75, 518.00, 499.50, 416.25.

The head, thorax and petiole yellow-reddish. Postpetiole unicolor with abdomen – dark brown to black. Face of head is gently longitudinally striated, heavily structured between upper edge of mandible and lower margin of eye. Dorsally, thorax with strong rugulae, smooth and shiny portion restricted on infraspinal area. Promesonotal keel is well developed, propodeal suture strongly impressed. Propodeal spines long, straight, regularly tapering from base to tip. Their length is 2.3-2.5 times as long as their basal width. Whole body covered with appressed pubescence, these hairs are separated at their bases by a distance equal to the length of hairs. Scapes with abundant, long subdecumbent pubescence. Several outstanding long setae may be present on anterior border of clypeus, dorsal face of pronotum, petiole nodes and abdomen. Variability in general body colour of workers from different colonies is usual, from yellow-reddish to dark reddish head, thorax and petiole, dark brown to black postpetiole and gaster.


Karaman (2010) - TL 9.0mm, 8.7mm, 8.3mm; HW 1628.00, 1595.44, 1725.68; HL 1448.92, 1432.64, 1465.20; CI 112.35, 111.36, 117.77; SL 1009.36, 1015.15, 1053.70; SI 62.00, 63.62, 61.05; OL 97.68, 120.25, 120.25; LM 3.16 mm, 3.05, 2.9mm; PS 257.00, 203.5, 203.5.

Head reddish-brown, rest of the body dark brown. Head wider than pronotum. Mandibles with slight longitudinal rugulae. Masticatory border with five teeth. Apical tooth is the biggest, with sharp tip. Other teeth are smaller and subequal. Lower part of head longitudinally striated, upper part smooth and shining. Thorax, in lateral view, with straight dorsal edge, propodeum is long and narrow and drops steeply from the scutellum. In contrast with workers, thorax is not strongly sculptured dorsally, somewhat gentle striae may be developed. Meso- and metasternum faintly striated, episternum and pronotum smooth. Propodeal spines acute, triangular, the same length as their width at the base. Whole body with appressed, long pubescence. Antennae with suberected, and legs with appressed pilosity. Scarce, long, erected setae present on the anterior of the head, dorsally on scutum, scutellum, epinotum and petiole node. Abdominal tergites with moderately abundant erected setae at their posterior borders. Wings with yellow-brown shade, wing venation brown.


Karaman (2010) - Measurements: TL 3.9mm, 3.9mm, 3.7mm; HW 693.75, 666.0, 675.25; HL 582.75, 545.75, 582.75; CI 119.04, 122.03, 115.87; SL 157.25, 138.75, 157.25; SI 22.66, 20.83, 23.29; OL 83.25, 83.25, 83.25; LM 1725.68, 1546.60, 1595.44; PS 0, 0, 0.

Whole body dark brown, covered with short appressed pubescence. Apical tooth on mandibles is the largest and with a sharp tip, the second one is slightly smaller than the first one; the third and the fourth tooth are the least developed, very small and blunt (Fig. 1D). Several setae, shorter than in Crematogaster gordani Karaman, 2008, are present on external side of each mandible. All three ocelli are equal in size. Propodeal spines are not developed, propodeum bituberculate. Pronotum, scutum and scutellum smooth and shining, Mayers line is not prominent. One longitudinal line divides scutum into a left and a right part. This line finishes at a deep notch in the posterior border of scutum. Meso-, meta- and episternum faintly horizontally striated. Wings achromatic, and wing venation dark brown. External paramera (stipes) with numerous setae over entire external area. Subgenital plate triangular, with almost strait borders and blunt apex. Apex covered with about 40 setae. Penis valve with 10-12 teeth.


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