Formica subaenescens

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Formica subaenescens
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Formica
Species: F. subaenescens
Binomial name
Formica subaenescens
Emery, 1893

Formica subaenescens casent0102156 profile 1.jpg

Formica subaenescens casent0102156 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


In New Mexico (Mackay and Mackay 2002) this ant nests in soil or under stones and in logs (primarily very rotten and soft). They occasionally have an earthen mound. Brood was found in nests from May to August, reproductives were found in nests from July to September, dealate females were found in August and September. This species nests together with Myrmica lobifrons and with Monomorium minimum and Monomorium cyaneum.

At a Glance • Polygynous  



Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Nearctic Region: Canada, United States (type locality).
Neotropical Region: Mexico.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb


In New Mexico (Mackay and Mackay 2002) - Widely distributed in mesic habitats, including forests and open areas, ponderosa pine-riparian, pinyon juniper, aspen forests, Douglas fir forests, absent only in semiarid and arid habitats and above timberline.


Associations with other Organisms

Other Insects

Host for the slave-making ants:

Host for the temporary parasites:




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • subaenescens. Formica fusca var. subaenescens Emery, 1893i: 659 (w.) U.S.A.
    • [Misspelled as subaeneus by Menozzi, 1932b: 312.]
    • Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 504 (q.m.).
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 504; Emery, 1925b: 248; Menozzi, 1932b: 312.
    • Subspecies of fusca: Wheeler, W.M. 1900c: 47; Forel, 1902i: 699; Forel, 1904a: 153; Wheeler, W.M. 1905f: 401; Wheeler, W.M. 1906b: 20; Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 570; Santschi, 1911d: 7; Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 399 (in key); Wheeler, W.M. 1916m: 599; Wheeler, W.M. 1917a: 546; Cole, 1936a: 37; Dennis, 1938: 300; Wing, 1939: 165; Cole, 1942: 382; Buren, 1944a: 300; Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, E.W. 1944: 261; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 865.
    • Junior synonym of fusca: Creighton, 1950a: 532; Francoeur, 1973: 189; Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1986g: 16.
    • Status as species: Francoeur, 1977b: 208; Bolton, 1995b: 204; Mackay & Mackay, 2002: 371; Ellison, et al. 2012: 173; Schar et al., 2018: 6.



  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 204, raised to species; current status)
  • Buren, W. F. 1944a. A list of Iowa ants. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 18: 277-312 (page 300, subspecies of fusca)
  • Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 1-585 (page 532, junior synonym of fusca)
  • Emery, C. 1893k. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der nordamerikanischen Ameisenfauna. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 7: 633-682 (page 659, worker described)
  • Francoeur, A. 1973. Révision taxonomique des espèces néarctiques du groupe fusca, genre Formica (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Mém. Soc. Entomol. Qué. 3: 1-316 (page 189, junior synonym of fusca)
  • Francoeur, A. 1977b. Synopsis taxonomique et économique des fourmis du Québec (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Qué. 22: 205-212 (page 208, revived from synonymy, and raised to species)
  • Schar, S., Talavera, G., Espadaler, X., Rana, J.D., Andersen, A.A., Cover, S.P., Vila, R. 2018. Do Holarctic ant species exist? Trans-Beringian dispersal and homoplasy in the Formicidae. Journal of Biogeography 2018:1–12 (doi:10.1111/jbi.13380).
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986g. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp. (page 16, junior synonym of fusca)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1913i. A revision of the ants of the genus Formica (Linné) Mayr. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 53: 379-565 (page 504, queen, male described)