Cataglyphis

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Amor and Ortega (2014) - Species of the genus Cataglyphis are among the most conspicuous and characteristic ants of arid and semiarid zones of the Palearctic, which span from Mauritania to the Gobi Desert. They are relatively easy to find because they preferentially occupy open habitats and their workers are large. Various species have drawn the attention of researchers as a result of their diverse and original reproductive strategies (Pearcy et al. 2004, Amor et al. 2011, Leniaud et al. 2012, Peeters and Aron 2017) and their extraordinary adaptations to hot environments, including landmark navigation and foraging activity regulation (Wehner et al. 2006, Collett and Collet 2009, Wehner 2009, Amor et al. 2011b, Mangan and Webb 2012; see Lenoir et al. 2009 as well as Boulay et al. 2017 for reviews of the genus Cataglyphis).

Identification

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Keys to Subgenera or Species Groups in this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Species Groups

Agosti (1990)[1] identifies nine species groups.

These species groups were revisited using molecular markers by Aron et al. 2016

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Species by Region

Number of species within biogeographic regions, along with the total number of species for each region.

Afrotropical Region Australasian Region Indo-Australian Region Malagasy Region Nearctic Region Neotropical Region Oriental Region Palaearctic Region
Species 38 0 0 0 0 0 6 110
Total Species 2841 1736 3045 932 835 4379 1741 2862

Biology

Villalta et al. (2018) examined the phylogeography of Cataglyphis albicans group species in the western Mediterranean basin. Their analysis of the evolutionary history of this group is well informed by a large number of sampled specimens and produced interesting results about the possible timing and modes of speciation within this group.

Association with Other Organisms

All Associate Records for Genus

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Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Cataglyphis aenescens host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Cataglyphis aenescens host trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum parasite Armenia Arakelian et al., 1997
Cataglyphis aenescens mutualist aphid Aphis craccivora trophobiont Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis aenescens mutualist aphid Cinara pini trophobiont Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis aenescens mutualist aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae trophobiont Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis aenescens mutualist aphid Pterochloroides persicae trophobiont Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis albicans host trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum parasite Armenia Arakelian et al., 1997 as ''Cataglyphis albicans armenia''
Cataglyphis bicolor host ant Cataglyphis hannae inquiline
Cataglyphis bicolor host braconid wasp Kollasmosoma platamonense parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Cataglyphis bicolor host eucharitid wasp Eucharis bedeli parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Cataglyphis bicolor host eucharitid wasp Eucharis bytinskisalzi parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate and primary host
Cataglyphis bicolor host trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Cataglyphis cinnamomea mutualist aphid Myzus persicae trophobiont Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis cursor host fungus Aegeritella roussillonensis pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Cataglyphis emeryi mutualist aphid Cinara palaestinesis trophobiont Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis emeryi mutualist aphid Cinara pini trophobiont Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis hannae inquiline ant Cataglyphis bicolor host
Cataglyphis iberica host braconid wasp Kollasmosoma sentum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Cataglyphis livida mutualist aphid Aphis fabae trophobiont Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis livida mutualist aphid Subcryptosiphon sp. trophobiont Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus host ant Monomorium ellenarium inquiline Azerbaijan Shigayev & Snegovaya, 2022
Cataglyphis nodus host cricket Myrmecophilus balcanicus myrmecophile Macedonia
Cataglyphis nodus host eucharitid wasp Eucharis microcephala parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist aphid Aphis frangulae trophobiont Shiran et al., 2013; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist aphid Aphis gossypii trophobiont Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist aphid Chaitophorus sp. trophobiont Stary, 1969; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist aphid Cinara pini trophobiont Latibari et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis nodus mutualist aphid Pterochloroides persicae trophobiont Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Cataglyphis setipes host ant Cataglyphis zakharovi inquiline
Cataglyphis viatica host dermestid beetle Thorictus buigasi myrmecophile Morocco Hava et al., 2012
Cataglyphis viatica host eucharitid wasp Eucharis bedeli parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Cataglyphis zakharovi inquiline ant Cataglyphis setipes host

Flight Period

All Flight Records for Genus

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Taxon Month Source Notes
Cataglyphis cursor Jul Aug Sep antkeeping.info
Cataglyphis nodus Jun Jul antkeeping.info

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 100's-few 1000's (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: inquilinism (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging behaviour: solitary (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Workers are remarkably polymorphic in body size (e.g. Cataglyphis savignyi), although the extent of this variability is species-specific (e.g. Cerda & Retana 1997).

Ergatoid (permanently wingless) queens as well as brachypterous (short-winged) queens are known in multiple unrelated species (Peeters & Aron 2017). Brachypterous queens (e.g. Cataglyphis cretica, Cataglyphis hispanica, Cataglyphis mauritanica, Cataglyphis piliscapa, Cataglyphis velox) shed their non-functional wings soon after eclosion, and their thorax morphology gives the mistaken impression that they are able to fly. However thorax dissections reveal the lack of wing muscles. In Cataglyphis tartessica, ergatoid queens coexist with brachypterous queens (Amor et al. 2011).

Morphology

Worker Morphology

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• Antennal segment count: 12 • Antennal club: absent • Palp formula: 6,4 • Total dental count: 5-7 • Spur formula: 1 simple, 1 simple • Eyes: >100 ommatidia • Scrobes: absent • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: absent • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: most monomorphic, a few dimorphic, some with marked size-variation • Sting: absent • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: present

Karyotype

All Karyotype Records for Genus

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Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Cataglyphis bicolor 26 Israel; Tunisia Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983
Cataglyphis iberica 26 Spain Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983 as ''C. albicans''
Cataglyphis setipes 52 12M+40A India Imai et al., 1984 at figure subtitle it is mentioned 2n=54 but it may be a mistake since the formula is correct as ''desbribed in the results and the karyotype has ''26 chromosome pairs

Phylogeny

Formicinae
Myrmelachistini
Lasiini
Melophorini
Formicini
Gesomyrmecini

Gesomyrmex  (7 species, 12 fossil species)

Oecophyllini

Oecophylla  (15 species, 16 fossil species)

Plagiolepidini
Gigantiopini

Gigantiops  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Santschiellini

Santschiella  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Myrmoteratini

Myrmoteras  (41 species, 0 fossil species)

Camponotini

See Phylogeny of Formicinae for details.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • CATAGLYPHIS [Formicinae: Formicini]
    • Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850b: 493. Type-species: Cataglyphis fairmairei (junior synonym of Formica bicolor), by monotypy.
    • Cataglyphis senior synonym of Myrmecocystus: Roger, 1863b: 12; Mayr, 1863: 402.
    • Cataglyphis junior synonym of Myrmecocystus: Forel, 1878: 372; Forel, 1886f: 201; Mayr, 1886d: 424; Karavaiev, 1924: 301.
    • Cataglyphis subgenus of Myrmecocystus: Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 144.
    • Cataglyphis revived from synonymy: Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 78; Emery, 1925b: 261.
    • Cataglyphis senior synonym of Monocombus: Mayr, 1861: 44; Agosti, 1990b: 1462.
    • Cataglyphis senior synonym of Machaeromyrma: Baroni Urbani, 1969d: 218; Agosti, 1990b: 1462.
    • Cataglyphis senior synonym of Eomonocombus, Paraformica: Agosti, 1990b: 1462.
  • EOMONOCOMBUS [junior synonym of Cataglyphis]
    • Eomonocombus Arnol'di, 1968: 1815 [as subgenus of Cataglyphis]. Type-species: Myrmecocystus cinnamomeus, by original designation.
    • Eomonocombus junior synonym of Cataglyphis: Agosti, 1990b: 1462; Agosti, 1994a: 103.
  • MACHAEROMYRMA [junior synonym of Cataglyphis]
    • Machaeromyrma Forel, 1916: 441 [as subgenus of Cataglyphis]. Type-species: Formica bombycina, by original designation.
    • Machaeromyrma junior synonym of Cataglyphis: Baroni Urbani, 1969d: 218; Agosti, 1994a: 103.
  • MONOCOMBUS [junior synonym of Cataglyphis]
    • Monocombus Mayr, 1855: 381. Type-species: Formica viatica, by monotypy.
    • Monocombus subgenus of Cataglyphis: Santschi, 1929b: 29.
    • Monocombus junior synonym of Myrmecocystus: Forel, 1878: 372; André, 1882b: 165; Mayr, 1886d: 424; Dalla Torre, 1893: 216.
    • Monocombus junior synonym of Cataglyphis: Mayr, 1861: 44; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 944; Emery, 1925b: 261; Agosti, 1990b: 1462; Agosti, 1994a: 103.
  • PARAFORMICA [junior synonym of Cataglyphis]
    • Paraformica Forel, 1915b: 95 (footnote) [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica (Paraformica) emmae, by monotypy.
    • Paraformica raised to genus: Emery, 1925b: 260.
    • Paraformica subgenus of Proformica: Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1928a: 7.
    • Paraformica subgenus of Cataglyphis: Santschi, 1925g: 353; Santschi, 1929b: 30.
    • Paraformica junior synonym of Cataglyphis: Agosti, 1990b: 1462; Agosti, 1994a: 103.

References