Smith, F., 1874
Polyrhachis lamellidens is perhaps the best known and most studied of all members of the subgenus, probably due to its occurrence in a densely populated country with easy access to colonies (see Hung, 1970: 28–29) (Kohout, 2014). The nesting habits of are different from those of other species of the subgenus with their nests usually found in rotten logs (Yano, 1911) and tree stumps (J. Fellowes, pers. comm.), but also in the ground. Their parasitic lifestyle, in relation to Camponotus japonicus Mayr (as C. herculeanus japonicus) was observed under laboratory conditions by Kohriba (1963). (Kohout, 2014)
|At a Glance||• Temporary parasite|
- 1 Photo Gallery
- 2 Identification
- 3 Distribution
- 4 Biology
- 5 Castes
- 6 Nomenclature
- 7 References
Keys including this Species
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Polyrhachis lamellidens is known from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China, including Hong Kong (Kohout, 2014).
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Hung (1970) - Nests of lamellidens are usually found in rotten logs (Yano, 1911), but occasionally underground (Brown, pers. commun.). Yano (1911) also observed one colony to temporarily occupy a nest of Camponotus herculeanus japonicus in the ground while moving into a new nest in a bamboo fence. Kohriba (1963) put one female into the observation cage with 12 workers of Camponotus herculeanus japonicus after her nuptial flight. She was later accepted and her broods were tended by the host workers. The flight season is from late October to early November although male and female alates were also found in late July (Yano, 191 I). The chromosome numbers are n=21, 2n=42 (Imai, pers. commun.).
Ito et al. (2016) investigated the defensive function of petiole spines in queens and workers of this ant using the ant predating tree frog Hyla japonica. Ant workers have hook-like large spines on their petiole while the queen petiole has only small slightly curved spines. They found that intact workers of P. lamellidens are unpalatable while workers without spines and intact queens are palatable, indicating that the spines of workers provide an effective defense against the tree frogs.
Association with Other Organisms
This species is a host for the Microdon fly Microdon piperi (a predator) in Oregon, Montana, Washington (type) (Knab, 1917).
Polyrhachis lamellidens workers are attacked by spider mites that appear to specialise on ants. These mites show a strong preference to attach to the petiole as the majority of individuals have been observed in this position. The advantage of this placement is unclear, but it is likely the mites are either protected from removal by the ant or are attacking the soft tissue near the joint between the ant’s petiole and gaster.
This species is a host for the fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis var. clavata (a pathogen) (Shrestha et al., 2017).
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- lamellidens. Polyrhachis lamellidens Smith, F. 1874: 403 (w.) JAPAN. Donisthorpe, 1937a: 627 (q.); Koriba, 1963: 200 (l.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1970: 649 (l.); Hung, 1970: 29 (m.).
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Hung (1970) - HW 1.70-2.08 mm, HL 1.88-2.25 mm, C1 84-94, SL 2.15-2.63 mm SI 122-134, PW 1. 10-1.50, mm, MPL 1.80-2.15 mm, MTL 2.65-3.08 mm, PSE1 140-233, PH 1.65-2.13 mm. Clypeus convex, with a sharp central longitudinal carina. No ocellus. Alitrunk margined with prominent ridges which are sharply interrupted at the pronounced promesonotal suture and the metanotal groove. Pronotum about as broad as long, its lateral ridge continued anteriorly on each side into a long spine, which is directed outward and forward and slightly curved downward at its tip. The spine is about as long as the pronotum. Mesonotum broader than long, bearing at the middle of each side a short rapidly tapering spine curved upward, outward and inclined backward. Propodeum about one-seventh longer than broad with ridge along the side extending posteriorly into a short, blunt spine which is about half the length of the propodeum. The ridge also continues down along the side of the declivity. Petiole columnar, anterior face convex, bearing a pair of 'long, somewhat flattened, hook-shaped spines, which diverge laterally and are inclined over the basal segment of the gaster. Gaster spherical with the tergite of the first segment covering almost half of the gaster. Mandibles, clypeus, occiput and legs with sparse, suberect hairs. Pubescence very sparse on the head and gaster, more abuudant on the pleurae and base of the gaster. Head very dusky red and finely shagreened. Alitrunk and petiole dark reddish-brown and punctate-rugulose. Gaster very dusky red and very shiny.
Kohout (2014) - (syntype cited first): TL c. 8.82, 7.31 – 9.07; HL 2.18 (head detached from the body), 1.78 – 2.18; HW 1.96, 1.56 – 1.96; CI 90, 88-90; SL 2.56, 2.09 – 2.65; SI 131, 130 – 136; PW 1.36, 1.03 – 1.36; PeH 1.76, 1.53 – 2.03; PeI 81, 81 – 94; MTL 3.02, 2.81 – 3.21 (1+18 measured).
Kohout (2014) - TL c. 10.08 – 10.63; HL 2.12 – 2.28; HW 1.75 – 1.87; CI 82 – 83; SL 2.31 – 2.40; SI 128 – 132; PW 2.03 – 2.18; PeH 1.18 – 1.31; PeI 53 – 62; MTL 2.87 – 3.12 (4 measured).
Hung (1970) - Black and hairy with yellowish-brown hairs all over the body except the legs. Mandibles with pointed apex, masticatory border unarmed. Mesonotum convex, alitrunk without any spines. Petiolar spines short and tuberculate. Hind wing without discoidal cell. Genitalia with serrated lamina aedeagalis and pegged cuspis volsellaris and digitus volsellaris.
Immature stages described by Koriba (1963: 200) and Wheeler & Wheeler (1970: 649).
- 2n = 42 (Japan) (Imai, 1969).
- Blanchard, B.D., Nakamura, A., Cao, M., Chen, S.T., Moreau, C.S. 2020. Spine and dine: A key defensive trait promotes ecological success in spiny ants. Ecolology and Evolution 00:1–12 (doi:10.1002/ece3.6322).
- Donisthorpe, H. 1937a. Some new forms of Formicidae and a correction. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 10(19): 619-628 (page 627, queen described)
- Hung, A. C. F. 1970. A revision of ants of the subgenus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Orient. Insects 4: 1-36 (page 29, male described)
- Ito, F., Taniguchi, K., Billen, J. 2016. Defensive function of petiole spines in queens and workers of the formicine ant Polyrhachis lamellidens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) against an ant predator, the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica. Asian Myrmecology 8, 1–6 (doi:10.20362/am.008014).
- Kohriba, O. 1963. A parasitic life of Polyrhachis lamellidens F. Smith. First report. Kontyû 31: 200-209. (page 200, larva described)
- Kohout, R.J. 2014. A review of the subgenus Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis) Fr. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) with keys and description of a new species. Asian Myrmecology 6, 1–31.
- Shrestha B, Tanaka E, Hyun MW, Han JG, Kim CS, Jo JW, Han SK, Oh J, Sung JM, Sung GH. 2017. Mycosphere Essay 19. Cordyceps species parasitizing hymenopteran and hemipteran insects. Mycosphere 8(9): 1424–1442 (DOI 10.5943/mycosphere/8/9/8).
- Smith, F. 1874b. Descriptions of new species of Tenthredinidae, Ichneumonidae, Chrysididae, Formicidae, &c. of Japan. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1874: 373-409 (page 403, worker described)
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1970b. Ant larvae of the subfamily Formicinae: second supplement. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63: 648-656 (page 649, larva described)
- Yano, M. 1911a. The genus Polyrhachis of Japan. [In Japanese.] Dobutsugaku Zasshi (Zool. Mag.) 23:249-256.