Solenopsis fugax

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Solenopsis fugax
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Solenopsidini
Genus: Solenopsis
Species: S. fugax
Binomial name
Solenopsis fugax
(Latreille, 1798)

Solenopsis fugax casent0173147 profile 1.jpg

Solenopsis fugax casent0173147 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Subspecies
Synonyms

The taxonomy of this and related taxa needs to be fully revised (Rigato & Toni, 2011). Pashaei Rad et al. (2018) found this species in Iran in a Caspian moist littoral area.

Identification

Yellow to brownish yellow; sides of head slightly curved. Body and appendages with numerous hairs, head and alitrunk distinctly punctulate but shining. Projecting clypeal teeth short but distinct. Length 1.5-3 mm (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution

Species widespread in Europe; it has been reported also from NW Africa, Anatolia and Central Asia (Rigato & Toni, 2011).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Austria, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (type locality), Georgia (type locality), Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Iran, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Republic of Korea, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Ukraine (type locality), United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Collingwood (1979) - This species lives in populous colonies often deep in the ground or under large stones and is seldom seen above ground. It is often associated with larger Formica and Lasius species predating on their brood, but nests also occur in isolation. It is mainly predatory and carnivorous but has also been recorded attending root aphids. This ant is aggressive and despite its small size will attack other ants and sting fiercely. Queens and males are very large relative to the workers and are found in August and September with flights occurring on warm days in September.

Fungi

This species is a host for the fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum (a pathogen) (Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012).

Castes

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • fugax. Formica fugax Latreille, 1798: 46 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Hauschteck, 1961: 221 (k.); Santschi, 1910e: 649 (gynandromorph). Combination in Diplorhoptrum: Mayr, 1855: 450; Baroni Urbani, 1968a: 63; Kutter, 1977c: 102; Bernard, 1978a: 574; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 539; Collingwood, 1979: 64; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 168; in Solenopsis: Mayr, 1862: 751; Emery, 1909a: 30; Emery, 1922e: 201; Bernard, 1967: 182; Bolton, 1987: 285; Bolton, 1995b: 387. Senior synonym of flavidula: Mayr, 1855: 450; Smith, F. 1855b: 121; of orientalis: Karavaiev, 1910b: 49; Karavaiev, 1934: 122; Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 221; of kasalinensis, pontica: Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 221; of latroides, scythica: Dlussky & Radchenko, 1994: 109; Arakelian, 1994: 50; provisional senior synonym of: avium, balachowskyi, banyulensis, delta, duboscqui, furtiva, insulare, laevithorax, monticola, nicaeensis, pilosum, provincialis, pygmaea, richardi, robusta, rugosa, tertialis: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 492-493. Current subspecies: nominal plus cypridis, emesa, furtiva, karaki, tisiphone. See also: Donisthorpe, 1915d: 102; Boven, 1977: 85; Bolton, 1987: 285; Radchenko, 2007: 33; Galkowski, et al. 2010: 153, 160.
  • flavidula. Myrmica flavidula Nylander, 1849: 43 (w.) RUSSIA. Junior synonym of fugax: Mayr, 1855: 450; Smith, F. 1855b: 121. See also: Radchenko, 2007: 33.
  • latroides. Solenopsis orbula var. latroides Ruzsky, 1905b: 514 (w.) CAUCASUS. Subspecies of latro: Santschi, 1934e: 568. Raised to species: Arnol'di, 1948: 211. Junior synonym of fugax: Arakelian, 1994: 50.
  • kasalinensis. Solenopsis fugax var. kasalinensis Emery, 1909a: 31 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN. [First available use of Solenopsis fugax subsp. orientalis var. kasalinensis Ruzsky, 1905b: 513; unavailable name.] Junior synonym of fugax: Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 221.
  • debilior. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) fugax var. debilior Santschi, 1934e: 583 (w.q.m.) FRANCE (Corsica). Junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990a: 138.
  • furtiva. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) fugax var. furtiva Santschi, 1934e: 584 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 492.
  • pontica. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) fugax var. pontica Santschi, 1934e: 584, fig. 37 (w.q.m.) RUSSIA. Junior synonym of fugax: Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 221.
  • scythica. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) fugax var. scythica Santschi, 1934e: 585 (w.) RUSSIA. Junior synonym of fugax: Arakelian, 1994: 50.
  • banyulensis. Solenopsis emeryi subsp. banyulensis Bernard, 1950a: 10 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Raised to species: Bernard, 1967: 177; Bernard, 1978a: 556. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 492.
  • duboscqui. Solenopsis duboscqui Bernard, 1950a: 10, figs. 2, 9 (w.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • laevithorax. Solenopsis laevithorax Bernard, 1950a: 12, figs. (w.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • monticola. Solenopsis monticola Bernard, 1950a: 13, figs. 2, 4, 11 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • nicaeensis. Solenopsis nicaeensis Bernard, 1950a: 11, figs. 2, 5 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 492.
  • provincialis. Solenopsis provincialis Bernard, 1950a: 12 (w.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • pygmaea. Solenopsis pygmaea Bernard, 1950a: 15 (w.) FRANCE. Bernard, 1978a: 571 (q.m.). [Junior primary homonym of pygmaea Forel, 1901e: 345.] Replacement name: tertialis Ettershank, 1966: 144.
  • richardi. Solenopsis richardi Bernard, 1950a: 15 (w.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • robusta. Solenopsis robusta Bernard, 1950a: 12 (w.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • rugosa. Solenopsis rugosa Bernard, 1950a: 14 (w.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • balachowskyi. Solenopsis balachowskyi Bernard, 1959: 346, fig. 3 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • tertialis. Solenopsis tertialis Ettershank, 1966: 144. Replacement name for pygmaea Bernard, 1950a: 15. [Junior primary homony of pygmaea Forel, 1901e: 345.] Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • avium. Diplorhoptrum avium Bernard, 1978a: 568, fig. 15 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Combination in Solenopsis: Bolton, 1995b: 386. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • delta. Diplorhoptrum delta Bernard, 1978a: 565, figs. 8, 13 (w.m.) FRANCE. Combination in Solenopsis: Bolton, 1995b: 387. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • insulare. Diplorhoptrum insulare Bernard, 1978a: 569 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Combination in Solenopsis: Bolton, 1995b: 388. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • pilosum. Diplorhoptrum pilosum Bernard, 1978a: 562, fig. 1, 15 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Combination in Solenopsis: Bolton, 1995b: 390. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • orientalis. Solenopsis fugax subsp. orientalis Ruzsky, 1905b: 509, figs. 111, 112 (w.q.m.) UKRAINE, GEORGIA, ARMENIA, KHAZAKHSTAN.
    • Subspecies of fugax: Emery, 1909a: 32 (footnote); Ruzsky, 1946: 70; Pisarski, 1967: 400; Tarbinsky, 1976: 80 (redescription); Arnol’di & Dlussky, 1978: 539 (in key); Dlussky, 1981a: 17.
    • Status as species: Collingwood & Heatwole, 2000: 8.
    • Junior synonym of fugax: Karavaiev, 1910b: 49; Emery, 1922e: 202; Karavaiev, 1934: 122; Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 221; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 242; Arakelian, 1994: 50; Dlussky & Radchenko, 1994: 109; Bolton, 1995b: 389; Schultz, R. et al. 2006: 203; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 141; Radchenko, 2016: 180.

Description

Karyotype

  • 2n = 22 (Japan) (Imai, 1969).
  • n = 11, 2n = 22 (Switzerland) (Hauschteck, 1961).

References

  • Arakelian, G. R. 1994. Fauna of the Republic of Armenia. Hymenopterous insects. Ants (Formicidae). Erevan: Gitutium, 153 pp. (page 50, Senior synonym of latroides and scythica)
  • Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. (page 539, Combination in Diplorhoptrum)
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  • Kutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 102, Combination in Diplorhoptrum)
  • Latreille, P. A. 1798. Essai sur l'histoire des fourmis de la France. Brive: F. Bourdeaux, 50 pp. (page 46, worker, queen, male described)
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 450, Combination in Diplorhoptrum, Senior synonym of flavidula)
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