Dolichoderus bispinosus

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Dolichoderus bispinosus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Tribe: Dolichoderini
Genus: Dolichoderus
Species: D. bispinosus
Binomial name
Dolichoderus bispinosus
(Olivier, 1792)

Dolichoderus bispinosus casent0173833 profile 1.jpg

Dolichoderus bispinosus casent0173833 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

Koch et al. (2018) sampled this species in Caryocar barsiliense trees, in southeastern Brazil cerrado, as part of a study examining species interactions in ant-plants.

Identification

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana (type locality), Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Dejain et al. (2018) found this species nesting in Aechmea bracteata, a large tank bromeliad (leaves ca. 1-m-long; inflorescences up to 1.7-m-long). Each plant forms numerous shoots, with each bearing multiple reservoirs within their leaves and a central dry cavity where ants can nest. Other ants were also found, and both the presence of ants and the ant species present was found to be correlated with changes in the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities within the plants' reservoirs. Dolichoderus bispinosus was found in 43 of the 92 plants sampled. The study was carried out in an inundated forest dominated by 10-m-tall Metopium brownei (Anacardiaceae). This forest was located in southern Quintana Roo, Mexico (18.42678 N; 88.80438 W; 120 meters a.s.l).

MacKay (1993): This is one of the most common and widely distributed species in the genus, occurring especially in disturbed habitats (coffee, cacao plantations) in second growth forest, as well as virgin rain forests, up to 2100 meters. They are commonly found during quarantine on banana debris and on orchids. Dolichoderus bispinosus nests in cavities in trees or in hollow logs on the ground and occasionally in carton termite nests on branches of trees (Swain, 1977), especially those of Nasutitermes ephratae, N. columbicus and N. sp. (pers. obs.). This species also nests in myrmecophytes such as Cordia and Tillandsia. Myrmecophiles include cockroachs and thysanurans (both unidentified - Swain, 1977).

Dolichoderus bispinosus is polygynous (Kempf, 1959; Swain, 1977); several de-alate females and workers are often found within series. It is also polydomous (Swain, 1977). A mature nest contains thousands of workers and sexuals (Swain, 1977). New nests are formed by fission (Swain, 1977). These ants are very aggressive, especially when the nest is disturbed (Mann, 1916; Wheeler, 1936; pers. obser.). Workers produce a strong odor similar to that of Liometopum spp. when they are disturbed. They look and act similar to Liometopum in the field under such circumstances. They often nest together with Crematogaster carinata and with Dolichoderus lamellosus. Worker specimens have been collected almost 50 meters inside the mouth of a cave in Yucatan. Workers have been found in extrafloral nectaries of Bixa orellana (Bentley, 1977) and in the facultative, myrmecophytic orchid, Caularthron bilamellatum (Fisher et al., 1990), as well as several other species of plants (Swain, 1977). This species tends scale insects on Prioria, coccids, membracids and rioninid larvae, and are also effective predators, especially of termites (Swain, 1977). They are preyed upon by ant eaters and armadillos. Swain (1977) presents much more detailed information on this species. Sexuals are commonly collected in light traps. Stray sexuals have been collected in Jan. (Venezuela), Apr. (Surinam), May (Mexico, Panama, Venezuela), June (Costa Rica), July (Mexico, Guiana, Venezuela), Aug. (Trinidad, Peru, Venezuela), Aug.-Sept. (Brasil), Sept.-Oct. (Panama) and Oct. (Ecuador).

Jack Longino: In the field these may be easily confused with some species of Camponotus subgenus Myrmobrachys, which are of similar size, black, and diurnal. However, they are nothing alike in behavior or odor. Myrmobrachys are generally timid and will flee disturbance, and if they have any odor at all it is a weak acid odor. Dolichoderus bispinosus workers are extremely pugnacious, aggressively defending resources and nest areas. Workers will quickly run onto your hand and bite. They have a strong chemical defense that imparts a characteristic odor. This distinctive odor is shared with many other groups in the Dolichoderinae, including Azteca, Tapinoma, Dorymyrmex, and some but not all other species of Dolichoderus. Workers are very fond of carbohydrate resources and will cluster around extrafloral nectaries, aggregations of membracids, and Coccoidea. Some riodinid butterflies with myrmecophilous larvae have a specialized association with D. bispinosus. For example, adult females of Juditha molpe search for aggregations of D. bispinosus as oviposition sites. Larvae can be found on a wide variety of host plants, the common factor being the presence of extrafloral nectaries or other carbohydrate sources at which D. bispinosus have gathered. The butterfly is an ant specialist rather than a plant specialist!

Association with Other Organisms

Other Insects

Fungi

This species is a host for the fungus Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides var. monacidis (a pathogen) (Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017).

Castes

Worker

Queen

Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • bispinosus. Formica bispinosa Olivier, 1792: 502 (w.) FRENCH GUIANA. Roger, 1862a: 236 (q.); Forel, 1908b: 60 (m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1966: 728 (l.). Combination in Hypoclinea: Mayr, 1862: 708; in Monacis: Roger, 1862a: 235; Kempf, 1959b: 240; in Dolichoderus: Emery, 1890a: 69; Dalla Torre, 1893: 158; in D. (Monacis): Emery, 1894c: 228. Senior synonym of arboricola: Emery, 1892b: 167; of fungosa: Latreille, 1802c: 133; of vestita: Emery, 1894c: 232. See also: Kempf, 1959b: 240; Mackay, 1993b: 42; Shattuck, 1994: 44.
  • fungosa. Formica fungosa Fabricius, 1798: 281 (w.) SURINAM. Junior synonym of bispinosus: Latreille, 1802c: 133.
  • vestita. Hypoclinea vestita Mayr, 1862: 707 (q.) ANTILLES. Junior synonym of bispinosus: Emery, 1894c: 232.
  • arboricola. Polyrhachis arboricola Norton, 1868a: 60, fig. 3 (w.) MEXICO (fig. only). [Description by Norton, 1868c: 4.] Junior synonym of bispinosus: Emery, 1892b: 167.

Description

References

  • Araújo, J.P.M., Evans, H.C., Kepler, R., Hughes, D.P. 2018. Zombie-ant fungi across continents: 15 new species and new combinations within Ophiocordyceps. I. Myrmecophilous hirsutelloid species. Studies in Mycology 90: 119–160 (DOI 10.1016/j.simyco.2017.12.002).
  • Cook, J.L. 2019. Annotated catalog of the order Strepsiptera of the world. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 144: 121-267 (doi:10.3157/061.145.0202).
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 158, Combination in Dolichoderus)
  • Dejean, A., A. Compin, M. Leponce, F. Azemar, C. Bonhomme, S. Talaga, L. Pelozuelo, Y. Henaut, and B. Corbara. 2018. Ants impact the composition of the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities of a myrmecophytic tank bromeliad. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 341:200-207. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2018.02.003
  • Dubovikoff, D.A., Cornado-Blanco, J.M. 2017. A review of the ant genus Dolichoderus Lund, 1831 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) of Mexico. Entomological Review 97: 1321-1331.
  • Emery, C. 1890a [1889]. Alcune considerazioni sulla fauna mirmecologica dell'Africa. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 21: 69-75 (page 69, Combination in Dolichoderus)
  • Emery, C. 1892c [1891]. Note sinonimiche sulle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 159-167 (page 167, Senior synonym of arboricola)
  • Emery, C. 1894d. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. VI-XVI. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 26: 137-241 (page 228, Combination in D. (Monacis); page 232, Senior synonym of vestita)
  • Forel, A. 1908c. Fourmis de Costa-Rica récoltées par M. Paul Biolley. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 44: 35-72 (page 60, male described)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1959c. A revision of the Neotropical ant genus Monacis Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. (n.s.) 2: 225-270 (page 240, Combination in Monacis)
  • Koch, E. B. A., W. Dattilo, F. Camarota, and H. L. Vasconcelos. 2018. From species to individuals: does the variation in ant-plant networks scale result in structural and functional changes? Population Ecology. 60:309-318. doi:10.1007/s10144-018-0634-5
  • Koch, E.B.de A., Marques, T.E.D., Mariano, C.S.F., Neto, E.A.S., Arnhold, A., Peronti, A.L.B.G., Delabie, J.H.C. 2020. Diversity and structure preferences for ant-hemipteran mutualisms in cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi - Ciências Naturais 15, 65–81 (doi:10.46357/bcnaturais.v15i1.251).
  • Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des insectes. Tome 3. Familles naturelles des genres. Paris: F. Dufart, xii + 467 pp. (page 133, Senior synonym of fungosa)
  • Mackay, W. P. 1993b. A review of the New World ants of the genus Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 22: 1-148 (page 42, see also)
  • Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 649-776 (page 708, Combination in Hypoclinea)
  • Olivier, A. G. 1792. Encyclopédie méthodique. Histoire naturelle. Insectes. Tome 6. (pt. 2). Paris: Panckoucke, pp. 369-704. (page 502, worker described)
  • Roger, J. 1862a. Einige neue exotische Ameisen-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 6: 233-254 (page 236, queen described; page 235, Combination in Monacis)
  • Shattuck, S. O. 1994. Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 112:i-xix, 1-241. (page 44, see also)
  • Shrestha B, Tanaka E, Hyun MW, Han JG, Kim CS, Jo JW, Han SK, Oh J, Sung JM, Sung GH. 2017. Mycosphere Essay 19. Cordyceps species parasitizing hymenopteran and hemipteran insects. Mycosphere 8(9): 1424–1442 (DOI 10.5943/mycosphere/8/9/8).
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1966. Ant larva of the subfamily Dolichoderinae: supplement. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 59: 726-732 (page 728, larva described)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Achury R., and A.V. Suarez. 2017. Richness and composition of ground-dwelling ants in tropical rainforest and surrounding landscapes in the Colombian Inter-Andean valley. Neotropical Entomology https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-017-0565-4
  • Adams B. J., S. A. Schnitzer, and S. P. Yanoviak. 2016. Trees as islands: canopy ant species richness increases with the size of liana-free trees in a Neotropical forest. Ecography doi: 10.1111/ecog.02608
  • Adams B. J., S. A. Schnitzer, and S. P. Yanoviak. 2019. Connectivity explains local ant community structure in a Neotropical forest canopy: a large-scale experimental approach. Ecology 100(6): e02673.
  • Ahuatzin D. A., E. J. Corro, A. Aguirre Jaimes, J. E. Valenzuela Gonzalez, R. Machado Feitosa, M. Cezar Ribeiro, J. Carlos Lopez Acosta, R. Coates, W. Dattilo. 2019. Forest cover drives leaf litter ant diversity in primary rainforest remnants within human-modified tropical landscapes. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(5): 1091-1107.
  • Alonso L. E., J. Persaud, and A. Williams. 2016. Biodiversity assessment survey of the south Rupununi Savannah, Guyana. BAT Survey Report No.1, 306 pages.
  • Armbrecht I., E. Jimenez, G. Alvarez, P. Ulloa-Chacon, and H. Armbrecht. 2001. An ant mosaic in the Colombian rain forest of Choco (Hymenoptera: formicidae0. Sociobiology 37(3B): 491-509.
  • Basset Y., L. Cizek, P. Cuenoud, R. K. Didham, F. Guilhaumon, O. Missa, V. Novotny, F. Odegaards, T. Roslin, J. Schmidl et al. 2012. Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest. Science 338(6113): 1481-1484.
  • Benitez-Malvido, J., W. Dattilo, A. P. Martinez-Falcon, C. Duran-Barron, J. Valenzuela, S. Lopez, and R. Lombera. 2016. The multiple impacts of tropical forest fragmentation on arthropod biodiversity and on their patterns of interactions with host plants. Plos One 11: e0146461.
  • Boer P. 2019. Ants of Curacao, species list. Accessed on January 22 2019 at http://www.nlmieren.nl/websitepages/SPECIES%20LIST%20CURACAO.html
  • Borgmeier T. 1923. Catalogo systematico e synonymico das formigas do Brasil. 1 parte. Subfam. Dorylinae, Cerapachyinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae. Archivos do Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro) 24: 33-103.
  • Borgmeier T. 1934. Contribuição para o conhecimento da fauna mirmecológica dos cafezais de Paramaribo, Guiana Holandesa (Hym. Formicidae). Archivos do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal (Rio de Janeiro) 1: 93-111.
  • Branstetter M. G. and L. Sáenz. 2012. Las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Guatemala. Pp. 221-268 in: Cano E. B. and J. C. Schuster. (eds.) 2012. Biodiversidad de Guatemala. Volumen 2. Guatemala: Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, iv + 328 pp
  • Bustos H., J. 1994. Contribucion al conocimiento de al fauna de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del occidente del Departamento de Narino (Colombia). Bol. Mus. Ent. Univ. Valle 2(1,2):19-30
  • CSIRO Collection
  • Castano-Meneses, G., M. Vasquez-Bolanos, J. L. Navarrete-Heredia, G. A. Quiroz-Rocha, and I. Alcala-Martinez. 2015. Avances de Formicidae de Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.
  • Costa-Milanez C. B., F. F. Ribeiro, P. T. A. Castro, J. D. Majer, S. P. Ribeiro. 2015. Effct of fire on ant assemblages in Brazilian Cerrado in areas containing Vereda wetlands. Sociobiology 62(4): 494-505.
  • Costa-Milanez C. B., G. Lourenco-Silva, P. T. A. Castro, J. D. Majer, and S. P. Ribeiro. 2014. Are ant assemblages of Brazilian veredas characterised by location or habitat type? Braz. J. Biol. 74(1): 89-99.
  • Crawley W. C. 1916. Ants from British Guiana. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 8(17): 366-378.
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2944
  • Dejean A., A. Compin, J. H. C. Delabie, F. Azemar, B. Corbara, and M. Leponce. 2019. Biotic and abiotic determinants of the formation of ant mosaics in primary Neotropical rainforests. Ecological Entomology https://doi-org.eproxy.lib.hku.hk/10.1111/een.12735
  • Dejean A., B. Corbara, J. Orivel, R. R. Snelling, J. H. C. Delabie, and M. Belin-Depoux. 2000. The importance of ant gardens in the pioneer vegetal formations of French Guiana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 35(3): 425-439.
  • Dejean, A., S. Durou, I. Olmsted, R.R. Snelling and J. Orivel. 2003. Nest Site Selection by Ants in a Flooded Mexican Mangrove, with Special Reference to the Epiphytic Orchid Myrmecophila christinae. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19(3) :325-331
  • Dejean, A., S. Durou, I. Olmsted, R.R. Snelling and J. Orivel. 2003. Nest Site Selection by Ants in a Flooded Mexican Mangrove, with Special Reference to the Epiphytic Orchid Myrmecophila christinae. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19(3):325-331
  • Emery C. 1890. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887 - Avril 1888). Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6)10: 55-76.
  • Emery C. 1894. Estudios sobre las hormigas de Costa Rica. Anales del Museo Nacional de Costa Rica 1888-1889: 45-64.
  • Emery C. 1896. Formiche raccolte dal dott. E. Festa nei pressi del golfo di Darien. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della Reale Università di Torino 11(229): 1-4.
  • Emery C. 1906. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. XXVI. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 37: 107-194.
  • Escalante Gutiérrez J. A. 1993. Especies de hormigas conocidas del Perú (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Peruana de Entomología 34:1-13.
  • Fernandes I., and J. de Souza. 2018. Dataset of long-term monitoring of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the influence areas of a hydroelectric power plant on the Madeira River in the Amazon Basin. Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e24375.
  • Fernández F., E. E. Palacio, W. P. Mackay, and E. S. MacKay. 1996. Introducción al estudio de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Colombia. Pp. 349-412 in: Andrade M. G., G. Amat García, and F. Fernández. (eds.) 1996. Insectos de Colombia. Estudios escogidos. Bogotá: Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 541 pp
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Fisher B. L., L. da Silveira Lobo Sternber, and D. Price. 1990. Variation in the use of orchid extrafloral nectar by ants. Oecologia 83: 263-266.
  • Forel A. 1908. Catálogo systemático da collecção de formigas do Ceará. Boletim do Museu Rocha 1(1): 62-69.
  • Forel A. 1908. Fourmis de Costa-Rica récoltées par M. Paul Biolley. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44: 35-72.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Gibernau M., J. Orivel, J. H. C. Delabie, D. Barabe, and A. Dejean. 2007. An asymmetrical relationship between an arboreal ponerine ant and a trash-basket epiphyte (Araceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 91: 341-346.
  • Gomez V. E. S., and G. Z. González. 2007. Catalogo de Las Hormigas Presentes en El Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad del Cauca. Popayán : 1-58.
  • Goodnight, C. J., and M. L. Goodnight. 1956. Some observations in a tropical rain forest in Chiapas, Mexico. Ecology 37: 139-150.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, F. Fernandez, F. Petitclerc, B. Corbara, M. Leponce, R. Cereghino, and A. Dejean. 2017. Litter-dwelling ants as bioindicators to gauge the sustainability of small arboreal monocultures embedded in the Amazonian rainforest. Ecological Indicators 82: 43-49.
  • Henaut, Y., B. Corbara, L. Pelozuelo, F. Azemar, R. Cereghino, B. Herault, and A. Dejean, 2014. A tank bromeliad favors spider presence in a neotropical inundated forest. Plos One 9: e114592.
  • Hughes, D.P., G. Moya-Raygoza and J. Kathirithamby. 2003. The first record among Dolichoderinae (Formicidae) of parasitism by Strepsiptera. Insectes Sociaux 50:148-150
  • INBio Collection (via Gbif)
  • Jaffe K., P. Horchler, M. Verghaagh, C. Gomez, R. Sievert, R. Jaffe, and W. Morawetz. 2007. Comparing the ant fauna in a tropical and a temperate forest canopy. Ecotropicos 20(2): 74-81.
  • Jaffe, K., et al. 2007. Comparing the ant fauna in a tropical and a temperat forest canopy. Ecotropicos 20(2):74-81
  • Kathirithamby J., S. J. Taylor, J. E. Valenzuela, J. Gomez, and J. F. Barrera. 2007. A light-trapped ant, Dolichoderus bispinosus (Formicidae) with evidence of stylopization by male Caenocholax fenyesi waloffi (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae) from Mexico. Entomological News 118(3): 279-282.
  • Kathirithamby, J. and J. S. Johnston. 2004. The discovery after 94 years of the elusive female of a myrmecolacid (Stresiptera), and the cryptic species of Caenocholax fenyesi Pierce sensu lato. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B) 271:S5-S8.
  • Kempf W. W. 1959. A revision of the Neotropical ant genus Monacis Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomologica (n.s.)2: 225-270.
  • Kempf W. W. 1978. A preliminary zoogeographical analysis of a regional ant fauna in Latin America. 114. Studia Entomologica 20: 43-62.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Kusnezov N. 1978. Hormigas argentinas: clave para su identificación. Miscelánea. Instituto Miguel Lillo 61:1-147 + 28 pl.
  • Levings S. C. 1983. Seasonal, annual, and among-site variation in the ground ant community of a deciduous tropical forest: some causes of patchy species distributions. Ecological Monographs 53(4): 435-455.
  • Longino J. T. 2013. Ants of Nicargua. Consulted on 18 Jan 2013. https://sites.google.com/site/longinollama/reports/ants-of-nicaragua
  • Longino J. T. L., and M. G. Branstetter. 2018. The truncated bell: an enigmatic but pervasive elevational diversity pattern in Middle American ants. Ecography 41: 1-12.
  • Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at https://sites.google.com/site/admacsite/
  • Longino, J.T. 2010. Personal Communication. Longino Collection Database
  • Lopes M. C., G. P. A. Lamarre, C. Baraloto, P. V. A. Fine, A. Vincentini, and F. B. Baccaro. 2019. The Amazonas-trap: a new method for sampling plant-inhabiting arthropod communities in tropical forest understory. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12797
  • Luederwaldt H. 1918. Notas myrmecologicas. Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 29-64.
  • Luna Bello G. O. 2005. Composicion y estructura de la comunidad de hormigas a lo largo de un gradiente de intensificacion agricola en zonas de bosque tropical humedo en la region autonoma Atlantico Sur, Nicaragua. PhD Universidad Centroamericana, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia del Ambiente carrera de Ecologi y Desarrollo. 127 pages
  • Mackay, W.P. 1993. A review of the New World ants of the genus Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 22(1):1-148
  • Maes, J.-M. and W.P. MacKay. 1993. Catalogo de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 23.
  • Menke, S.B. Personal Communication. Field Museum Specimen Data
  • Miranda P. N., F. B. Baccaro, E. F. Morato, M. A. Oliveira. J. H. C. Delabie. 2017. Limited effects of low-intensity forest management on ant assemblages in southwestern Amazonian forests. Biodivers. Conserv. DOI 10.1007/s10531-017-1368-y
  • Mirmecofauna de la reserva ecologica de San Felipe Bacalar
  • Morales-Castaño I. T., and C. A. Medina. 2009. Insectos de la Orinoquia colombiana: evaluación a partir de la Colección Entomológica del Instituto Alexander von Humboldt (IAvH). Biota Colombiana 10 (1-2): 31 -53.
  • Neves F. S., K. S. Queiroz-Dantas, W. D. da Rocha, and J. H. C. Delabie. 2013. Ants of Three Adjacent Habitats of a Transition Region Between the Cerrado and Caatinga Biomes: The Effects of Heterogeneity and Variation in Canopy Cover. Neotrop Entomol 42: 258–268.
  • Ortiz C. M., and F. Fernandez. 2011. Hormigas del genero Dolichoderus Lund (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) en Colombia. Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias. Instituto de Ciencias Naturalies, 118 pages.
  • Philpott, S.M., P. Bichier, R. Rice, and R. Greenberg. 2007. Field testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs. Conservation Biology 21: 975-985.
  • Pires de Prado L., R. M. Feitosa, S. Pinzon Triana, J. A. Munoz Gutierrez, G. X. Rousseau, R. Alves Silva, G. M. Siqueira, C. L. Caldas dos Santos, F. Veras Silva, T. Sanches Ranzani da Silva, A. Casadei-Ferreira, R. Rosa da Silva, and J. Andrade-Silva. 2019. An overview of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the state of Maranhao, Brazil. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 59: e20195938.
  • Radoszkowsky O. 1884. Fourmis de Cayenne Française. Trudy Russkago Entomologicheskago Obshchestva 18: 30-39.
  • Reddell J. R., and J. C. Cokendolpher. 2001. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from caves of Belize, Mexico, and California and Texas (U.S.A.) Texas. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs 5: 129-154.
  • Ribeiro S. P., N. B. Espirito Santo, J. H. C. Delabie, and J. D. Majer. 2013. Competition, resources and the ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mosaic: a comparison of upper and lower canopy. Myrmecological News 18: 113-120.
  • Salinas P. J. 2010. Catalogue of the ants of the Táchira State, Venezuela, with notes on their biodiversity, biogeography and ecology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Amblyioponinae, Ponerinae, Proceratiinae, Myrmicinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Pseudomyrmecinae, Dolichoderinae). Boletín de la SEA 47: 315-328.
  • Santoandre S., J. Filloy, G. A. Zurita, and M. I. Bellocq. 2019. Ant taxonomic and functional diversity show differential response to plantation age in two contrasting biomes. Forest Ecology and Management 437: 304-313.
  • Santschi F. 1916. Formicides sudaméricains nouveaux ou peu connus. Physis (Buenos Aires). 2: 365-399.
  • Shattuck S. O. 1994. Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 112: i-xix, 1-241.
  • Smith M. A., W. Hallwachs, D. H. Janzen. 2014. Diversity and phylogenetic community structure of ants along a Costa Rican elevational gradient. Ecography 37(8): 720-731.
  • Tavares A. A., P. C. Bispo, and A. C. Zanzini. 2008. Effect of Collect Time on Communities of Epigaeic Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Areas of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Cerrado. Neotropical Entomology 37(2): 126-130.
  • Ulloa Chacon P., M. L. Baena, J. Bustos, R. C. Aldana, J. A. Aldana, and M. A. Gamboa. 1996. Fauna de hormigas del departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia). Pp. 413-451. In Andrade-C M. G., G. Amat Garcia, and F. Fernandez. Insectoss de Colombia, estudios escogidos.
  • Vasconcelos, H.L. and J.M.S. Vilhena. 2006. Species turnover and vertical partitioning of ant assemblages in the Brazilian Amazon: A comparison of forests and savannas. Biotropica 38(1):100-106.
  • Vasconcelos, H.L., J.M.S. Vilhena, W.E. Magnusson and A.L.K.M. Albernaz. 2006. Long-term effects of forest fragmentation on Amazonian ant communities. Journal of Biogeography 33:1348-1356
  • Vittar, F. 2008. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la Mesopotamia Argentina. INSUGEO Miscelania 17(2):447-466
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
  • Weber N. A. 1944. The tree ants (Dendromyrmex) of South and Central America. Ecology 25: 117-120.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1905. The ants of the Bahamas, with a list of the known West Indian species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 21: 79-135.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1908. The ants of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 24: 117-158.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1922. The ants of Trinidad. American Museum Novitates 45: 1-16.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1942. Studies of Neotropical ant-plants and their ants. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 90: 1-262.
  • Wild, A. L.. "A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Zootaxa 1622 (2007): 1-55.
  • Yanoviak S. P., S, M. Berghoff, K. E. Linsenmair, and G. Zotz. 2011. Effects of an Epiphytic Orchid on Arboreal Ant Community Structure in Panama. Biotropica 43(6): 731-737.
  • Yanoviak S. P., and M. Kaspari. 2000. Community structure and the habitat templet: ants in the tropical forest canopy and litter. Oikos 89: 259-266.
  • da Silva de Oliveira A. B., and F. A. Schmidt. 2019. Ant assemblages of Brazil nut trees Bertholletia excelsa in forest and pasture habitats in the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(2): 329-344.
  • de Almeida Soares S., Y. R. Suarez, W. D. Fernandes, P. M. Soares Tenorio, J. H. C. Delabie, and W. F. Antonialli-Junior. 2013. Temporal variation in the composition of ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on trees in the Pantanal floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Rev. Bras. entomol. 57: 84-90