Nest chambers are often under a stone or, less frequently, under downed wood.
- 1 Photo Gallery
- 2 Identification
- 3 Distribution
- 4 Biology
- 5 Castes
- 6 Nomenclature
- 7 References
- 8 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
The majors, minors, and females of this species have the area at the base of the scape flattened, which is rarely enlarged into a poorly formed lobe. The frontal carinae are widely separated. The cheek, malar area, and sides of head are nearly always without erect hairs, but up to 3 for 4 hairs may be present on the cheeks (usually located near the base of mandibles), and an erect hair on the ventral surface of the head may be visible in full face view, appearing as an erect hair on the side of the head. The mesosoma has numerous erect hairs, as does the petiole and the gaster, the hairs on the gaster are positioned along the posterior edge of each tergum, as well as nearly always scattered across the surface. The middle and hind tibiae have 2 rows of erect, coarse hairs that extend nearly the entire length of the tibiae, but there are usually fewer than 10 present, and most are on the distal half. The head and mesosoma have a few appressed hairs. The appressed hairs on the gaster are variable, ranging from a few tiny (0.01 mm) hairs, to coarse, long (up to 0.2 mm) hairs. The head is densely and evenly punctate, the mesosoma is coriaceous, and the gaster ranges from smooth and glossy to dull with coarse transverse striae. The color ranges from yellow brown to black, the most common color includes a black head and gaster with a red mesosoma and legs. (Mackay and Mackay 2002)
Southwestern Canada, western United States, south to northwestern Mexico.
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 61.218056° to 18.883891°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.
In New Mexico (Mackay and Mackay 2002): Chihuahuan Desert, areas of mesquite, sagebrush, meadows, deciduous forests, oak forests, riparian cottonwood forests, ponderosa pine-riparian, pinyon-juniper, ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, aspen forest, usually at higher elevations in relatively mesic sites (1930 - 2960 meters).
Wheeler (1910) - C. vicinus live in the soil under stones in rather dry, sunny places. The eggs and young larvae are of a peculiar salmon-yellow color. The sexual phases seem to occur in the nests at all times of the year.
For New Mexico (Mackay and Mackay 2002) - This is a very common species in New Mexico, which nests under stones and logs (rare) in open areas of fine sand to rocky soils. Brood and reproductives were found in nests from March to October, dealate females were captured from March to mid September. A flight occurred on 19-vii-1986 at 7:00 p.m. Nests are occasionally started by pleometrosis (multiple females start nests together). Much of the foraging occurs at night, although workers are also diurnal; workers tend Homoptera. Workers forage into vegetation, especially cholla (Opuntia sp.), and Yucca sp. Workers are attracted to baits, including liver, especially rotten liver. Monomorium minimum, Myrmica striolagaster, Liometopum apiculatum, Leptothorax crassipilis, and Solenopsis live in nests. One nest inhabited an abandoned nest of Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Gynes are prey of Formica and Solenopsis.
In the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana these ants can be common in open meadows. A single colony can have nest chambers under numerous rocks.
Nevada, Wheeler and Wheeler (1986) - This is one of the commonest and most widely distributed of all Nevada ants. There are two main color phases: one is pale and in the field cannot be distinguished from Camponotus semitestaceus; it occurs in arid and semiarid habitats. We have 197 records in Nevada from 141 localities; 3,900-9,700 ft. Twenty-eight records are from the Cool Desert (including 1 from a Sarcobatus Subclimax, 1 from a cottonwood grove, and 2 riparian), 74 are from the Pinyon-Juniper Biome, and 37 from the Coniferous Forest. The majority (65) of nests were under stones; 9 were under rotten logs lying on the ground; 12 were exposed with excavated soil around the entrance (which sometimes could be called a crater). Entrances ranged from 5 to 30 mm in diameter. Xenodusa angusta Fall (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae; det. RR Snelling) was a guest in a nest. C. vicinus workers were tending waxy scales, Orthezia nigrocincta Cockerell (Homoptera: Ortheziidae; det. D.R Miller), on the roots of Sarcobatus vermiculatus.
Association with Other Organisms
- This species is a host for the phorid fly Apocephalus horridus (a parasite) (phorid.net) (attacked).
- This species is a host for the phorid fly Apocephalus similis (a parasite) (phorid.net) (attacked).
- This species is a prey for the Microdon fly Microdon cothurnatus (a predator) (Quevillon, 2018).
- This species is a prey for the Microdon fly Microdon piperi (a predator) (Quevillon, 2018).
- This species is a host for the nematode Formicitylenchus oregonensis (a parasite) in Oregon, USA (Poinar, 2003).
- This species is a host for the cricket Myrmecophilus manni (a myrmecophile) in Mexico, United States.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- vicinus. Camponotus vicinus Mayr, 1870b: 940 (w.) U.S.A. (Connecticut, Virginia, New Mexico, California).
- [Note: type-locality designated as California by Creighton, 1950a: 381.]
- Emery, 1893i: 671 (s.q.); Wheeler, W.M. 1910d: 302 (m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1968: 220 (l.).
- Combination in C. (Myrmoturba): Forel, 1914a: 268;
- combination in C. (Camponotus): Emery, 1925b: 75;
- combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Creighton, 1950a: 381.
- Subspecies of sylvaticus: Mayr, 1886d: 422; Cresson, 1887: 255.
- Subspecies of maculatus: Emery, 1893i: 671; Emery, 1896d: 371 (in list); Wheeler, W.M. 1904d: 271; Wheeler, W.M. 1906d: 345; Wheeler, W.M. 1910d: 301 (redescription); Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 571; Forel, 1914c: 620; Wheeler, W.M. 1917a: 558; Essig, 1926: 868; Cole, 1936a: 39; Cole, 1937b: 139.
- Subspecies of sansabeanus: Emery, 1920b: 232 (footnote); Emery, 1925b: 75; Menozzi, 1932b: 311; Cole, 1942: 387; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 841.
- Status as species: Forel, 1879a: 60; Dalla Torre, 1893: 257; Forel, 1899c: 131; Creighton, 1950a: 381; Cole, 1954f: 272; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 145; Cole, 1966: 19 (in key); Beck, et al. 1967: 68; Smith, M.R. 1967: 366; Snelling, R.R. 1970: 396; Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1978: 393; Hunt & Snelling, 1975: 22; Yensen, et al. 1977: 184; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1430; Snelling, R.R. & George, 1979: 193; Allred, 1982: 457; Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1986g: 63; Mackay, Lowrie, et al. 1988: 106; Blacker, 1992: 9; Bolton, 1995b: 129; Mackay & Mackay, 2002: 309; Hansen & Klotz, 2005: 99; Ward, 2005: 63.
- Senior synonym of nitidiventris: Creighton, 1950a: 381; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 145; Snelling, R.R. 1970: 396; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1430; Snelling, R.R. & George, 1979: 193; Bolton, 1995b: 114.
- Material of the unavailable names infernalis, luteangulus, plorabilis referred here by Creighton, 1950a: 381; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 145; Snelling, R.R. 1970: 396; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1430; Snelling, R.R. & George, 1979: 193; Bolton, 1995b: 129.
- Material of the unavailable name subrostrata referred here by Creighton, 1950a: 381; Snelling, R.R. 1970: 396; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1430; Snelling, R.R. & George, 1979: 193; Bolton, 1995b: 129.
- Material of the unavailable name berkeleyensis referred here by Snelling, R.R. 1970: 396; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1430; Snelling, R.R. & George, 1979: 193; Bolton, 1995b: 129.
- nitidiventris. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) vicinus var. nitidiventris Wheeler, W.M. 1935g: 40.
- [First available use of Camponotus maculatus subsp. vicinus var. nitidiventris Emery, 1893i: 672 (w.) U.S.A (Louisiana, Colorado); unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
- As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1896d: 371 (in list); Wheeler, W.M. 1904d: 271; Wheeler, W.M. 1906d: 345; Wheeler, W.M. 1910d: 304; Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 571; Wheeler, W.M. 1917a: 559; Emery, 1925b: 75; Essig, 1926: 868; Cole, 1936a: 39; Cole, 1937b: 139; Cole, 1942: 387; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 842.
- Junior synonym of vicinus: Creighton, 1950a: 381; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 145; Snelling, R.R. 1970: 396; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1430; Bolton, 1995b: 114.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Wheeler (1910) – Major Length, 11-13 mm; head, 3.7 x 3.5 mm.; scape, 3.2 mm.; hind tibia, 3.3 mm.
Head, excluding the mandibles, nearly as broad as long, broader behind than in front, with feebly concave posterior and feebly convex lateral borders, convex dorsal and flattened gular surfaces. Mandibles strong, convex, 6-7-toothed. Clypeus carinate, its anterior border moderately produced in the form of a broad flap like lobe with rounded corners and crenate edge. Frontal carinae lyrate. Eyes moderately large, flattened. Antennal scapes distinctly flattened at the base and but slightly widened at their tips, which reach a short distance beyond the posterior corners of the head. Thorax robust in front though narrower than the head; pro- and mesonotum slightly flattened; meso- and metapleural regions compressed; in profile, the dorsum is evenly arched, the epinotum with subequal base and declivity, forming at their juncture a rounded, obtuse angle. Petiole with convex anterior and flattened posterior surface and rather blunt border. Gaster of the usual shape. Legs long; middle and hind tibiae elliptical in cross-section, neither compressed nor grooved.
Mandibles and anterior borders of cheeks shining, the former very coarsely striato-punctate; head, thorax and gaster subopaque; head densely shagreened behind, in front very densely and finely punctate or granular, sides also with numerous smail rounded foveolae; sides of clypeus and inner borders of frontal carinre with a few large piligerous foveolae. Thorax, petiole and legs more finely, gaster more coarsely and transversely shagreened, also with small transverse foveolae bearing the pubescence and large piligerous foveolae across the middle and along the posterior border of each segment.
Hairs and pubescence yellow, the former long, sparse and erect, confined to the mandibles, clypeus, dorsal surface of head, thorax, border of petiole, gula and both dorsal and ventral surfaces of the gaster. Pubescence sparse, especially on the gaster, but very distinct on the posterior portions of the head, thoracic dorsum, scapes, and legs. Middle and hind tibiae with rows of stiff, graduated bristles on their flexor surfaces. There are a few short hairs at the tips of the antennal scapes and at the femoro-tibial articulations.
Head and antennal scapes black; mandibles, clypeus, cheeks and antennal funiculi often tinged with red. Thorax and legs brownish red or chestnut; gaster black, with dull brown posterior segmental margins; base of first segment or the whole of the first and second segments red like the thorax.
Minor Length, 7-8.5 mm.
Head longer than broad, not contracted but rounded behind the eyes, with rather straight, subparallel sides. Clypeus and antennal scapes much like those of the worker major, the scapes reaching nearly half their length beyond the posterior corners of the head. Thorax about as broad as the head, base of the epinotum somewhat longer than the declivity. Petiole subcuneate, with more convex posterior surface and blunter border than in the worker major.
Sculpture, pilosity and color much as in the worker major, but gaster not red at the base.
Wheeler (1910) - Length, 14-16 mm.
Head similar to that of the worker major but proportionally longer and narrower behind, with more nearly parallel sides. Thorax about as broad as the head. Epinotum with short, convex base and much longer, steep and slightly concave declivity. Petiole rather high, thick below, compressed anteroposteriorly above, with sharp border. Wings long (16-17 mm.).
Differs from the worker major in sculpture to the extent of having the thorax, gaster, legs and lower lateral borders of the head shining.
Pilosity, pubescence and color much as in the worker major, but the mesonotum, scutellum and metanotum black and .the pronotum, pleurae, tibiae and femora sometimes infuscated. Gaster frequently red at the base. In some specimens, the whole of the thorax and the legs are very dark brown or black. Wings suffused with brown; veins and stigma light brown.
Wheeler (1910) - Length, 8-11 mm.
Head somewhat longer than broad, with large, convex eyes, broader and rounded postocular region and concave cheeks. Clypeus carinate, with broadly rounded anterior border. Mandibles edentate. Antennal scapes slender, terete, not flattened at the base. Thorax robust; epinotum like that of the female, Petiole very low and thick, its upper border transverse, blunt, sometimes with a broad but shallow excision.
Head, thorax and gaster very finely shagreened, shining.
Pilosity much as in the worker; pubescence shorter and much less conspicuous.
Black; mouthparts, funiculi, genitalia, tarsi and articulations of the legs and wings brownish or reddish. Wings colored like those of the female.
- Alatorre-Bracamontes, C.E., Vásquez-Bolaños, M. 2010. Lista comentada de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del norte de México. Dugesiana 17(1): 9-36.
- Bartz, S.H., Holldobler, B. 1982. Colony founding in Myrmecocystus mimicus Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the evolution of foundress associations. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 10, 137-147 (doi:10.1007/bf00300174).
- Booher, D.B. 2021. The ant genus Strumigenys Smith, 1860 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in western North America north of Mexico. Zootaxa 5061, 201–248 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.5061.2.1).
- Cole, A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. Am. Midl. Nat. 28: 358-388 (page 387, Variety/subspecies of sansabeanus)
- Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104: 1-585 (page 381, Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex), Revived status as species, Material of the unavailable names infernalis, luteangulus, maritimus, nitidiventris, plorabilis and subrostrata referred here)
- Emery, C. 1893k. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der nordamerikanischen Ameisenfauna. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 7: 633-682 (page 671, soldier, queen described, Variety/subspecies of maculatus)
- Emery, C. 1920b. Le genre Camponotus Mayr. Nouvel essai de la subdivision en sous-genres. Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 8: 229-260 (page 232, Variety/subspecies of sansabeanus)
- Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 75, Combination in C. (Camponotus))
- Forel, A. 1914a. Le genre Camponotus Mayr et les genres voisins. Rev. Suisse Zool. 22: 257-276 (page 268, Combination in C. (Myhrmoturba))
- Hoey-Chamberlain, R., Rust, M.K., Klotz, J.H. 2013. A review of the biology, ecology and behavior of Velvety Tree Ants of North America. Sociobiology 60(1): 1-10.
- Hoey-Chamberlain, R.V. 2012. Food preference, survivorship, and intraspecific interactions of Velvety Tree Ants. M.S. thesis, University of California, Riverside.
- Laciny, A. 2021. Among the shapeshifters: parasite-induced morphologies in ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and their relevance within the EcoEvoDevo framework. EvoDevo 12, 2 (doi:10.1186/s13227-021-00173-2).
- Mackay, W. P. and E. Mackay. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY.
- Mayr, G. 1870b. Neue Formiciden. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 20: 939-996 (page 940, worker described)
- Mayr, G. 1886d. Die Formiciden der Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 36: 419-464 (page 422, Variety/subspecies of sylvaticus)
- Oswalt, D.A. 2007. Nesting and foraging characteristics of the black carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ph.D. thesis, Clemson University.
- Poinar, G. 2003. Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp. (Allantonematidae: Nematoda), the first tylenchid parasite of ants, with a review of nematodes described from ants. Systematic Parasitology 56: 69-76 (doi:10.1023/A:1025583303428).
- Siedlecki, I., Gorczak, M., Okrasińska, A., Wrzosek, M. 2021. Chance or necessity—The fungi co−occurring with Formica polyctena ants. Insects 12, 204 (doi:10.3390/insects12030204).
- Snelling, R. R. 1970. Studies on California ants, 5. Revisionary notes on some species of Camponotus, subgenus Tanaemyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 72: 390-397 (page 396, revived status as species, Material of the unavailable name berkeleyensis referred here)
- Wheeler, G. C. and J. Wheeler. 1986. The ants of Nevada. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles.
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1968a. The ant larvae of the subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): supplement. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 61: 205-222 (page 220, larva described)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1910g. The North American ants of the genus Camponotus Mayr. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 20: 295-354 (page 301, male described)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Ab Majid A. H., S. S. Ellias, H. Ahmad, A. H. Ahmad, and H. Dieng. 2016. Tropical household ants species composition and distribution in rapid urbanization area in Penang, Malaysia. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 4(1): 496-500.
- Allred D. M. 1982. Ants of Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist 42: 415-511.
- Allred D. M., and A. C. Cole, Jr. 1971. Ants of the National Reactor Testing Station. Great Basin Naturalist 31: 237-242.
- Allred, D.M. 1982. The ants of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 42:415-511.
- Beck D. E., D. M. Allred, W. J. Despain. 1967. Predaceous-scavenger ants in Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 27: 67-78
- Bestelmeyer B. T., and J. A. Wiens. 2001. Local and regional-scale responses of ant diversity to a semiarid biome transition. Ecography 24: 381-392.
- Blacker, N.C. 1992. Some Ants from Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. J. Entomol. Soc. Bri. Columbia 89:3-12.
- Blacker, N.C. 1992. Some ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 89:3-12
- Borchert, H.F. and N.L. Anderson. 1973. The Ants of the Bearpaw Mountains of Montana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 46(2):200-224
- Chen Y., L. D. Hansen, and J. J. Brown. 2002. Nesting Sites of the Carpenter Ant, Camponotus vicinus (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Northern Idaho. Environ. Entomol. 31(6): 1037-1042.
- Cokendolpher J. C., and O. F. Francke. 1990. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of western Texas. Part II. Subfamilies Ecitoninae, Ponerinae, Pseudomyrmecinae, Dolichoderinae, and Formicinae. Special Publications, the Museum. Texas Tech University 30:1-76.
- Cole A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. American Midland Naturalist 28: 358-388.
- Cole A. C., Jr. 1954. Studies of New Mexico ants. XII. The genera Brachymyrmex, Camponotus, and Prenolepis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 29: 271-272.
- Cole, A.C. 1936. An annotated list of the ants of Idaho (Hymenoptera; Formicidae). Canadian Entomologist 68(2):34-39
- Cover S. P., and R. A. Johnson. 20011. Checklist of Arizona Ants. Downloaded on January 7th at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/AZants-2011%20updatev2.pdf
- Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2944
- Degnan, P.H., A.B. Lazarus, C.D. Brock and J.J. Wernegreen. 2004. Host-Symbiont Stability and Fast Evolutionary Rates in an Ant-Bacterium Association:Cospeciation of Camponotus Species and Their Endosymbionts, Candidatus Blochmannia. Systematic Biology 53(1):95-110
- Des Lauriers J., and D. Ikeda. 2017. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the San Gabriel Mountains of Southern California, USA with an annotated list. In: Reynolds R. E. (Ed.) Desert Studies Symposium. California State University Desert Studies Consortium, 342 pp. Pages 264-277.
- DuBois M. B. 1981. New records of ants in Kansas, III. State Biological Survey of Kansas. Technical Publications 10: 32-44
- Eastlake Chew A. and Chew R. M. 1980. Body size as a determinant of small-scale distributions of ants in evergreen woodland southeastern Arizona. Insectes Sociaux 27: 189-202
- Fernandes, P.R. XXXX. Los hormigas del suelo en Mexico: Diversidad, distribucion e importancia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
- Gregg, R.T. 1963. The Ants of Colorado.
- Higgins J. W., N. S. Cobb, S. Sommer, R. J. Delph, and S. L. Brantley. 2014. Ground-dwelling arthropod responses to succession in a pinyon-juniper woodland. Ecosphere 5(1):5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES13-00270.1
- Hoey-Chamberlain R. V., L. D. Hansen, J. H. Klotz and C. McNeeley. 2010. A survey of the ants of Washington and Surrounding areas in Idaho and Oregon focusing on disturbed sites (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology. 56: 195-207
- Johnson R. Personnal Database. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/resources.htm
- Johnson, R.A. and P.S. Ward. 2002. Biogeography and endemism of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Baja California, Mexico: a first overview. Journal of Biogeography 29:10091026/
- Jusino-Atresino R., and S. A. Phillips, Jr. 1992. New ant records for Taylor Co., Texas. The Southern Naturalist 34(4): 430-433.
- Knowlton G. F. 1970. Ants of Curlew Valley. Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 47(1): 208-212.
- La Rivers I. 1968. A first listing of the ants of Nevada. Biological Society of Nevada, Occasional Papers 17: 1-12.
- Lavigne R., and T. J. Tepedino. 1976. Checklist of the insects in Wyoming. I. Hymenoptera. Agric. Exp. Sta., Univ. Wyoming Res. J. 106: 24-26.
- Longino, J.T. 2010. Personal Communication. Longino Collection Database
- MacKay W. P. 1993. Succession of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on low-level nuclear waste sites in northern New Mexico. Sociobiology 23: 1-11.
- Mackay W. P., and E. E. Mackay. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp.
- Mackay, W., D. Lowrie, A. Fisher, E. Mackay, F. Barnes and D. Lowrie. 1988. The ants of Los Alamos County, New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). pages 79-131 in J.C. Trager, editor, Advances in Myrmecololgy.
- Mallis A. 1941. A list of the ants of California with notes on their habits and distribution. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 40: 61-100.
- Mankowski, M.E. and J.J. Morrell. 2004. Yeasts Associated with the Infrabuccal Pocket and Colonies of the Carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus. Mycologia 96(2):226-231
- Matsuda T., G. Turschak, C. Brehme, C. Rochester, M. Mitrovich, and R. Fisher. 2011. Effects of Large-Scale Wildfires on Ground Foraging Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southern California. Environmental Entomology 40(2): 204-216.
- McClelland L. A. 1978. The Nebraska distribution of the ant genus Camponotus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Master's Thesis, Department of Biology and the faculty of the Graduate of Nebraska at Omaha, 72 pages.
- Michigan State University, The Albert J. Cook Arthropod Research Collection. Accessed on January 7th 2014 at http://www.arc.ent.msu.edu:8080/collection/index.jsp
- MontBlanc E. M., J. C. Chambers, and P. F. Brussard. 2007. Variation in ant populations with elevation, tree cover, and fire in a Pinyon-Juniper-dominated watershed. Western North American Naturalist 67(4): 469491.
- O'Keefe S. T., J. L. Cook, T. Dudek, D. F. Wunneburger, M. D. Guzman, R. N. Coulson, and S. B. Vinson. 2000. The Distribution of Texas Ants. The Southwestern Entomologist 22: 1-92.
- Ostoja S. M., E. W. Schupp, and K. Sivy. 2009. Ant assemblages in intact big sagebrush and converted cheatgrass-dominates habitats in Tooele County, Utah. Western North American Naturalist 69(2): 223234.
- Parson G. L., G Cassis, A. R. Moldenke, J. D. Lattin, N. H. Anderson, J. C. Miller, P. Hammond, T. Schowalter. 1991. Invertebrates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-290. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 168 p.
- Ratchford, J.S., S.E. Wittman, E.S. Jules, A.M. Ellison, N.J. Gotelli and N.J. Sanders. 2005. The effects of fire, local environment and time on ant assemblages in fens and forests. Diversity and Distributions 11:487-497.
- Rees D. M., and A. W. Grundmann. 1940. A preliminary list of the ants of Utah. Bulletin of the University of Utah, 31(5): 1-12.
- Smith F. 1941. A list of the ants of Washington State. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 17(1): 23-28.
- Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
- Wenner A. M. 1959. The ants of Bidwell Park, Chico, California. American Midland Naturalist 62: 174-183
- Wetterer, J. K.; Ward, P. S.; Wetterer, A. L.; Longino, J. T.; Trager, J. C.; Miller, S. E. 2000. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Santa Cruz Island, California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 99:25-31.
- Wetterer, J.K., P.S. Ward, A.L. Wetterer, J.T. Longino, J.C. Trager and S.E. Miller. 2000. Ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Santa Cruz Island, California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 99(1):25-31.
- Wheeler G. C., and J. Wheeler J. 1989. A checklist of the ants of Oklahoma. Prairie Naturalist 21: 203-210.
- Wheeler G. C., and J. Wheeler. 1986. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp.
- Wheeler G. C., and J. Wheeler. 1987. A Checklist of the Ants of South Dakota. Prairie Nat. 19(3): 199-208.
- Wheeler W. M. 1910. The North American ants of the genus Camponotus Mayr. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 20: 295-354.
- Wheeler W. M. 1917. The mountain ants of western North America. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 52: 457-569.
- Wheeler, G.C. and J. Wheeler. 1978. Mountain ants of Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 35(4):379-396
- Wheeler, G.C. and J. Wheeler. 1988. A checklist of the ants of Montana. Psyche 95:101-114
- Wheeler, G.C. and J. Wheeler. 1988. A checklist of the ants of Wyoming. Insecta Mundi 2(3&4):230-239
- Wheeler, William Morton. 1904. Ants from Catalina Island, California in Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 20:269-271.
- Young J., and D. E. Howell. 1964. Ants of Oklahoma. Miscellaneous Publication. Oklahoma Agricultural Experimental Station 71: 1-42.
- Young, J. and D.E. Howell. 1964. Ants of Oklahoma. Miscellaneous Publications of Oklahoma State University MP-71