|Paratrechina (Paraparatrechina) pallida, now Paraparatrechina pallida|
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)
|Based on Ward et al. (2016) and Matos-Maravi et al. (2018).|
Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - Paraparatrechina is restricted to the tropics of Africa, Asia and Australia (LaPolla et al., 2010a). The Afrotropical species can be found in rainforests and forest clearings, in the leaf litter or in rotten logs, and some species presumably live in the vegetation or the canopy (LaPolla et al., 2010b). Paraparatrechina are generalistic feeders and often live in trophobiotic relationships with hemipterans (LaPolla et al., 2010a).
The mesosomal setal pattern of these ants (two pairs of pronotal erect setae; one pair of mesonotal erect setae and one pair of propodeal erect setae) is remarkably uniform across the genus. These are generally small ants (the majority of species are just over 1 mm to just under 2 mm in total length) that, except for a few known species, have a compact mesosoma. In at least three species a more elongated, slender mesosoma is noted: Paraparatrechina pallida and two undescribed Afrotropical species (LaPolla et al., in preparation). In these species the general form of the mesosoma roughly resembles that of Paratrechina longicornis: elongate and slender with a propodeum not angular with a short dorsal face, but instead with a dorsal face that is rounded and broad. In every other diagnostic morphological character, however, the species conform to the morphology given below for Paraparatrechina. (LaPolla et al. 2010)
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Keys including this Genus
Keys to Species in this Genus
Paleotropics of Africa, Asia and Australia
Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps
Two polymorphic species from the Afrotropics, Paraparatrechina weissi and Paraparatrechina bufona, superficially resemble Pseudolasius. A major worker caste is clearly expressed in these species and they possess many morphological features that suggest a hypogaeic lifestyle. Presently, they represent the only known cases of worker polymorphism within Paraparatrechina.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- PARAPARATRECHINA [Formicinae: Plagiolepidini]
- Paraparatrechina Donisthorpe, 1947d: 192 [as subgenus of Paratrechina]. Type-species: Paratrechina (Paraparatrechina) pallida, by monotypy.
- Paraparatrechina junior synonym of Paratrechina: Trager, 1984b: 58.
- Paraparatrechina revived from synonymy and raised to genus: LaPolla, Brady & Shattuck, 2010a: 128.
Mandible with 5 teeth; maxillary palps 6-segmented; labial palps 4-segmented; erect setae on dorsum of head distinctly paired; erect setae on head form a pattern of four setae along posterior margin and six to seven rows of paired setae from posterior margin to clypeal margin; scapes and legs lack erect setae; head (excluding clypeal surface) and mesonotal dorsum covered in dense pubesence. Eyes typically well developed and placed midlength towards midline and laterally on head. Erect mesosomal setae distinctly paired, with two pairs on pronotum, one pair on mesonotum and one pair on propodeum; propodeum typically with short dorsal face compared to longer posterior face; generally overall mesosoma shape compact, although in a few species the mesosoma is elongated. (LaPolla et al. 2010)
- Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 104, Paraparatrechina as junior synonym of Paratrechina)
- Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. (page 183, Paraparatrechina as junior synonym of Paratrechina (provisional_)
- Burger, H.F., Vondráčková, K., Skłodowski, M., Qian-Qun Koid, Dent, D.H., Wallace, K., Fayle, T.M. 2021. Protection from herbivores varies among ant genera for the myrmecophilic plant Leea aculeata in Malaysian Borneo. Asian Myrmecology 14, e014002 (doi:10.20362/am.014002).
- Donisthorpe, H. 1947e. Some new ants from New Guinea. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(14): 183-197 (page 192, Paraparatrechina as subgenus of Paratrechina; Paraparatrechina in Acanthomyropsini)
- LaPolla, J. S., S. G. Brady, and S. O. Shattuck. 2010. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Prenolepis genus-group of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology. 35:118-131.
- Matos-Maraví, P., Clouse, R.M., Sarnat, E.M., Economo, E.P., LaPolla, J.S., Borovanska, M., Rabeling, C., Czekanski-Moir, J., Latumahina, F., Wilson, E.O., Janda, M. 2018. An ant genus-group (Prenolepis) illuminates the biogeography and drivers of insect diversification in the Indo-Pacific. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 123, 16–25 (doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.02.007).
- Trager, J. C. 1984b. A revision of the genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the continental United States. Sociobiology 9: 49-162 (page 58, Paraparatrechina as junior synonym of Paratrechina)