Snelling, R.R., 1979
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)
|Based on Ward et al. 2016.|
A monotpypic genus. Colonies of the single known species, Petalomyrmex phylax, are apparently polycalic and are situated within the internodes of the host plant Leonardoxa. The worker ants patrol young leaves of the host and protect them from herbivores. Older leaves are not patrolled but are protected by chemicals within the leaves. Sustenance for the ants is derived largely from specialized food bodies produced by Leonardoxa.
WORKER: Monomorphic: head cordate; antenna nine-segmented, without distinct apical club; ocelli near top of head. FEMALE: Antenna ten-segmented; head cordate, as broad as to broader than long; frontal carinae separated by more than their length; openings of propodeal spiracle and metapleural gland circular, latter with a few long guard hairs. MALE: Antenna ten-segmented; eye large, occupying most of side of head; ocelli normal; frontal carinae obsolete; pygostyles absent; mandible six-toothed.
This monotypic genus appears closely allied to Aphomomyrmex. The strongly cordate head of the worker will separate Petalomyrmex from Aphomomyrmex and related genera. Petalomrymex workers and females differ from those of Aphomomyrmex by the reduced palpal segmentation and the worker caste is monomorphic rather than polymorphic. The strong dorso-ventral flattening of the mesosoma of the Petalomyrmex female and male is unusual and distinctive; it is reminiscent of the bizarre females of the Neotropical subgenus Myrmostenus of Camponotus and of certain species of Myrmelachista. (Snelling 1979)
|See images of species within this genus|
Only known from Cameroon.
Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps
Life History Traits
- Mean colony size: ~100-10000 (Greer et al., 2021)
- Compound colony type: not parasitic (Greer et al., 2021)
- Nest site: arboreal (Greer et al., 2021)
- Diet class: herbivore (Greer et al., 2021)
- Foraging stratum: arboreal (Greer et al., 2021)
• Antennal segment count: 9 • Antennal club: gradual • Palp formula: 3,3 • Spur formula: 0, 0 • Eyes: 11-100 ommatidia • Scrobes: absent • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: absent • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: absent • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: present
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- PETALOMYRMEX [Formicinae: Plagiolepidini]
- Petalomyrmex Snelling, R.R. 1979: 5. Type-species: Petalomyrmex phylax, by original designation.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Monomorphic. Head cordate in frontal view. Apical margin of mandible oblique, with six distinct teeth, basal somewhat offset. Maxillary and labial palpi three-segmented. Median lobe of clypeus broader than long, entire apical margin of clypeus continuously gently convex; basal margin at about midpoint of antenna I sockets, lateral margin confluent with antennal sockets. Antennal scape reaching occipital margin; flagellum eight-segmented, without distinct club, only first and last segments longer than broad. Eye oval, at about middle of side of head; distance between eye and antennal socket much greater than distance between eye and margin of head in frontal view. Ocelli small but distinct, placed little below occipital margin. Occipital lobes distinct.
Mesosoma much as in Aphomomyrmex, but metanotum, in profile, distinctly convex and with spiracle minute, dorsal; opening of metapleural gland with a few long guard hairs.
Legs as in Aphomomyrmex.
Petiole about as in Aphomomyrmex, but spiracle about one-third of distance from base to summit of scale.
Head and body without appressed pubescence but with conspicuous erect hairs of varied length on all areas, including appendages.
Head about as in worker but occipital margin broadly concave so that head is not truly cordate. Mandible eight-toothed. Eye large, lateral, slightly below middle of side of head. Ocelli slightly enlarged, near occipital margin. Flagellum nine-segmented.
Mesosoma conspicuously flattened. Mesonotum flat, broader than long. Scutellum, metanotum and propodeum, in profile, continuously oblique.
Wings as in Aphomomyrmex.
Node of petiole low and thick in profile, with spiracle near summit; from above about twice wider than long; summit, from behind, much wider than base, broadly concave.
Gaster somewhat elongate.
Pilosity as in worker.
Head, across eyes, distinctly wider than long. Eye massive, occupying most of side of head, interocular distance twice eye width in frontal view. Ocelli large, ocellocular distance about twice maximum diameter of anterior ocellus. Mandible four-toothed, preapical tooth often minute. Maxillary palp four-segmented, labial palp three-segmented.
Mesosoma similar to that of female, but proportionately a little broader. Legs slender. Wings as in female.
Petiole about as described for Aphomomyrmex; spiracle near summit of node.
Gaster robust. Pygostyles absent. Subgenital plate deeply excised. Paramere much longer than basal width, apex narrowly rounded. Ventral lobe of aedeagus weakly convex along lower margin, margin irregular but not dentate, basal angle rounded.
Body and appendages with numerous suberect to erect hairs of varied length.
Petalos (Gr., flattened) + myrmex (Gr. Ant).
- Agosti, D. 1991. Revision of the oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 16: 293-310 (page 296, Petalomyrmex in Formicinae, Pseudolasius genus group)
- Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 50, Petalomyrmex in Fomicinae, Brachymyrmecini)
- Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 316, Petalomyrmex in Fomicinae, Brachymyrmecini)
- Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 104, Petalomyrmex in Fomicinae, Plagiolepidini)
- Cantone S. 2018. Winged Ants, The queen. Dichotomous key to genera of winged female ants in the World. The Wings of Ants: morphological and systematic relationships (self-published).
- Harshana, A., Dey, D. 2021. First record of the ant genus Agraulomyrmex Prins, 1983 (Formicidae: Formicinae) from India, with description of a new species, Oriental Insects (doi:10.1080/00305316.2021.2023056).
- Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. (page 18, Petalomyrmex in Formicinae, Myrmelachistini)
- Snelling, R. R. 1979a. Three new species of the Palaeotropical arboreal ant genus Cataulacus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Contr. Sci. (Los Angel.) 315: 1-8 (page 5, Petalomyrmex as genus)
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1985b. A simplified conspectus of the Formicidae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 111: 255-264 (page 258, Petalomyrmex in Fomicinae, Brachymyrmecini)