Odontomachus haematodus

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Odontomachus haematodus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Odontomachus
Species: O. haematodus
Binomial name
Odontomachus haematodus
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Odontomachus haematodus casent0103104 profile 1.jpg

Odontomachus haematodus casent0103104 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

DaRocha et al. (2015) studied the diversity of ants found in bromeliads of a single large tree of Erythrina, a common cocoa shade tree, at an agricultural research center in Ilhéus, Brazil. Forty-seven species of ants were found in 36 of 52 the bromeliads examined. Bromeliads with suspended soil and those that were larger had higher ant diversity. Odontomachus haematodus was found in 15 different bromeliads and was associated with the suspended soil and litter of the plants.

At a Glance • Tandem running  

 

Identification

Identification Keys including this Taxon

Distribution

MacGown et al. (2014) - Due to misidentifications, the worldwide distribution of this species is not clearly understood at this time. However, based on recent examination of numerous specimens from the US, the distributional records for this species from this country can be considered reliable. Additionally, specimens from Brazil, British Guiana, and Peru were identified as O. haematodus by MacGown [LSAM, UGCA, and UMMZ]. Brown (1976) reported this species' distribution as continental South America from Orinoco Delta to Tucuma, Argentina. McGlynn (1999) reported O. haematodus as being introduced to Hawaii; however, these records have not been verified, nor is this species thought to have been established in that state. Krushelnycky et al. (2005) did not include O. haematodus in their recent list of ant species from Hawaii. In the US we have verified records of established populations of this species only from the Gulf Coast region, specifically from: Alabama: Baldwin, Escambia, and Mobile Counties. Florida: Escambia County. Louisiana: Orleans Parish. Mississippi: Greene and Jackson Counties. Distributional information for US specimens from AntWeb (2013) (Florida record), and examination of specimens in AUEM, MEM and USNM.

Odontomachus haematodus is native to South America. The earliest record in the US we found was of three specimens collected on 1 June 1956 from Mobile, Alabama. These specimens were borrowed from the USNM and examined by MacGown. Earliest MEM records are from 2000 from Baldwin County, Alabama, by which time this species had become locally abundant. Until recently, specimens of this species from the Gulf Coast were identified as Odontomachus insularis, Odontomachus brunneus, and/or Odontomachus ruginodis. However, after examination of workers and males of all three species, it became clear that this now-common Gulf Coast species is O. haematodus.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Nearctic Region: United States.
Neotropical Region: Argentina, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Greater Antilles, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela.
Palaearctic Region: China.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Regional Notes

French Guiana

A study by Talaga et al. (2015) investigated the species of ants found in the bromeliad Aechmea aquilega. Odontomachus haematodus was "by far the most frequent species in the rural area where it occupied 60% of all of the sampled plants sheltering ants. We noted that elementary nests (the colonies are composed of multiple nests) of this species were installed both between the leaves of several adjacent A. aquilega individuals and between their shoots and the bark of the host trees." They also note this species can nest in decaying logs and branches on the ground.

Puerto Rico

Wheeler (1908): Common, nesting under stones or logs or in untidy mound nests about the roots of trees, but only in shady places and rather rich soil.

Association with Other Organisms

  • This species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Chalcura deprivata (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (primary host).
  • This species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Kapala terminalis (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (primary host).
  • This species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Schizaspidia convergens (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (primary host).

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 500 (Holldobler & Engel, 1978; Beckers et al., 1989)
  • Foraging behaviour: tandem recruitment (Holldobler & Engel, 1978; Beckers et al., 1989)

Castes

Worker

Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • haematodus. Formica haematoda Linnaeus, 1758: 582 (q.) (no state data).
    • Type-material: holotype queen.
    • Type-locality: none stated, "Habitat in America meridionali" (Rolander); probably Suriname: Paramaribo.
    • Type-depository: ZMLS.
    • [Misspelled as haematodes by Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 187, Mayr, 1862: 711, André, 1887: 290, Emery, 1887b: 428, and many others.]
    • André, 1887: 290 (m.); Emery, 1899c: 5 (l.); Wheeler, W.M. 1900b: 16 (l.); Eidmann, 1944: 437 (l.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1952c: 646 (l.); MacGown, et al. 2014: 539 (m.).
    • Combination in Myrmecia: Fabricius, 1804: 425; Gravenhorst, 1807: 287;
    • combination in Odontomachus: Latreille, 1804: 179; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 187.
    • Status as species: Linnaeus, 1767: 965; De Geer, 1773: 601; Fabricius, 1775: 395; Fabricius, 1782: 494; Retzius, 1783: 75; Fabricius, 1787: 311; Gmelin, 1790: 2803; Christ, 1791: 516; Olivier, 1792: 502; Fabricius, 1793: 364; Latreille, 1802c: 192; Fabricius, 1804: 425; Latreille, 1804: 179; Gravenhorst, 1807: 287; Latreille, 1818c: 570; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 187; Smith, F. 1858b: 76; Gerstäcker, 1859: 262; Roger, 1861a: 24; Smith, F. 1862b: 31; Mayr, 1862: 711; Gerstäcker, 1862: 503; Roger, 1863b: 22; Mayr, 1863: 436; Mayr, 1865: 63; Mayr, 1867a: 79 (redescription); Mayr, 1872: 148; Mayr, 1876: 85; Emery, 1878a: ix (in list); André, 1884b: 538; Mayr, 1884: 33; Mayr, 1886d: 437; Cresson, 1887: 258; André, 1887: 290; Emery, 1887b: 428; Emery, 1890a: 65; Emery, 1890b: 44; Forel, 1891b: 104 (redescription); Cameron, 1891: 93; André, 1892b: 52; Emery, 1892d: 557, 561 (in key); Forel, 1893g: 353; André, 1893b: 152; Dalla Torre, 1893: 50; Emery, 1893e: 190; Emery, 1893f: 243; Emery, 1893g: 262; Forel, 1894b: 74; Emery, 1894k: 50; Emery, 1895h: 22; Mayr, 1895: 125; André, 1895a: 3; Forel, 1895b: 118; Mayr, 1896: 238; Pergande, 1896: 873; Mayr, 1897: 424; Emery, 1897d: 557; Wasmann, 1897: 250; Forel, 1899c: 20; Emery, 1899a: 500; Emery, 1899c: 5; Forel, 1900c: 58; Emery, 1900d: 672; Wheeler, W.M. 1900b: 2; Forel, 1901b: 5; Forel, 1901h: 81; Dahl, 1901: 12; Emery, 1901f: 113; Emery, 1901g: 566; Bingham, 1903: 47; Forel, 1903d: 399; Emery, 1904b: 591; Ruzsky, 1905b: 759; Forel, 1905c: 8; Wheeler, W.M. 1905b: 122; Emery, 1906c: 118; Forel, 1907e: 1; Forel, 1908a: 2; Forel, 1908b: 35; Wheeler, W.M. 1908a: 126; Wheeler, W.M. 1908b: 159; Wheeler, W.M. 1909b: 231; Wheeler, W.M. 1909d: 339; Forel, 1909b: 51; Forel, 1909d: 221; Santschi, 1910c: 350; Stitz, 1910: 130; Forel, 1910f: 4; Emery, 1911b: 531; Emery, 1911d: 114; Wheeler, W.M. 1911a: 22; Wheeler, W.M. 1911b: 168; Forel, 1911b: 193; Forel, 1911i: 215; Stitz, 1911a: 357; Wheeler, W.M. 1912a: 45; Forel, 1912d: 97; Forel, 1912j: 179; Forel, 1912k: 159; Forel, 1913a: 108; Forel, 1913b: 309; Forel, 1913h: 347; Forel, 1913k: 159; Wheeler, W.M. 1913d: 239; Santschi, 1914b: 58; Santschi, 1914d: 331; Emery, 1914b: 180; Emery, 1914f: 400; Bruch, 1914: 213; Viehmeyer, 1914c: 516; Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1914: 16; Arnold, 1915: 108; Stitz, 1916: 373; Mann, 1916: 418; Wheeler, W.M. 1916c: 3; Wheeler, W.M. 1916d: 323; Viehmeyer, 1916a: 116; Crawley, 1916b: 367; Gallardo, 1918b: 99; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 60; Mann, 1919: 303; Mann, 1920: 404; Santschi, 1920i: 2; Mann, 1921: 427; Mann, 1922: 18; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 102, 793, 1013; Wheeler, W.M. 1922c: 4; Borgmeier, 1923: 78; Viehmeyer, 1923: 87; Wheeler, W.M. 1923a: 3; Wheeler, W.M. 1924b: 243; Crawley, 1924: 388; Stitz, 1925: 115; Mann, 1925b: 5; Karavaiev, 1925c: 293; Wheeler, W.M. & Chapman, 1925: 71; Wheeler, W.M. 1925a: 10; Karavaiev, 1926d: 422; Menozzi, 1927c: 267; Wheeler, W.M. 1927d: 2; Wheeler, W.M. 1927h: 86; Santschi, 1928a: 44; Santschi, 1928c: 68; Santschi, 1928h: 124; Wheeler, W.M. 1929f: 2; Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 37; Karavaiev, 1930a: 212; Santschi, 1930b: 60; Menozzi, 1930b: 80; Menozzi, 1930d: 327; Stärcke, 1930: 373; Wheeler, W.M. 1930h: 61; Aguayo, 1932: 216; Kutter, 1932: 207; Santschi, 1932b: 13; Stitz, 1932a: 367; Wheeler, W.M. 1932d: 14; Menozzi, 1933a: 101; Wheeler, W.M. 1934a: 173; Karavaiev, 1935a: 75; Santschi, 1935b: 263; Wheeler, W.M. 1935g: 15; Wheeler, W.M. 1936f: 5; Smith, M.R. 1937: 827; Wheeler, W.M. 1937a: 22; Wheeler, W.M. 1938: 251; Finzi, 1939a: 154; Santschi, 1939f: 160; Teranishi, 1940: 64; Menozzi, 1942: 166; Weber, 1943c: 303; Santschi, 1937b: 95; Donisthorpe, 1943d: 445; Eidmann, 1944: 437, 469; Stärcke, 1944b: xviii; Donisthorpe, 1947c: 579; Donisthorpe, 1948b: 303; Donisthorpe, 1949g: 408; Creighton, 1950a: 55; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 43; Menozzi & Consani, 1952: 61; Bernard, 1953b: 214; Kusnezov, 1953b: 336; Kempf, 1961b: 497; Kempf, 1962b: 17 (in key); Prins, 1963: 100; Baltazar, 1966: 239; Kempf, 1970b: 327; Kempf, 1972a: 170; Kempf & Lenko, 1976: 60; Brown, 1976a: 104, 148; Brandão, 1991: 363; Bolton, 1995b: 295; Tiwari, 1999: 21; Mathew & Tiwari, 2000: 289; Zhou, 2001b: 27; Zhou, 2006: 579; Wild, 2007b: 39; Rodriguez, J. 2008: 163; Zhou & Ran, 2010: 106; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 60; MacGown, et al. 2014: 536 (redescription); Bezděčková, et al. 2015: 124; Feitosa, 2015c: 99; Deyrup, 2017: 29; Fernández & Guerrero, 2019: 539.
    • Senior synonym of brunneipes: Brown, 1976a: 104; Brandão, 1991: 364; Zhou, 2001b: 27; MacGown, et al. 2014: 537.
    • Senior synonym of hirsutiusculus: Roger, 1861a: 24; Roger, 1863b: 22; Mayr, 1863: 437; Mayr, 1865: 64; Mayr, 1872: 148; Forel, 1891b: 104; Brown, 1976a: 104; Brandão, 1991: 364; Bolton, 1995b: 295; Zhou, 2001b: 27; MacGown, et al. 2014: 537.
    • Senior synonym of maxillosa: Retzius, 1783: 75; Gmelin, 1790: 2803; Olivier, 1792: 502; Latreille, 1802c: 192; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 187; Smith, F. 1858b: 76; Gerstäcker, 1862: 503; Mayr, 1863: 437; Roger, 1863b: 22; Mayr, 1865: 63; Mayr, 1872: 148; Forel, 1891b: 104; Dalla Torre, 1893: 50; Wheeler, W.M. 1908a: 125; Emery, 1911d: 114; Arnold, 1915: 108; Gallardo, 1918b: 99; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 60; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 793; Borgmeier, 1923: 78; Kempf, 1972a: 170; Brown, 1976a: 104; Bolton, 1995b: 295; Zhou, 2001b: 27; MacGown, et al. 2014: 536.
    • Senior synonym of pallipes: Brown, 1976a: 104; Brandão, 1991: 364; Bolton, 1995b: 295; Zhou, 2001b: 27; MacGown, et al. 2014: 537.
    • Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, U.S.A., Venezuela.
    • [Note: Afrotropical records of haematodus prior to Brown, 1976a: 167, are correctly referred to troglodytes. Oriental, Malesian, and Austral records of haematodus prior to Brown, 1976a: 167, are almost entirely misidentifications of simillimus.]
  • brunneipes. Odontomachus haematoda var. brunneipes Menozzi, 1935b: 191.
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Brazil: Pará, Chiriqui.
    • Type-depository: MSNG.
    • [First available use of Odontomachus haematodus r. pubescens var. bruneipes Emery, 1893d: 91 (footnote) (w.) BRAZIL (Pará); unavailable (infrasubspecific) name (Bolton, 1995b: 295).]
    • [Misspelled as beuneipes by MacGown, et al. 2014: 537.]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1911d: 115; Borgmeier, 1923: 79; Eidmann, 1936a: 37; Kempf, 1972a: 171.
    • Junior synonym of haematodus: Brown, 1976a: 104; Brandão, 1991: 364; Zhou, 2001b: 27; MacGown, et al. 2014: 537.
  • hirsutiusculus. Odontomachus hirsutiusculus Smith, F. 1858b: 78 (w.) BRAZIL (Pará).
    • Type-material: 2 syntype workers.
    • Type-locality: Brazil: Santarem, 54/63 (H.W. Bates).
    • [Note BMNH Accessions Register adds, “1854 no. 63 (Oct. 11) Brazil (Santarem on the Amazon). Purchased from Stevens. Collected by Mr Bates, Alta de Chai near Santarem.”]
    • Type-depository: BMNH.
    • [Misspelled as hushirsutiusculus by Zhou, 2001b: 27.]
    • Forel, 1909a: 252 (q.).
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Forel, 1899c: 20; Forel, 1909a: 252; Wheeler, W.M. 1905b: 122; Emery, 1911d: 115; Forel, 1912c: 28 (in text); Forel, 1913l: 205; Wheeler, W.M. 1916d: 323; Wheeler, W.M. 1922c: 4; Borgmeier, 1923: 79; Santschi, 1939f: 160; Kempf, 1972a: 171.
    • Subspecies of insularis: Emery, in Dalla Torre, 1893: 51.
    • Subspecies of haematodus: Roger, 1861a: 24; Emery, 1890b: 44 (footnote); Forel, 1893g: 354; Emery, 1896h: 625; Forel, 1907e: 1; Forel, 1908b: 35; Wheeler, W.M. 1911a: 22; Emery, 1911d: 115; Luederwaldt, 1918: 36.
    • Junior synonym of haematodus: Roger, 1861a: 24; Roger, 1863b: 22; Mayr, 1863: 437; Mayr, 1865: 64; Mayr, 1872: 148; Forel, 1891b: 104; Brown, 1976a: 104; Brandão, 1991: 364; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 27; MacGown, et al. 2014: 537.
  • maxillosa. Formica maxillosa De Geer, 1773: 601, pl. 31, figs. 3-5 (q.) SURINAME.
    • Type-material: holotype queen.
    • Type-locality: Suriname: (no further data) (Rolander).
    • Type-depository: MNHN.
    • Junior synonym of haematodus: Retzius, 1783: 75; Gmelin, 1790: 2803; Olivier, 1792: 502; Latreille, 1802c: 192; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 187; Smith, F. 1858b: 76; Gerstäcker, 1862: 503; Mayr, 1863: 437; Roger, 1863b: 22; Mayr, 1865: 63; Mayr, 1872: 148; Forel, 1891b: 104; Dalla Torre, 1893: 50; Wheeler, W.M. 1908a: 125; Emery, 1911d: 114; Arnold, 1915: 108; Gallardo, 1918b: 99; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 60; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 793; Borgmeier, 1923: 78; Kempf, 1972a: 170; Brown, 1976a: 104; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 27; MacGown, et al. 2014: 536.
  • pallipes. Odontomachus haematoda var. pallipes Crawley, 1916b: 368 (w.) GUYANA.
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Guyana (“British Guiana”): (no further data), 20.iv.1915 (G.E. Bodkin).
    • Type-depository: OXUM (perhaps also in BMNH).
    • Subspecies of haematodus: Kempf, 1972a: 170.
    • Junior synonym of haematodus: Brown, 1976a: 104; Brandão, 1991: 364; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 27; MacGown, et al. 2014: 537.

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

Odontomachus hirsutiusculus

Two syntype workers in The Natural History Museum. Both labelled, “Santarem. 54/63.” Acc. Reg.: “1854 no. 63 (Oct. 11) Brazil (Santarem on the Amazon). Purchased from Stevens. Collected by Mr Bates, Alta de Chai near Santarem.”

Description

Karyotype

  • 2n = 44, karyotype = 8SM+18ST+18A (French Guiana) (Aguiar et al., 2020).

References

  • Aguiar, H.J.A.C., Barros, L.A.C., Silveira, L.I., Petitclerc, F., Etienne, S., Orivel, J. 2019. Cytogenetic data for sixteen ant species from North-eastern Amazonia with phylogenetic insights into three subfamilies. Comparative Cytogenetics 14(1): 43–60 (doi:10.3897/CompCytogen.v14i1.46692).
  • Beckers R., Goss, S., Deneubourg, J.L., Pasteels, J.M. 1989. Colony size, communication and ant foraging Strategy. Psyche 96: 239-256 (doi:10.1155/1989/94279).
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1976c. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section A. Introduction, subtribal characters. Genus Odontomachus. Stud. Entomol. 19: 67-171 (page 104, Senior synonym of hirsutiusculus, Senior synonym of pallipes, and material of the unavailable name bruneipes referred here)
  • DaRocha, W. D., S. P. Ribeiro, F. S. Neves, G. W. Fernandes, M. Leponce, and J. H. C. Delabie. 2015. How does bromeliad distribution structure the arboreal ant assemblage (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a single tree in a Brazilian Atlantic forest agroecosystem? Myrmecological News. 21:83-92.
  • Emery, C. 1899g. Intorno alle larve di alcune formiche. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna (5) 8: 3-10 (page 5, larva described)
  • Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des insectes. Tome 3. Familles naturelles des genres. Paris: F. Dufart, xii + 467 pp. (page 192, Senior synonym of maxillosa)
  • Latreille, P. A. 1804. Tableau méthodique des insectes. Pp. 129-200 in: Société de Naturalistes et d'Agriculteurs. Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle. Tome 24. Paris: Déterville, 84 + 85 + 238 + 18 + 34 pp. (page 179, Combination in Odontomachus)
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae [= Stockholm]: L. Salvii, 824 pp. (page 582, queen described)
  • MacGown, J.A., Boudinot, B., Deyrup, M. & Sorger, D.M. 2014. A review of the Nearctic Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) with a treatment of the males. Zootaxa 3802(4): 515-552.
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  • Retzius, A. J. 1783. Caroli de Geer. Genera et species insectorum e generosissimi auctoris scriptis extraxit, digessit, Latine quoad partem reddidit, et terminologiam insectorum Linneanam addidit. Lipsiae [= Leipzig]: Cruse, 220 pp. (page 75, Senior synonym of maxillosa)
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  • Talaga, S., J. H. C. Delabie, O. Dezerald, A. Salas-Lopez, F. Petitclerca, C. Leroy, B. Heraultd, R. Cereghino, and A. Dejean. 2015. A bromeliad species reveals invasive ant presence in urban areas of French Guiana. Ecological Indicators. 58:1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.05.027
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  • Wheeler, W. M. 1908a. The ants of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 24: 117-158.

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

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  • Bruch C. 1914. Catálogo sistemático de los formícidos argentinos. Revista del Museo de La Plata 19: 211-234.
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  • Dad J. M., S. A. Akbar, H. Bharti, and A. A. Wachkoo. 2019. Community structure and ant species diversity across select sites ofWestern Ghats, India. Acta Ecologica Sinica 39: 219–228.
  • Emery C. 1890. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887 - Avril 1888). Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6)10: 55-76.
  • Emery C. 1896. Formiciden, gesammelt in Paraguay von Dr. J. Bohls. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 9: 625-638.
  • Emery C. 1899. Intorno alle larve di alcune formiche. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna (5) 8: 3-10.
  • Emery C. 1906. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. XXVI. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 37: 107-194.
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