Trophobiosis

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online

From Chapter 13 of The Ants :

A great majority of the members of the three phylogenetically most advanced ant subfamilies, the Myrmicinae, Dolichoderinae, and Formicinae, attend homopterans to some extent. To employ one last term from Wasmann, the ants can be said to have entered into trophobiosis with the homopterans. As trophobionts, the homopterans resemble many of the lycaenid symbionts in a basic way: they obtain their own food and pass some of it on to their hosts. However, unlike the lycaenids that secrete substances from specialized exocrine glands, the honeydew provided for ants by homopterans is an excretion derived from a digestive process (see Plate 17).


Camponotus pennsylvanicus workers tending aphids. Video courtesy of Dick Walton / Natural History Services. CC BY-NC-SA 3.0.

When aphids feed on the phloem sap of plants, they pass a complex mixture of nutrients, including sugars, free amino acids, amides, proteins, minerals and vitamins, through their gut and back out through the anus. During this passage the phloem sap changes as some of its components are absorbed and others are converted or added by the aphid (for recent reviews see Ziegler and Penth, 1977; Kunkel and Kloft, 1977; Dixon, 1985; Maurizio, 1985). According to Maurizio, O.2-1.8 percent of the honeydew dry weight is nitrogen and 70-95 percent of the nitrogen are amino acids and amides. The mixture of nitrogen compounds in the honeydew is largely identical to that in the phloem sap. Measurements made on Tuberolachnus salignus by Mittler (1958) show that as much as one-half of the free amino acids are absorbed by the aphid's gut. In a few cases the honeydew contains amino acids which are not present in the phloem sap. Presumably these are metabolic products added by the aphids (Gray, 1952; Ehrhardt, 1962).

By far the largest percentage (90-95 percent) of the honeydew dry weight consists of carbohydrates. Sugars from the phloem sap are partly absorbed or converted, and the diverse mixtures of sugars contained in the honeydew are often species-specific. They usually comprise fructose, glucose, saccharose, trehalose and higher oligosaccharides. Trehalose, which is the blood sugar of insects, composes up to 35 percent of the total sugar amount in the honeydew. Typical honeydew sugars also include the trisaccharides fructo-maltose and melezitose, with the latter making up 40-50 percent of the total sugar. Other sugars detected in honeydew are maltose, raffinose, melibiose, turanose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, and stachyose. In addition the honeydew contains other classes of substances, including organic acids, B-vitamins, and minerals.

When unattended by ants, many aphids dispose of the honeydew droplets by flicking them away with their hind legs or caudae, or by expelling them through contractions of the rectum or entire abdomen. The honeydew then falls upon the vegetation and ground below. Similar substances are excreted by several other groups of sap-feeding Homoptera, including scale insects (Coccidae), mealybugs (Pseudococcidae), jumping plant lice (Chermidae = Psyllidae), tree hoppers (Jassidae, Membracidae), leafhoppers (Cicadellidae), froghoppers or spittle insects (Cercopidae), and members of the “lantern-fly” family (Fulgoridae). Sometimes honeydew accumulates in large enough quantities to be usable by man. The manna “given” to the Israelites in the Old Testament account was almost certainly the excretion of the coccid Trabutina mannipara, which feeds on tamarisk. The Arabs still gather the material, which they call “man.” In Australia, chermid honeydew is collected as food by the aborigines. Referred to as “sugar-lerp,” up to three pounds can be harvested by one person in a single day. It is no surprise, therefore, to find that ants also gather honeydew of all kinds. Many, perhaps most, species collect it from the ground and vegetation where it falls. But many others have developed the capacity to solicit the honeydew directly from the homopterans themselves.

Most aphid species associated with ants insert their stylets into the phloem of the host plant (Kloft, 1953, 1959a, 1960a,b,c; Kunkel, 1967). Although they can suck up limited amounts of liquid, the aphids appear to depend chiefly on the turgor pressure of the phloem, which forces sap up their stylets (Mittler, 1957; Kunkel and Kloft, 1985). To process a large volume of phloem sap and discard the excess as honeydew evidently costs the aphid fewer calories than a more nearly total extraction from smaller quantities of sap. The amounts of honeydew produced by individuals are often prodigious. First instar nymphs of Mittler's Tuberolachnus extracted honeydew at the rate of seven droplets per hour, each droplet containing 0.065 l, and the total output per aphid was 133 percent of the aphid's weight every hour. Other species that have been analyzed are slightly more modest, their hourly output ranging from 1.9 to 13.3 percent of body weight per hour (Auclair, 1963).

Most myrmecophilous homopterans, especially aphids, have special structural and behavioral adaptations for life with ants (Way, 1963; Kunkel, 1973; Kunkel and Kloft, 1985). Aphids frequently associated with ants tend to have poorly developed cornicles, a reduced cauda, and at most a thin coating of wax filaments. However, a few ant-attended species have large cornicles and others are densely covered with wax. In the case of one such species, Prociphilus fraxini, the ants simply remove wax from the bodies of the aphids (Zwölfer, 1958; Kunkel, 1973). And where most pseudococcids are covered with wax, the ants often clean the symbionts bare. Kunkel (1973) notes that myrmecophilous aphids generally have more setae on the dorsal body surface and tibiae. Anal setae in particular are very numerous in myrmecophilous aphids. They form a basket (“trophobiotic organ”) that holds the honeydew droplet until it is imbibed by the ants (Zwölfer, 1958; Kunkel, 1973).

Novgorodova (2015) - Trophobiont insects play an important role in the life of many ants. Their excreta (the honeydew) are rich in carbohydrates and form one of the main trophic resources for the ant colony (Dlussky, 1967; Delabie, 2001); therefore, protection of the trophobionts from various competitors is a fairly important task for ants. This is especially true of the species whose colonies include tens of thousands and more workers and require great amounts of carbohydrate food (Oliver et al., 2008). The efficiency of protection of trophobionts from their natural enemies varies significantly depending on the ant species (Itioka and Inoue, 1999; Gibernau and Dejean, 2001; Katayama and Suzuki, 2003; Novgorodova and Gavrilyuk, 2012). As a result, different representatives of the multi-species ant assemblage differently affect the survival of their symbionts (Addicott, 1978; Bristow, 1984; Buckley and Gullan, 1991).

List of Known Trophobiotic Associations

Acropyga mealybug associations are well documented and are clearly understood to be a mutualism. Most of the listed associations are less definitive. Many of these trophobiotic associations are reported as or presumed to be a mutualism with little evidence. Most are reported from one of two types of observations: an ant species is seen with a partnered species or a species is seen to be collecting liquid food resources from another organism. For these cases, without further study it is probably best to presume these associations are symbiotic relationships. Detailed and direct study of the interactions could show the two species are involved in a mutualism, commensalism or even a predatory relationship.

Ant Relationship Mealybug Locality Source Notes
Acropyga arnoldi mutualist Eumyrmococcus scorpioides Africa Prins, 1982; LaPolla & Spearman, 2007; Schneider & LaPolla, 2020
Acropyga ayanganna mutualist Neochavesia lapollai Williams LaPolla & Schneider, 2023
Acropyga epedana mutualist Rhizoecus colombiensis Williams and LaPolla, 2004
Acropyga exsanguis mutualist Geococcus coffeae LaPolla (2004)
Acropyga exsanguis mutualist Neochavesia sp. LaPolla (2004)
Acropyga exsanguis mutualist Pseudorhizoecus proximus LaPolla (2004)
Acropyga exsanguis mutualist Rhizoecus caladii LaPolla (2004)
Acropyga exsanguis mutualist Rhizoecus coffeae Bünzli, 1935; Roba, 1936; LaPolla, 2004
Acropyga exsanguis mutualist Rhizoecus falcifer LaPolla (2004)
Acropyga glaesaria mutualist Electromyrmoccus abductus Dominican Amber (Miocene)
Acropyga glaesaria mutualist Electromyrmoccus inclusus Dominican Amber (Miocene)
Acropyga glaesaria mutualist Electromyrmoccus reginae Dominican Amber (Miocene)
Acropyga manuense mutualist Neochavesia podexuta LaPolla & Schneider, 2023
Acropyga nipponensis mutualist Eumyrmococcus nipponensis Japan Terayama, 1985, 1986
Acropyga sauteri mutualist Eumyrmococcus smithii Terayama, 1988; LaPolla, 2004
Acropyga silvestrii mutualist Williamsrhizoecus udzungwensis Tanzania Schneider & LaPolla, 2020
Anoplolepis gracilipes mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Anoplolepis gracilipes mutualist Pentalonia nigronervosa Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Aphaenogaster kurdica mutualist Brachycaudus helichrysi Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Brachymyrmex patagonicus mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Lescano et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus acvapimensis mutualist Diaphorina enderleini Cameroon, Ethiopia Aléné et al., 2011
Camponotus aethiops mutualist Aphis brotericola Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus aethiops mutualist Aphis fabae Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus aethiops mutualist Aphis salviae Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus aethiops mutualist Brachcaudus helicrysi Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus aethiops mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Özdemir et al., 2008; Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus aethiops mutualist Lachnus roboris Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus aethiops mutualist Thelaxes suberi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus compressus mutualist Aphis craccivora Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020; Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Rakhshan and Ahmad, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus compressus mutualist Aphis fabae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Aphis fabae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020; Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus compressus mutualist Aphis gossypii Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020; Verghese and Tandon, 1987; Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus compressus mutualist Aphis nerii Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020; Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus compressus mutualist Aphis punicae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Aulacorthum solani Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Eriosoma lanigerum Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Lipaphis erysimi Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Myzus ornatus Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Myzus persicae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020; Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus compressus mutualist Phorodon cannabis Pakistan Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Rakhshan & Ahmad, 2015; Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Rhopalosiphum padi Pakistan Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Rakhshan & Ahmad, 2015; Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Schizaphis graminum Pakistan Verghese & Tandon, 1987; Kataria & Kumar, 2013; Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Sitobion avenae Pakistan Kataria & Kumar, 2013; Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus compressus mutualist Uroleucon carthami Pakistan Kataria & Kumar, 2013; Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Camponotus gestroi mutualist Thelaxes suberis Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Aphis lugentis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Aphis salicariae Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Aphis valerianae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Chaitophorus populicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Chaitophorus populifolii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Cinara apini Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Cinara hottesi Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Cinara pseudotsugae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Cinara splendens Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Cinara vandykei Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Obtusicauda frigidae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Pterocomma populeum Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus herculeanus mutualist Schizaphis graminum Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus invidus mutualist Aphis craccivora Rakhshan and Ahmad, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus japonicus mutualist Chaitophorus saliniger Hembry et al., 2006; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus kurdistanicus mutualist Aphis craccivora Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus kurdistanicus mutualist Thelaxes suberis Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus lateralis mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus libanicus mutualist Aphis craccivora Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus maculatus mutualist Cinara apini Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus modoc mutualist Aphis lugentis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus navigator mutualist Hysteroneura setariae Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus novaeboracensis mutualist Chaitophorus nigrae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus novaeboracensis mutualist Cinara schwarzii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus novaeboracensis mutualist Lachnus solitarius Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus oasium mutualist Aphis craccivora Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus oasium mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus parius mutualist Aphis gossypii Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus pennsylvanicus mutualist Chaitophorus populicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus pennsylvanicus mutualist Cinara coloradensis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus pennsylvanicus mutualist Cinara flexilis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus pennsylvanicus mutualist Cinara strobi Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus piceus mutualist Aphis brotericola Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus piceus mutualist Aphis chloris Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus piceus mutualist Aphis craccivora Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus piceus mutualist Aphis euphorbiae Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus piceus mutualist Aphis fabae Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus piceus mutualist Aphis salviae Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus piceus mutualist Hyadaphis hofmanni Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus piceus mutualist Staegeriella necopinata Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus reticulatus mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus reticulatus mutualist Pentalonia nigronervosa Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus sansabeanus mutualist Thecabius populimonilis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Aphis brohmeri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Aphis fabae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Callipterinella tuberculata Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Chaitophorus albus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Chaitophorus populeti Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Chaitophorus populialbae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Chaitophorus tremulae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Cinara pini Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Cinara pinihabitans Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Glyphina betulae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus saxatilis mutualist Symydobius oblongus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus subbarbatus mutualist Drepanaphis nigricans Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus turkestanicus mutualist Eulachnus tuberculostemmatus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Aphis clerodendri Carver et al., 2003; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Aphis valerianae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Bipersona torticauda Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Chaitophorus populifolii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Chaitophorus viminalis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Cinara edulis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Cinara oregonensis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Cinara ponderosae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Cinara pseudotsugae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Cinara schwarzii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Cinara sibiricae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Lachnus solitarius Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Macrosiphum chrysothamni Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Macrosiphum valerianae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Protaphis middletonii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Camponotus vicinus mutualist Thecabius populimonilis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cardiocondyla emeryi mutualist Pentalonia nigronervosa Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cardiocondyla sahlbergi mutualist Cinara pini Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cardiocondyla wroughtonii mutualist Pentalonia nigronervosa Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis aenescens mutualist Aphis craccivora Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis aenescens mutualist Cinara pini Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis aenescens mutualist Macrosiphum euphorbiae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis aenescens mutualist Pterochloroides persicae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis cinnamomea mutualist Myzus persicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis emeryi mutualist Cinara palaestinesis Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis emeryi mutualist Cinara pini Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis livida mutualist Aphis fabae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis livida mutualist Subcryptosiphon sp. Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist Aphis gossypii Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist Chaitophorus sp. Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist Cinara pini Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist Pterochloroides persicae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster antaris mutualist Aphis craccivora Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster antaris mutualist Aphis farinosa Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster antaris mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster antaris mutualist Chaitophorus truncates Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster antaris mutualist Myzus persicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster auberti mutualist Thelaxes suberis Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster inermis mutualist Acyrthosiphon gossypii Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster inermis mutualist Acyrthosiphon pisum Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster inermis mutualist Aphis craccivora Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster inermis mutualist Aphis gossypii Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster inermis mutualist Aphis pseudocardui Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster inermis mutualist Brachycaudus tragopogonis Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster inermis mutualist Callaphis juglandis Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster inermis mutualist Chaitophorus israeliticus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster laeviuscula mutualist Cinara ponderosae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster lineolata mutualist Aphis coreopsidis Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster lineolata mutualist Aphis fabae Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster lineolata mutualist Aphis gossypii Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster lineolata mutualist Capitophorus elaeagni Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster lineolata mutualist Chaitophorus viminicola Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster lineolata mutualist Cinara edulis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster lineolata mutualist Cinara murrayanae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster lineolata mutualist Cinara schwarzii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster lineolata mutualist Lachnus ater Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster schmidti mutualist Aphis craccivora Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster schmidti mutualist Aphis pseudocardui Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster schmidti mutualist Chaitophorus israeliticus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster schmidti mutualist Thelaxes californica Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster scutellaris mutualist Aphis fabae Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster scutellaris mutualist Aphis pomi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster scutellaris mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster scutellaris mutualist Chaitophorus melanosiphon Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster scutellaris mutualist Pterocomma rufipes Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster sordidula mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Özdemir et al., 2008; Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster sordidula mutualist Thelaxes suberis Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster striatula mutualist Diaphorina enderleini Cameroon, Ethiopia Aléné et al., 2011
Crematogaster subdentata mutualist Aphis craccivora Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster subdentata mutualist Cinara pini Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster subdentata mutualist Periphyllus bulgaricus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster subdentata mutualist Tuberculatus maximus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Crematogaster warburgi mutualist Chaitophorus sp. Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Dorymyrmex pyramicus mutualist Aphis lugentis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Dorymyrmex pyramicus mutualist Periphyllus negundinis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Dorymyrmex tener mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Lescano et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Dorymyrmex wolffhuegeli mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Lescano et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Erromyrma latinodis mutualist Aphis craccivora Rakhshan and Ahmad, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica altipetens mutualist Bipersona torticauda Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Aphis brohmeri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Aphis craccivora Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Aphis evonymi Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Aphis fabae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Aphis jacobaeae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Aphis pomi Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Aphis subnitidae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Aphis viburni Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Callipterinella tuberculata Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Chaitophorus albitorosus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Chaitophorus albus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Chaitophorus populeti Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Chaitophorus populialbae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Chaitophorus salicti Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Cinara boerneri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Cinara laricis Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Cinara piceae Novgorodova, 2005; Gibb and Johansson, 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Cinara piceicola Gibb and Johansson, 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Cinara pinea Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Cinara pini Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Glyphina betulae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Rhopalosiphum padi Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Schizaphis gramina Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Schizaphis pyri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aquilonia mutualist Symydobius oblongus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Anuraphis subterranea Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Aphis aiddletonii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Aphis gossypii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Aphis lugentis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Aphis medicaginis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Aphis sambucifolii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Aphis ulmariae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Bipersona torticauda Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Braggia eriogoni Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Chaitophorus nigrae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Chaitophorus populicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Chaitophorus populifolii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Chaitophorus viminalis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Cinara apini Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Cinara ponderosae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Cryptomyzus ribis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Drepanaphis acerifoliae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Hyperomyzus lactucae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Lachnus glaber Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Macrosiphum euphorbiae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Myzaphis rosarum Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Myzocallis discolor Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Myzus persicae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Periphyllus negundinis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Prociphilus fraxinifolii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Pterocomma smithiae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Uroleucon ambrosiae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Uroleucon erigeronense Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Uroleucon solidaginis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica argentea mutualist Uroleucon taraxaci Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aserva mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aserva mutualist Aphis salicariae Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aserva mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aserva mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica aterrima mutualist Chaitophorus populifolii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica bradleyi mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Aphis lugentis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Aphis medicaginis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Aphis pomi Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Aphis valerianae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Chaitophorus populifolii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Cinara pseudotsugae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Drepanaphis acerifoliae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Drepanosiphum braggii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Tuberolachnus salignus Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica canadensis mutualist Uroleucon ambrosiae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinerea mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinerea mutualist Aphis forbesi Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinerea mutualist Aphis gossypii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinerea mutualist Aphis medicaginis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinerea mutualist Aphis pomi Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinerea mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1978; Breton and Addicott, 1992; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinerea mutualist Aphthargelia symphoricarpi Addicott, 1978; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinerea mutualist Bipersona torticauda Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Aphis craccivora Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Aphis fabae Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Aphis farinosa Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Aphis gossypii Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Aphis nasturtii Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Aphis sambuci Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Aphis serpylli Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Aphis verbasci Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Brachycaudus helichrysi Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Brachycaudus lychnidis Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Brachyunguis tamaricis Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Chaitophorus longisetosus Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Cinara acutirostris Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Cinara maritimae Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Cinara pilicornis Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Cinara pruinosa Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Myzus lythri Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Nearctaphis bakeri Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Periphyllus aceris Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Pterocallis albidus Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Pterocallis alni Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Schizaphis miscanthi Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Schizolachnus pineti Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Sipha maydis Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Symydobius oblongus Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cinereofusca mutualist Toxoptera aurantii Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica coloradensis mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica comata mutualist Cinara apini Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica comata mutualist Cinara schwarzii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica comata mutualist Cinara splendens Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Acyrthosiphon pisum Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Acyrthosiphon rubi Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Aphis acetosae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Aphis brotericola Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Aphis craccivora Özdemir et al., 2008; Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Aphis fabae Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Aphis nasturtii Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Aphis pomi Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Aphis solanella Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Brachycaudus tragopogonis Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Chaitophorus albus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Chaitophorus populeti Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Chaitophorus populialbae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Cinara boerneri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Cinara palaestinesis Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Cinara pini Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Macrosiphoniella pulvera Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Macrosiphum rosae Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica cunicularia mutualist Sipha maydis Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica dakotensis mutualist Chaitophorus populicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica dakotensis mutualist Cinara apini Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica densiventris mutualist Aphis lugentis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica densiventris mutualist Obtusicauda frigidae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica gagates mutualist Aphis farinosa Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica glauca mutualist Aphis craccivora Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica glauca mutualist Aphis fabae Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica glauca mutualist Aphis galliiscabri Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica glauca mutualist Brachycaudus (Appelia) tragopogonis Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica glauca mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica gnava mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica incerta mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica integroides mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica integroides mutualist Aphis farinosa Addicott, 1978; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica integroides mutualist Aphis salicariae Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica integroides mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1978; Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica integroides mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica japonica mutualist Chaitophorus saliniger Hembry et al., 2006; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica japonica mutualist Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum Ando and Ohgushi, 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica lasioides mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica lasioides mutualist Aphis salicariae Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica lasioides mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1978; Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica lasioides mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica lepida mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Addicott, 1979a; Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica lepida mutualist Aphis salicariae Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica lepida mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica lepida mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica limata mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica lugubris mutualist Cinara pini Sudd, 1983; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica montana mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica montana mutualist Aphis oregonensis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica montana mutualist Chaitophorus populicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica montana mutualist Cinara medispinosa Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica montana mutualist Cinara pseudotsugae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica montana mutualist Macrosiphum chrysothamni Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica montana mutualist Pleotrichophorus glandulosus Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica montana mutualist Pseudoepameibaphis tridentatae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica neoclara mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica neogagates mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica neorufibarbis mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Formica neorufibarbis gelida''
Formica neorufibarbis mutualist Aphis salicariae Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Formica neorufibarbis gelida''
Formica neorufibarbis mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Formica neorufibarbis gelida''
Formica neorufibarbis mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica obscuripes mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica obscuripes mutualist Aphis salicariae Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica obscuripes mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1978; Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica obscuripes mutualist Pleotrichophorus utensis Billick et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica obscuripes mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica obscuripes mutualist Uroleucon escalantii Billick et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica obtusopilosa mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Formica munda''
Formica opaciventris mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica opaciventris mutualist Aphis medicaginis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica oreas mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica podzolica mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Mooney et al., 2008; Nielsen et al., 2009; Abdala-Roberts et al., 2012; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica podzolica mutualist Aphis valerianae Petry et al., 2012; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Aphis brohmeri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Aphis craccivora Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Aphis evonymi Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Aphis fabae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Aphis jacobaeae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Aphis pomi Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Aphis subnitidae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Callipterinella tuberculata Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Chaitophorus albitorosus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Chaitophorus albus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Chaitophorus populeti Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Chaitophorus populialbae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Chaitophorus salicti Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Cinara boerneri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Cinara laricis Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Cinara piceae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Cinara pinea Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Cinara pini Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Glyphina betulae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Macrosiphoniella pulvera Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Rhopalosiphum padi Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Schizaphis gramina Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Schizaphis pyri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica polyctena mutualist Symydobius oblongus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica pratensis mutualist Aphis craccivora Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica pratensis mutualist Chaitophorus nassonowi Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica pratensis mutualist Chaitophorus populeti Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica pratensis mutualist Cinara boerneri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica pratensis mutualist Cinara laricis Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica pratensis mutualist Cinara pinea Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica pratensis mutualist Cinara pini Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica pratensis mutualist Symydobius oblongus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica propinqua mutualist Chaitophorus populicola Wimp and Whitham, 2001; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica puberula mutualist Aphis salicariae Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica puberula mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1979a; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica puberula mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica ravida mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rubicunda mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufa mutualist Aphis helianthi Mooney et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufa mutualist Aphis medicaginis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufa mutualist Aphis salicariae Mooney et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufa mutualist Aphis valerianae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufa mutualist Aphis varians Mooney et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufa mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufa mutualist Chaitophorus populifolii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufa mutualist Nearctaphis bakeri Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufa mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufibarbis mutualist Aphis pomi Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufibarbis mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufibarbis mutualist Cinara indica Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufibarbis mutualist Cinara occidentalis Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufibarbis mutualist Dysaphis devecta Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufibarbis mutualist Myzus ornatus Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufibarbis mutualist Myzus padellus Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica rufibarbis mutualist Tuberolachnus salignus Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica sanguinea mutualist Chaitophorus populeti Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica sanguinea mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subaenescens mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subintegra mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subsericea mutualist Aphis coreopsidis Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subsericea mutualist Aulacorthum solani Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subsericea mutualist Cinara atlantica Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subsericea mutualist Cinara pinivora Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subsericea mutualist Hyperomyzus nabali Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subsericea mutualist Neomyzus circumflexum Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subsericea mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica subsericea mutualist Uroleucon pieloui Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica ulkei mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Formica yessensis mutualist Tuberculatus quercicola Yao and Akimoto, 2001; Yao and Akimoto, 2009; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Iridomyrmex anceps mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Iridomyrmex hartmeyeri mutualist Aphis clerodendri Carver et al., 2003; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis fabae Akyildirim et al., 2014; Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis galliiscabri Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis gossypii Akyildirim et al., 2014, Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis idaei Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis maidi-radicis Forbes, 1906; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis molluginis Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis nasturtii Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis pomi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis pseudocardui Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis solanella Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis urticata Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Aphis verbasci Özdemir et al., 2008; Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Brachycaudus (Appelia) tragopogonis Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Capitophorus hippophaes Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Chaitophorus kapuri Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Cinara atlantica Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Cinara palaestinesis Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Cinara pini Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Dysaphis foeniculus Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Dysaphis pyri Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Myzus cerasi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Neobetulaphis pusilla Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Periphyllus bulgaricus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Rhopalosiphum cerasifoliae Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Rhopalosiphum maidis Barton and Ives, 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Sipha maydis Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius alienus mutualist Toxoptera aurantii Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius americanus mutualist Forda marginata Cockerell, 1903; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius americanus mutualist Pemphigus lasii Palmer, 1952; Cockerell, 1903; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Aphis craccivora Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Aphis fabae Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Aphis hillerislambersi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Aphis middletonii Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Aphis nasturtii Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Aphis pomi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Cinara cedri Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Cinara cupressi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Cinara tujafilina Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Dysaphis plantaginea Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Hyalopterus pruni Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Lachnus roboris Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Periphyllus aceris Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Pterocomma populeum Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Schizaphis pyri Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Sitobion fragariae Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Thelaxes suberi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius brunneus mutualist Uroleucon kashmiricum Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius claviger mutualist Forda marginata Cockerell, 1903; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius claviger mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Anoecia corni Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Aphis fabae Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Aphis gossypii Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Aphis impatientis Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Aphis longituba Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Aphis nasturtii Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Brachycaudus schwartzi Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Chaitophorus longisetosus Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Cinara pini Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Myzus cerasi Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Myzus lythri Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Periphyllus aceris Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius emarginatus mutualist Thelaxes californica Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuji mutualist Stomaphis yanonis Endo and Itino, 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Chaitophorus populeti Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Chaitophorus vitellinae Molnar et al., 2000; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Cinara boerneri Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Cinara laricis Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Cinara pinea Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Lachnus tropicalis Zhang et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Pterocomma pilosum Molnar et al., 2000; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Pterocomma rufipes Molnar et al., 2000; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Stomaphis japonica Zhang et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Stomaphis quercus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius fuliginosus mutualist Symydobius oblongus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius grandis mutualist Lachnus roboris Paris and Espadaler, 2009; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius japonicus mutualist Aphis craccivora Suzuki et al., 2004; Katayama et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius japonicus mutualist Chaitophorus saliniger Hembry et al., 2006; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius latipes mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius nearcticus mutualist Lachnus roboris Paris and Espadaler, 2009; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius nearcticus mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius neoniger mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Aphis craccae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Aphis craccivora Novgorodova, 2005; Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Aphis fabae Liepert and Dettner, 1993; Volkl et al., 1999; Offenberg, 2001; Woodring et al., 2004; Fischer et al., 2005; Detrain et al., 2010; Sanders and Frank, 2010; Tegelaar et al., 2012; Tegelaar et al., 2013; Fischer et al., 2015; Tegelaar, 2015; Vantaux et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Aphis gossypii Kaneko, 2003; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Aphis idaei Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Aphis jacobaeae Vrieling et al., 1991; Müller and Godfray, 1999; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Aphis pomi Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Aphis vandergooti Woodring et al., 2004; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Aphis viburni Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Volkl et al., 1999; Müller and Godfray, 1999; Woodring et al., 2004; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Callipterinella tuberculata Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Chaitophorus albus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Chaitophorus populeti Fischer and Shingleton, 2001; Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Chaitophorus populialbae Fischer and Shingleton, 2001; Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Chaitophorus tremulae Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Chromaphis obiensis Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Cinara pini Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Dysaphis plantaginea Nagy et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Lachnus tropicalis Sakata, 1995; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Metopeurum fuscoviride Volkl et al., 1999; Fischer et al., 2002; Woodring et al., 2004; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Myzocallis kuricola Sakata, 1995; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Symydobius oblongus Novgorodova, 2005; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius niger mutualist Trama troglodytes Woodring et al., 2004; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius pallitarsis mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Aphis craccivora Özdemir et al., 2008; Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Aphis fabae Özdemir et al., 2008; Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Aphis galliiscabri Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Aphis gossypii Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Aphis rumicis Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Aphis umbrella Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Chaitophorus longisetosus Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Chaitophorus populeti Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Chaitophorus populialbae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Chaitophorus remaudierei Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Chaitophorus truncates Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Cinara palaestinensis Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Cinara palaestinesis Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Cinara pini Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Hyadaphis foeniculi Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Hyalopterus pruni Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Myzus persicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius paralienus mutualist Pterochloroides persicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius productus mutualist Stomaphis hirukawai Matsuura and Yashiro, 2006; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Acyrthosiphon gossypii Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Acyrthosiphon pisum Akyildirim et al., 2014; Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Anoecia corni Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Aphis brunellae Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Aphis craccivora Özdemir et al., 2008; Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Aphis fabae Akyildirim et al., 2014, Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Aphis farinosa Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Aphis gossypii Akyildirim et al., 2014; Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Aphis pomi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Aphis sambuci Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyildirim et al., 2014, Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Brachycaudus amygdalinus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Akyildirim et al., 2014; Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Brachycaudus helichrysi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Chaitophorus hillerislambersi Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Chaitophorus salicti Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Cinara cupressi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Cinara pilicornis Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Cinara pini Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Cinara tujafilina Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Myzus cerasi Akyildirim et al., 2014, Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Myzus lythri Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Myzus varians Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Neobetulaphis pusilla Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Phleomyzus passerini Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Protaphis terricola Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Pterochloroides persicae Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Pterocomma populeum Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lasius turcicus mutualist Toxoptera aurantii Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota mutualist Aphis nerii Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota mutualist Chaitophorus sp. Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota mutualist Lachnus sp. Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota mutualist Thelaxes suberis Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Aphis craccivora Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Aphis fabae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Aphis nasturtii Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Aphis nerii Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Aphis parietariae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Aphis punicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Aphis umbrella Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Chaitophorus euphraticus Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Chaitophorus truncates Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Hyalopterus pruni Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Myzus persicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Pterochloroides persicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Rhopalosiphum maidis Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota bipartita mutualist Rhopalosiphum padi Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota dolabellae mutualist Acyrthosiphon pisum Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota dolabellae mutualist Brachycaudus tragopogonis Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Aphis craccivora Rakhshan and Ahmad, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Aphis eugeniae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Aphis fabae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Aphis gossypii Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Aphis pomi Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Greenidea (Greenidea) decaspermi Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Greenidea (Greenidea) ficicola Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Greenidea (Trichosiphum) formosana Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Macrosiphoniella sanborni Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Ovatus crataegarius Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Pterochloroides persicae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Tinocallis kahawaluokalani Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota frauenfeldi mutualist Tuberolachnus salignus Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Aphis fabae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Aphis gossypii Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Brachycaudus helichrysi Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Brachycaudus tragopogonis Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Chaitophorus israeliticus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Cinara pini Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Hyalopterus amygdali Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Macrosiphon rosae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Periphyllus bulgaricus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Pterochloroides persicae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lepisiota nigra mutualist Schizaphis nigerrima Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Leptothorax muscorum mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Linepithema humile mutualist Aphis coreopsidis Altfeld and Stiling, 2009; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Linepithema humile mutualist Aphis gossypii Powell and Silverman, 2010; Tena et al., 2013; LeVan and Holway, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Linepithema humile mutualist Aphis nerii Bristow, 1991; Pringle et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Linepithema humile mutualist Aphis spiraecola Tena et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Linepithema humile mutualist Chaitophorus populicola Mondor and Addicott, 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Linepithema humile mutualist Myzus persicae Powell and Silverman, 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Liometopum luctuosum mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Liometopum occidentale mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Lophomyrmex quadrispinosus mutualist Aphis gossypii Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Meranoplus bicolor mutualist Aphis craccivora Rakhshan and Ahmad, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Messor orientalis mutualist Chaitophorus israeliticus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium exiguum mutualist Aphis fabae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Monomorium qarahe''
Monomorium exiguum mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Monomorium qarahe''
Monomorium exiguum mutualist Rhopalosiphum maidis Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Monomorium qarahe''
Monomorium floricola mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium indicum mutualist Aphis fabae Pakistan Rasheed et al., 2020
Monomorium indicum mutualist Aphis gossypii Pakistan Rasheed et al., 2020
Monomorium libanicum mutualist Aphis fabae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium libanicum mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium minimum mutualist Aphis craccivora Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium minimum mutualist Aphis fabae Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium minimum mutualist Aphis gossypii Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium minimum mutualist Aphis nerii Kataria and Kumar, 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium minimum mutualist Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium monomorium mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium nitidiventre mutualist Aphis craccivora Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium pharaonis mutualist Aphis craccivora Rakhshan and Ahmad, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Monomorium sagei mutualist Aphis fabae Pakistan Rasheed et al., 2020
Monomorium sagei mutualist Aphis fabae solanella Pakistan Rasheed et al., 2020
Monomorium sagei mutualist Aphis gossypii Pakistan Rasheed et al., 2020
Monomorium sagei mutualist Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii Pakistan Rasheed et al., 2020
Myrmecina graminicola mutualist Aphis forbesi Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmecina graminicola mutualist Chaitophorus viminalis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica aimonissabaudiae mutualist Aphis fabae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Myrmica aimonissabaudiae mutualist Chaetosiphon (Pentatrichopus) glabrum Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Myrmica aimonissabaudiae mutualist Cinara confinis Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Myrmica aimonissabaudiae mutualist Cinara orientalis Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Aphis farinosa Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Myrmica whymperi''
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Aphis gossypii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Aphis medicaginis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Aphis oenotherae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Myrmica whymperi''
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Aphis pomi Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Aphis populicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Aphis rumicis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Artemisaphis artemisicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Brachycaudus prunicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Chaitophorus macrostachyae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Chaitophorus populicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Chaitophorus viminalis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Myrmica whymperi''
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Cinara oregonensis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Eriosoma crataegi Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Protaphis middletonii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Pterocomma bicolor Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Pterocomma salicis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Rhopalosiphum maidis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Uroleucon ambrosiae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica incompleta mutualist Wahlgreniella nervata Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica punctiventris mutualist Aphis illinoisensis Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica punctiventris mutualist Aphis lugentis Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica punctiventris mutualist Drepanaphis nigricans Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica rubra mutualist Cinara apini Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica ruginodis mutualist Aphis fabae Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica ruginodis mutualist Aphis jacobaeae Müller and Godfray, 1999; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica ruginodis mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Müller and Godfray, 1999; Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica scabrinodis mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica scabrinodis mutualist Aphis forbesi Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica scabrinodis mutualist Brachycaudus helichrysi Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica scabrinodis mutualist Brachycaudus persicae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica scabrinodis mutualist Cinara brevispinosa Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica scabrinodis mutualist Cryptomyzus ribis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmica scabrinodis mutualist Drepanaphis acerifoliae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmicaria aphidicola mutualist Toxoptera odinae Calilung, 2000
Myrmicaria brunnea mutualist Aphis gossypii Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmicaria opaciventris mutualist Diaphorina enderleini Cameroon, Ethiopia Aléné et al., 2011
Notoncus capitatus mutualist Aphis clerodendri Carver et al., 2003; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia bourbonica mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia bourbonica mutualist Pentalonia nigronervosa Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia fulva mutualist Aphis craccivora Sharma et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia fulva mutualist Aphis vernoniae Sharma et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia fulva mutualist Chaitophorus viminicola Sharma et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia fulva mutualist Cinara juniperivora Sharma et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia fulva mutualist Sanbornia juniperi Sharma et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia fulva mutualist Shivaphis celti Sharma et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia parvula mutualist Aphis coreopsidis Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Nylanderia vaga mutualist Aphis clerodendri Carver et al., 2003; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Paratrechina longicornis mutualist Aphis coreopsidis Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Paratrechina longicornis mutualist Aphis craccivora Shiran et al., 2013; Rakhshan and Ahmad, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Paratrechina longicornis mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole bicarinata mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole bicarinata mutualist Thecabius populimonilis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole fervens mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole indica mutualist Aphis craccivora Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Pheidole teneriffana''
Pheidole indica mutualist Aphis umbrella Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Pheidole teneriffana''
Pheidole megacephala mutualist Diaphorina enderleini Cameroon, Ethiopia Aléné et al., 2011
Pheidole pallidula mutualist Aphis davletshinae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole pallidula mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole pallidula mutualist Aphis nerii Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole pallidula mutualist Aphis umbrella Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole pallidula mutualist Cinara palaestinesis Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole pallidula mutualist Myzus persicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole pallidula mutualist Thelaxes suberis Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pheidole pilifera mutualist Pemphigus populiramulorum Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Acyrthosiphon pisum Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Aphis craccivora Özdemir et al., 2008; Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Aphis fabae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Plagiolepis taurica''
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Brachycaudus (Appelia) tragopogonis Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Brachycaudus tragopogonis Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Callaphis juglandis Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Hyalopterus amygdali Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Staegeriella necopinata Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Plagiolepis vindobonensis''
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Tinocallis platani Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pallescens mutualist Toxoptera aurantii Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Plagiolepis taurica''
Plagiolepis pygmaea mutualist Aphis craccivora Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pygmaea mutualist Aphis fabae Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pygmaea mutualist Aphis gerardianae Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pygmaea mutualist Aphis gossypii Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pygmaea mutualist Aphis spiraecola Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Plagiolepis pygmaea mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pogonomyrmex occidentalis mutualist Hyalopterus pruni Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pogonomyrmex occidentalis mutualist Myzus persicae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Polyrhachis hauxwelli mutualist Aphis craccivora Rakhshan and Ahmad, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Polyrhachis lacteipennis mutualist Aphis craccivora Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Polyrhachis lacteipennis mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Polyrhachis lacteipennis mutualist Chaitophorous populialbae Degen et al., 1986; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Polyrhachis simplex''
Polyrhachis lacteipennis mutualist Rhopalosiphum maidis Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Polyrhachis schellerichae mutualist Kermicus wroughtoni Schellerich-Kaaden et al. 1997
Prenolepis imparis mutualist Aphis cornifoliae Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Prenolepis imparis mutualist Aphis fabae Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Prenolepis imparis mutualist Capitophorus elaeagni Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Prenolepis imparis mutualist Nearctaphis bakeri Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Prenolepis imparis mutualist Rhopalosiphum maidis Barton and Ives, 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Prenolepis imparis mutualist Uroleucon sonchellum Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pristomyrmex punctatus mutualist Aphis craccivora Katayama et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Pristomyrmex punctatus mutualist Aphis gossypii Kaneko, 2003; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Pristomyrmex pungens''
Proformica kobachidzei mutualist Lachnus roboris Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Proformica kobachidzei mutualist Myzus cerasi Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Proformica pilosiscapa mutualist Brachycaudus amygdalinus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Solenopsis geminata mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Solenopsis richteri mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Lescano et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma erraticum mutualist Aphis craccivora Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma erraticum mutualist Aphis fabae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma erraticum mutualist Aphis gossypii Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma erraticum mutualist Aphis pomi Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma erraticum mutualist Aphis salicariae Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma erraticum mutualist Brachycaudus amygdalinus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma erraticum mutualist Brachycaudus tragopogonis Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma erraticum mutualist Chaitophorus israeliticus Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma erraticum mutualist Cinara pini Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma indicum mutualist Aphis gossypii Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Aphis eugeniae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Aphis fabae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Aphis fabae solanella Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Aphis gossypii Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020; Idechiil et al., 2007; Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Siddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Aphis pomi Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Greenidea (Greenidea) decaspermi Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Greenidea (Greenidea) ficicola Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Greenidea (Trichosiphum) formosana Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Hysteroneura setariae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020; Idechiil et al., 2007; Siddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Macrosiphoniella sanborni Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Myzus persicae Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020Siddiqui et al., 2019; Zhou et al., 2015
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Ovatus crataegarius Pakistan Siddiqui et al., 2019; Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Pentalonia nigronervosa Pakistan Siddiqui et al., 2019; Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020; Idechiil et al., 2007
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Tinocallis kahawaluokalani Pakistan Siddiqui et al., 2019; Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma melanocephalum mutualist Tuberolachnus salignus Pakistan Siddiqui et al., 2019; Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Aphis asclepiadis Addicott, 1979a; Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Aphis gossypii Powell and Silverman, 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Aphis helianthi Mooney et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Aphis lugentis Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Aphis salicariae Addicott, 1979a; Mooney et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Aphis varians Addicott, 1979a; Mooney et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Bipersona torticauda Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Chaitophorus populicola Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Chaitophorus populifolii Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Chaitophorus viminalis Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Cinara atlantica Favret et al., 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Cinara pineti Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Cinara ponderosae Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Dysaphis sorbi Jones, 1927; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma sessile mutualist Myzus persicae Powell and Silverman, 2010; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis craccivora Stary, 1969; Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis davletshinae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis fabae Stary, 1969; Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis gossypii Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis nasturtii Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis nerii Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis pomi Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis punicae Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis rumicis Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Aphis umbrella Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Brachycaudus helichrysi Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Brachyonguis harmalae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Brachyonguis tamaricophilus Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Capitophorus inulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Cinara cedri Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Colorado absinthiella Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Eulachnus tuberculostommata Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Hyalopterus pruni Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Myzus persicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Nearctaphis bakeri Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Pterochloroides persicae Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Rhopalosiphum maidis Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Rhopalosiphum padi Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tapinoma simrothi mutualist Thelaxes suberis Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Technomyrmex albipes mutualist Aphis clerodendri Carver et al., 2003; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Technomyrmex albipes mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Technomyrmex albipes mutualist Hysteroneura setariae Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Technomyrmex albipes mutualist Pentalonia nigronervosa Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium bicarinatum mutualist Aphis gossypii Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium bicarinatum mutualist Pentalonia nigronervosa Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium caespitum mutualist Aphis fabae Shiran et al., 2013; Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium chefketi mutualist Aphis craccivora Özdemir et al., 2008; Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium chefketi mutualist Aphis rumicis Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist Aphis craccivora Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist Aphis rumicis Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist Brachycaudus cardui Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist Cinara pilicornis Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist Uroleucon sonchi Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium semilaeve mutualist Paracletus cimiciformis Salazar et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium tsushimae mutualist Aphis craccivora Suzuki et al., 2004; Katayama et al., 2013; Hayashi et al., 2015; Hayashi et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium tsushimae mutualist Aphis fabae Hayashi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetraponera allaborans mutualist Chaitophorus sp. Pakistan Gull-E-Fareen et al., 2020 on ''Salix'' sp.
Tetraponera rufonigra mutualist Aphis craccivora Rakhshan and Ahmad, 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex destructor mutualist Aphis craccivora Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex destructor mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex destructor mutualist Aphis nerii Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Monomorium gracillimum''
Trichomyrmex destructor mutualist Chaitophorus euphraticus Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex destructor mutualist Uroleucon dactynotus Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019 as ''Monomorium gracillimum''
Trichomyrmex mayri mutualist Aphis craccivora Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex mayri mutualist Aphis fabae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex mayri mutualist Aphis frangulae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex mayri mutualist Aphis nerii Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex mayri mutualist Aphis polygonata Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex mayri mutualist Chaitophorus euphraticus Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex mayri mutualist Hyalopterus amygdali Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex mayri mutualist Myzus persicae Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Trichomyrmex mayri mutualist Rhopalosiphum maidis Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019

References