Formica lemani

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Formica lemani
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Formica
Species: F. lemani
Binomial name
Formica lemani
Bondroit, 1917

Formica lemani casent0179598 p 1 high.jpg

Formica lemani casent0179598 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms
Common Name
Yama-kuroyama-ari
Language: Japanese

This is an abundant upland species in Europe not distinguished from Formica fusca until Bondroit (1917) and first clearly described by Yarrow (1954). It has similar habits to F. fusca but sometimes occurs in large multi-queened colonies in favourable sites such as stony banks. Colony founding is either by single queens or by nest fission. Alatae fly in July and August (Collingwood, 1979). In Japan this species nests in the soil under stones and near grass roots. Reproductive alates fly after mid August at Mt. Zao, Miyagi Prefecture (Japanese Ant Image Database).

Identification

Greyish to brownish black, legs paler. Short stout hairs present on promesonotum normally numerous but occasionally abraded or few. Underside of mid and hind femora normally with one or more hairs at mid length. Frons coarsely sculptured to that punctures readily seen under ordinary magnification. Length: 4.5-7.0 mm (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution

Mountains of Spain to Japan including Himalayas, Appenines to arctic Fennoscandia (Collingwood 1979).

The records of F. lemani from Korea are considered to be misidentications of Formica fusca by the following characteristics: 1. No more than 6 erect hairs (Radchenko, 2005) on the pronotum of worker. 2. Workers with less than 3 hairs in mid femur. However, according to Dlussky and Pisarski (1971), there are some variable individuals without any setae on the pronotum, which requires close examination (Dong & Kim, 2019).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Finland, France (type locality), Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iberian Peninsula, Italy, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Republic of Korea, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Kvifte and Soule (2017) - Lasius flavus and Formica lemani were found in a plesiobiotic association in a heathland in western Norway. The colonies were found in chambers under rocks, with both larvae and pupae of both species present.

This is the first confirmed case of F. lemani in a plesiobiontic relationship with another ant species, providing further evidence for Collingwood’s (1979) claim that the habits of F. lemani are similar to Formica fusca – the most frequently recorded plesiobiont in the Palearctic region (Kaniszai et al., 2013). Workers of Formica lemani and Lasius flavus differ markedly in size and foraging behaviour. Whereas F. lemani is a free-living and active predacious, aphidicolous and nectarivorous species, L. flavus is mostly subterranean and feeds on smaller arthropods and honeydew from root feeding aphids (Collingwood, 1979; Douwes et al., 2012). The resources exploited by each species thus show little overlap, permitting coexistence without competition. This follows the general pattern outlined for plesiobiontic relationships by Kanizsai et al. (2013). Colony sizes of the two species are listed in the literature as a few hundred to a few thousand for F. lemani and up to 100 000 workers for L. flavus (Douwes et al., 2012).

This species is a host for the temporary parasites Formica exsecta, Formica pressilabris and Formica suecica.

This species is a host for the ant Formica sanguinea (a slave maker).

Flight Period

X X
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: monogynous; polygynous (Collingwood, 1979)
  • Colony founding: claustral independent; facultative dependent (Collingwood, 1979)

Castes

Worker

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • lemani. Formica lemani Bondroit, 1917b: 186 (w.q.) FRANCE. Bondroit, 1920a: 145 (m.). Combination in F. (Serviformica): Emery, 1925b: 247. Subspecies of fusca: Müller, 1923: 139; Santschi, 1925g: 352; Novak & Sadil, 1941: 107. Revived status as species: Yarrow, 1954a: 231. Senior synonym of borealis: Dlussky, 1965a: 35. See also: Bernard, 1967: 295; Dlussky, 1967a: 60; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 150; Kutter, 1977c: 251; Kupyanskaya, 1990: 184; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 261; Seppä, et al. 2011: 31.
  • borealis. Formica fusca subsp. borealis Vashkevich, 1924b: 147 (w.) RUSSIA. Junior synonym of lemani: Dlussky, 1965a: 35.

Description

Karyotype

  • 2n = 54 (Switzerland) (Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976).

References


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

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