Formica sanguinea

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Formica sanguinea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Formica
Species: F. sanguinea
Binomial name
Formica sanguinea
Latreille, 1798

Formica sanguinea casent0173153 profile 1.jpg

Formica sanguinea casent0173153 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships


Proformica longiseta





Polyergus rufescens



Polyergus samurai





Iberoformica subrufa





Formica cunicularia



Formica gerardi





Formica frontalis



Formica sanguinea







Based on Gomez, Lorite, P. et al. 2018. Note that this study was restricted to species near Formica gerardi.

Formica sanguinea is a slave-maker of many ants from the subgenus Serviformica. It uses two strategies to exploit its Serviformica hosts. The newly mated F. sanguinea queens usurp Serviformica nests and kill the resident Serviformica queens, thereby avoiding the costs of independent nest founding. Formica sanguinea workers from established colonies are also capable of raiding worker pupae from nearby Serviformica nests. This raiding can provide food and new Serviformica workers. After eclosion these slaves behave as regular members of the society, performing normal worker tasks and taking care of the slave-maker brood. Since F. sanguinea is a facultative social parasite, the workers are capable of nursing broods also independently and slaves are not found in all colonies. Queens may also start new colonies by fission. In Russia it is most common in dry pine forests and forest margins where large nests are constructed of plant material or soil (Haapaniemi and Pamilo 2015, Zryanin and Zryanina 2007).


At a Glance • Dulotic  • Polygynous  

 

Photo Gallery

  • Formica sanguinea worker. Photo by Michal Kukla[1].
  • Formica sanguinea' queen with (possibly) phoretic mites. Photo by Michal Kukla.

Identification

Mesosoma and front of head bright red; gaster and ocellar region of head brownish black. Proportion of dark to red varies from north to south with some arctic samples having proponderantly dark heads and dusky red mesosoma contrasting with southern samples which may have whole body excluding gaster bright red. Frontal triangle dull; eyes without hairs. Clypeus with median anterior notch variable in size and shape but always present. Head and mandibles broad relative to alitrunk and gaster. Length: 6.0-9.0 mm (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution

Throughout Eurasia from Portugal to Japan and Iran to Arctic Norway (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Oriental Region: India.
Palaearctic Region: Afghanistan, Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Islands, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (type locality), Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Collingwood (1979) - This is the well known aggressive red slave-making ant raiding nests of any species in its neighbourhood during the summer and removing pupae of the Formica fusca group of species for rearing in the parent nest as auxiliaries and also as food. All Fennoscandian species of the F. fusca group have been found in mixed colonies with F. sanguinea including Formica rufibarbis, Formica cinerea, Formica gagatoides and Formica transkaucasica as well as the more frequent Formica fusca or Formica lemani. F. sanguinea tends to avoid in-fighting but overwhelms other species by abrupt aggressive movements. Nests are situated under stones or in tree stumps with a small accumulation of leaf litter. It is often a dominant species in cleared woodland and in some localities all other Formica species have been eliminated and in such cases only pure F. sanguinea colonies are to be found, usually with a high proportion of small workers to act as nurses. Colonies spread by nest splitting and also by individual queens entering nests of the auxiliary species and appropriating a part of the brood, the host queen or queens being subsequently destroyed. Alatae are developed in July pairing often occurring in the vicinity of the nest.

Haapaniemi and Pamilo (2015) found workers of Formica fusca, Formica lemani, Formica gagatoides and Formica picea in the nests of Formica sanguinea they studied in Finland.

Associations with other Organisms

Ant Hosts

Other Insects

Bacteria

  • This species is a host for the bacterium Wolbachia (Haapaniemi and Pamilo, 2015) (51% infection frequency).
  • This species is a host for the bacterium Spiroplasma (Haapaniemi and Pamilo, 2015) (80% infection frequency).
  • This species is a host for the bacterium Entomoplasma (Haapaniemi and Pamilo, 2015) (~20% infection frequency).

Fungi

  • This taxon is a host for the fungi

Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila (Shrestha et al., 2017) and Aegeritella superficialis (Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012).

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: polygynous (Pamilo & Varvio-Aho, 1979; Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)
  • Queen type: winged (Pamilo & Varvio-Aho, 1979; Frumhoff & Ward, 1992) (queen-right worker reproduction)
  • Queen mating frequency: multiple (pamilo & Varviio-Aho, 1979; Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)
  • Worker-produced males: present (Pamilo and Varvio-Aho, 1979; Pamilo, 1982; Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)

Castes

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • sanguinea. Formica sanguinea Latreille, 1798: 37 (w.) FRANCE. Jurine, 1807: 272 (q.m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1953c: 169 (l.); Imai, 1966: 119 (k.). Combination in F. (Raptiformica): Forel, 1913i: 361. Senior synonym of dominula: Smith, F. 1851: 115; Schenck, 1852: 36; Mayr, 1855: 337; Radchenko, 2007: 37; of arenicola, borea, clarior, fusciceps, griseopubescens, leninei, mollesonae, monticola, rotundata, strennua, tristis: Dlussky, 1965a: 16; of flavorubra: Dlussky, 1967a: 97; Collingwood, 1978: 74. Material of the unavailable name minuta referred here by Dlussky, 1965a: 16. See also: Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 401; Donisthorpe, 1915d: 280; Stitz, 1939: 316; Dlussky, 1967a: 97; Tarbinsky, 1976: 186; Kutter, 1977c: 289; Collingwood, 1979: 137; Kupyanskaya, 1990: 191; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 280.
  • dominula. Formica dominula Nylander, 1846a: 905, pl. 18, fig. 15 (w.q.m.) FINLAND. Junior synonym of sanguinea: Smith, F. 1851: 115; Schenck, 1852: 36; Mayr, 1855: 337; Radchenko, 2007: 37.
  • fusciceps. Formica sanguinea var. fusciceps Emery, 1895c: 335 (footnote) (w.) JAPAN. Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • mollesonae. Formica sanguinea var. mollesonae Ruzsky, 1903c: 206 (w.) RUSSIA. Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • clarior. Formica (Raptiformica) sanguinea var. clarior Ruzsky, 1905b: 420 (w.) CAUCASUS. Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • flavorubra. Formica sanguinea var. flavorubra Forel, 1909c: 105 (w.) SPAIN. Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1967a: 97; Collingwood, 1978: 74.
  • borea. Formica (Raptiformica) sanguinea var. borea Santschi, 1925g: 351 (w.m.) FINLAND. Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • strennua. Formica (Raptiformica) sanguinea var. strennua Santschi, 1925g: 352 (w.) SPAIN. [Unresolved junior primary homonym of strenua Haliday, above.] Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • griseopubescens. Formica sanguinea var. griseopubescens Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926b: 95 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN. Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • monticola. Formica sanguinea subsp. monticola Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926b: 95, figs. 3, 4 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN. [Unresolved junior primary homonym of monticola Buckley, 1866: 157, above.] Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • rotundata. Formica sanguinea var. rotundata Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926b: 95, fig. 2 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN. Raised to species: Dlussky, 1962: 182. Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • clara. Formica (Raptiformica) sanguinea var. clara Karavaiev, 1927d: 345 (w.) UKRAINE. [Junior primary homonym of clara Forel, 1886f: 206.] Replacement name: leninei Santschi, 1928b: 46.
  • arenicola. Formica sanguinea subsp. arenicola Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1928b: 15 (w.) RUSSIA. [Unresolved junior primary homonym of arenicola Buckley, above.] Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • leninei. Formica (Raptiformica) sanguinea var. leninei Santschi, 1928b: 46. Replacement name for clara Karavaiev, 1927d: 345. [Junior primary homonym of clara Forel, 1886f: 206.] Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.
  • tristis. Formica (Raptiformica) sanguinea var. tristis Karavaiev, 1929b: 217 (w.) RUSSIA. [Unresolved junior primary homonym of tristis Christ, above.] Junior synonym of sanguinea: Dlussky, 1965a: 16.

Description

Karyotype

  • n = 26, 2n = 52 (Japan; Switzerland) (Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976).

References

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