Aphaenogaster senilis

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Aphaenogaster senilis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Aphaenogaster
Species group: testaceopilosa
Species: A. senilis
Binomial name
Aphaenogaster senilis
Mayr, 1853

Aphaenogaster senilis casent0281534 p 1 high.jpg

Aphaenogaster senilis casent0281534 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


Observed on open, sunny locations: forest edges, lawns, fields with scattered shrubs, urban areas. Nest in soil, mostly sheltered by stones; workers are individual foragers on the ground, in herbs and bases of trees and shrubs. Fast moving after disturbance. Aphaenogaster senilis is an important seed disperser.

At a Glance • Brachypterous Queen  • Limited invasive  


A member of the A. testaceopilosa group. Boer (2013) - Workers and gynes have one funiculus segment more than the other species of the A. testaceopilosa-group, just as in Aphaenogaster gemella. Antennal club of male is 6–8-segmented (indistinct club), instead of a distinct 5-segmented club, again just as in A. gemella. The species resembles A. gemella very much. The main difference in all castes is the absence of propodeal spines or knobs in A. gemella.

Keys including this Species


The original description of this species was based on Sardinian specimens (Mayr 1853). On the island it seems confined to the southernmost provinces, where it is often abundant. However, it is a West-Mediterranean taxon, widespread from the Canary Islands to southern France and especially common in the Iberian Peninsula (Cagniant et al. 1991; Rigato & Toni, 2011).

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 49.18333333° to 28.285033°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Algeria, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, France, Gibraltar, Iberian Peninsula, Italy (type locality), Morocco, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Worker numbers average 1.260 ± 69 (mean ± SE, n=168, range 121-3.906) (Boulay et al. 2007). Nest density was found to be 174 nests ha-1 at a site in southern Spain. Foraging is strictly diurnal and occurs from February to November. Colonies move their nests frequently, occupying open areas in spring and fall and shady sites during the heat of the summer (Barroso et al. 2013)


Aphaenogaster senilis produces new colonies via fission. Monogynous. Sex ratios are highly male biased (172:1, numerically). Workers can have functional ovaries and are likely able to produce males from their eggs, provided these are allowed to develop. Queens are hypothesized to produce pheromones that suppress the production of new sexuals (Boulay et al. 2007).

Microsatellite markers revealed that the single queen mates with only one foreign male (Chéron et al. 2009). Thirty colonies were experimentally orphaned, and workers reared 2.0 ± 1.1 brachypterous gynes from the previous queen’s diploid brood, with 10 groups producing one gyne and 20 groups producing two to five gynes. The firstborn gyne emerged on average 17 days before the second. Behavioural observations showed that gynes interacted aggressively and the firstborn gyne was always dominant. She was usually the only one to survive, even though gynes did not differ in weight (Chéron et al. 2009). Such low colonial investment in gyne production is consistent with colony fission (Cronin et al. 2013).


The contents of the Dufours gland and postpharyngeal gland have been examined for workers and queens (Boulay et al. 2007)


Pekár et al. (2018) - This ant is preyed upon by numerous spider species in the genus Zodarion (Araneae: Zodariidae). All members of this genus are specialized ant predators that exclusively prey on ants.

Association with Other Organisms

Explore-icon.png Explore: Show all Associate data or Search these data. See also a list of all data tables or learn how data is managed.


This species is a host for the fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum (a pathogen) in Portugal (Gonçalves et al., 2012.).


Gynes are brachypterous (Tinaut & Ruano 1992). Males can fly between nests, hence mating occurs in or near the natal nest of gynes.

Dominance interaction between recently emerged queens of Aphaenogaster senilis. Note the short non-functional wings. Photo by Thibaud Monnin.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • senilis. Aphaenogaster senilis Mayr, 1853b: 108 (w.q.) ITALY (Sardinia).
    • [Misspelled as similis by Smith, F. 1858b: 165.]
    • Emery, 1916b: 140 (m.); Boer, 2013: 83 (m.).
    • Junior synonym of testaceopilosa: Nylander, 1856b: 86; Smith, F. 1858b: 165; Roger, 1859: 255; Mayr, 1861: 66 (in key); Roger, 1863b: 29; Mayr, 1863: 397; André, 1874: 204 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Dalla Torre, 1893: 107; Ruzsky, 1905b: 721.
    • Subspecies of testaceopilosa: Emery, 1878b: 53 (footnote); Krausse, 1912b: 163; Emery, 1916b: 131; Santschi, 1919e: 245; Emery, 1921f: 62; Menozzi, 1922b: 326; Emery, 1924c: 164; Santschi, 1925g: 341; Santschi, 1931a: 3; Santschi, 1932c: 70; Ceballos, 1956: 299.
    • Status as species: Mayr, 1855: 466 (redescription); Bondroit, 1918: 161; Santschi, 1933c: 396 (redescription); Grandi, 1935: 99; Cagniant, 1964: 100; Yarrow, 1967: 26; Bernard, 1967: 132 (redescription); Yarrow, 1967: 26; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 44; Baroni Urbani, 1974: 226; Collingwood, 1978: 80 (in key); Bolton, 1995b: 72; Poldi, et al. 1995: 3; Cagniant, 1996a: 76; Espadaler, 1997b: 29; Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 13 (in key); Cagniant, 2006a: 196; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 486; Boer, 2013: 81 (redescription); Borowiec, L. 2014: 18 (see note in bibliography); Lebas, et al. 2016: 248; Gómez, et al. 2018: 221 (in key).
    • Senior synonym of acoreensis: Yarrow, 1967: 26; Bolton, 1995b: 72; Boer, 2013: 81.
    • Senior synonym of fuentei: Collingwood, 1978: 67; Bolton, 1995b: 72; Boer, 2013: 81.
    • Senior synonym of grata: Boer, 2013: 81.
    • Senior synonym of occidua: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 486; Boer, 2013: 81.
    • Current subspecies: nominal plus disjuncta.
  • acoreensis. Aphaenogaster senilis var. acoreensis Santschi, 1933a: 21 (q.) PORTUGAL (Azores Is).
    • [Also described as new by Santschi, 1933c: 397, spelled acorensis.]
    • Junior synonym of senilis: Yarrow, 1967: 26; Bolton, 1995b: 68; Boer, 2013: 81.
  • fuentei. Aphaenogaster testaceopilosa var. fuentei Medina, 1893: 105 (w.) SPAIN.
    • Subspecies of testaceopilosa: Ceballos, 1956: 299.
    • Junior synonym of senilis: Collingwood, 1978: 67; Bolton, 1995b: 69; Boer, 2013: 81.
  • grata. Aphaenogaster senilis var. grata Santschi, 1933c: 397, fig. 34 (m.) SPAIN.
    • Subspecies of senilis: Bolton, 1995b: 70.
    • Junior synonym of senilis: Boer, 2013: 81.
  • occidua. Aphaenogaster senilis var. occidua Santschi, 1933c: 396, fig. 26 (w.m.) FRANCE, SPAIN.
    • Subspecies of senilis: Bolton, 1995b: 71.
    • Junior synonym of senilis: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 486; Boer, 2013: 81.
  • pergandei. Ceratopheidole perganderi Donisthorpe, 1950d: 639 (w.) TURKEY.
    • [Spelling corrected to pergandei by Donisthorpe, 1950e: 1060.]
    • [Junior secondary homonym of pergandei Mayr, 1886d: 448.]
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Brown, 1981: 529.
    • Status as species: Donisthorpe, 1950e: 1060.
    • Replacement name: Aphaenogaster depressa Bolton, 1995b: 69.

Type Material

Holotype: male of A. senilis grata: Spain: Parla (Madrid), 28.v.1927 (Dusmet, Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel). Syntypes: of A. senilis occidua: France: Banyuls (Pyr. Or.), vii.1932, 5 workers, 4 males (Denis, NHMB). Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.


Boer (2013) :


Lateral sides of pronotum and metanotum without or with weak longitudinal rugulae, propodeum with distinct longitidinal rugulae. Rugulose sculpture on dorsal side absent. Head in full-face view with longitudinal rugulae, here and there with some cross-connections. Mesosoma, head in full-face view, dorsal and lateral sides of petioles punctate. Legs of different individuals are showing a transition from punctulation to microreticulation. Ventral to the propodeal spines punctate and sometimes transversely costulate. Dorsal side of postpetiole with longitudinal costulae. Dorsal side of base of gaster with transverse microstriae. Head, pronotum, terminal side of propodeum, beneath the propodeal spines, lateral sides of petioles and dorsal side of the gaster matt. Dorsum postpetiole wax gloss to matt. Lateral sides of gaster satin. Dorsal side of petiole matt to wax gloss. Antennal club 5-segmented. Petiolar node with rounded top. Petiole equal in height as postpetiole or somewhat higher. Spur of hind tibia with minute dentation.

Measurements (n = 33). CI 71–84 (76); CW 1.18–1.46 (1.29) mm; CL 1.50–1.87 (1.71) mm; PHI 31–35 (32); PI 72–93 (81); PPPI: 43–54 (48); PSI 112–167 (135); PSLWI 95–188 (121); PWI 20–43 (24); RPH 121–153 (139); RPSI 11–44 (30); SI 129–149 (141); SL 1.70–1.89 (1.83) mm; SPD 1–3 (1.7); SPL 4–6 (4.9).


Head in full-face view, including occiput, with longitudinal rugulae with cross-connections. Longitudinal rugulae on clypeus, head and anterior side of the postpetiole and lateral sides of the mesosoma. Transverse rugulae on pronotum (partly), propodeum and terminal sides of petioles. Pronotum (partly), mesoscutum and scutellum scabriculous. Punctation on head, mesosoma and petioles (including anterior part of the petiole). About 30 transverse microstriae in the midline of the first gastral tergite near the base. Mesosoma dorsally matt, gaster dorsally matt satin to satin. Antennal club 5-segmented. Wings with a light yellowish tint. Scutellum rises weakly above the mesoscutum and does not bend over themetanotum.

Measurements (n = 3). CI: 83–87; CL: 1.82–1.86 mm; CW: 1.50–1.61 mm; OCI: 29–37 (33); PHI 44–47; PI 64–68; PPPI 78–88; PSI 208–280; PSLWI 104–110; PWI 30–35; RPH 135–157; RPSI 57–67; SI 114; SI/CI: 132–138; SL 1.70–1.84 mm; SPD 1; SPL 4–5.5.


Rugulae are absent on the whole body. Whole body punctate, except the propodeum and gaster. No microstriae on first gastral tergite. Clypeus with transverse rugulae. Head, pronotum and mesonotum matt. Lateral sides of mesosoma (partly) and propodeum shiny. Petioles and dorsal side of gaster glossy to shiny. Lateral sides of gaster shiny. Antennal club 6–8-segmented (indistinct club). Pubescence on hind tibia suberect, their length longer than the diameter of the tibia. Wings clear. Scutellum slightly erect above mesoscutum, partly bent over metanotum. Mandible with one large apical tooth, tooth 2 and or 3 relatively large, rest of the masticatory margin of the mandibles distinctly dentate. A longitudinal groove between the two knobs at the terminal side of the propodeum. These knobs are dorsally flattened, diagonally to the rear. Ventral to the propodeal stigma are the metapleural gland bullae, which are extremely developed into broad discus-like, sharp ending knobs, bowed in the lateral direction, and slightly deflected in the more ventral direction.

Measurements (n = 7). CI 85–91 (89); CL 0.90–1.08 (1.03) mm; CW: 0.81–1.00 (0.91) mm; EYI 37–43 (39); OCI 44–56 (51); SL/CL 32–36 (33); SL 0.29–0.37 (34) mm.


  • n = 16, 2n = 32, karyotype = 6M+6SM+20ST (Spain) (Palomeque et al., 1993a; Palomeque et al., 1993b; Lorite et al., 2000).


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Abril S., C. Gómez. 2012. Lista actualizada de las especies de hormigas de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España) y primera cita de Monomorium andrei Saunders, 1890 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de la isla Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 50: 403-407.
  • Acosta, F. J., M. D. Martínez Ibáñez, and M. A. Morales. "Contribución al conocimiento de la mirmecofauna del encinar peninsular. I." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 6 (2) (1983): 379-391.
  • Alvarez-Blanco P., S. Caut, X. Cerda, and E. Angulo. 2017. Native predators living in invaded areas: responses of terrestrial amphibian species to an Argentine ant invasion. Oecologia 185: 95-106.
  • Andoni V. 1977. Kontribut mbi Himenopteret e familjes Formicidae te vendit tone. Buletini I Shkencave te Natyres 31(2): 93-101.
  • AntArea. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://antarea.fr/fourmi/
  • Antarea (Personal Communication - Rumsais Blatrix- 27 April 2018)
  • Antarea (at www.antarea.fr on June 11th 2017)
  • Arnan, X., A. Rodrigo and J. Retana. 2006. Post-fire recovery of Mediterranean ground ant communities follows vegetation and dryness gradients. Journal of Biogeography 33(7):1246-1258
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2011. List of species collected during the Taxomara Lisboa 2010. Iberomyrmex 3: 32-33.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2011. List of species collected during the Taxomara Lisboa 2011. Iberomyrmex 3: 30-31.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2012. List of species collected during the Taxomara Tres Cantos 2012. Iberomyrmex 4: 17-18.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2015. List of species collected during the Taxomara Lisboa 2015 Iberomyrmex 7: 44-45.
  • Avargues-Weber, A. and T. Monnin. 2009. Dynamics of colony emigration in the ant Aphaenogaster senilis. Insectes Sociaux 56(2):177-183.
  • Baroni Urbani C. 1974. Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. XII. Le Isole Pontine. Fragm. Entomol. 9: 225-252.
  • Barrett K. E. J. 1970. Ants in France, 1968-69. Entomologist 103: 270-274.
  • Bernard F. 1967. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp.
  • Boer P. 2013. Revision of the European ants of the Aphaenogaster testaceopilosa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 156: 57-93.
  • Bondroit, J. "Les fourmis de France et de Belgique." Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 87 (1918): 1-174.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., C. Galkowski, and S. Salata. 2015. What is Tetramorium semilaeve André, 1883? (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 512:39-62.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2017. New records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from southern Portugal. Acta Entomologica Silesiana 25(3): 1-10.
  • Cagniant H. 1996. Les Aphaenogaster du Maroc (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): clé et catalogue des espèces. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (N.S.) 32: 67-85.
  • Cagniant H., X. Espadaler, and P. Colombel. 1991. Biométrie et répartition de quelques populations d'Aphaenogaster (suprasp.) senilis (Hymenopteres Formicidae) du Bassin Méditerranéen Occidental et du Maroc. Vie Milieu 41: 61-71.
  • Cagniant H., and A. Ledoux. 1974. Nouvelle description d'Aphaenogaster senilis sur des exemplaires de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer (P.-O.), France. Vie et Milieu. Série C. Biologie Terrestre 24: 97-110.
  • Cagniant H., and C. Galkowski. 2013. Aphaenogaster koniari n. sp. du Maroc (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux (n.s.) 41: 175-185.
  • Cagniant, H. 2006. Liste actualisée des fourmis du Maroc. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8: 193-200.
  • Cagniant, H. "Contribution à la connaissance des fourmis marocaines. Aphaenogaster sicardi n. sp. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)." Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Section A Zoologie, Biologia et Écologie Animales (4)12 (1990): 443-453.
  • Cagniant, H. "Contribution á la connaissance des fourmis marocaines. Aphaenogaster gemella au Maroc: Nouvelle description d´Aphaenogaster gemella ssp. Marocana Forel (n. status) de la région de Tanger. Problemes biogéographiques soulevés par l'espèce A. gemella (Roger)." Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 125 (1989): 47-54.
  • Cagniant, H. "Liste actualisee des fourmis du Maroc (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8 (2006): 193-200.
  • Cammell, M. E., M. J. Way, and M. R. Paiva. "Diversity and structure of ant communities associated with oak, pine, eucalyptus and arable habitats in Portugal." Insectes Sociaux 43 (1996): 37-46.
  • Carpintero, S., A. Tinaut, A. Herrera Grao, and M. Ferreras Romero. "Estudio faunístico y ecológico de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la cuenca superior del río Hozgarganta (Parque Natural de los Alconocales, Cádiz)." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 24 (3-4) (2000): 124-138.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and C. Galkowski. 2009. Liste actualisee des Fourmis de France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 114: 475-510.
  • Centorame M., F. Moschella, V. Russini, and A. Fanfani. 2018. DNA-barcoding of the Italian members of the Aphaenogaster testaceopilosa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): hybridization and biogeographic hypothesis. Zoologischer Anzeiger 277: 121-130.
  • Cerda X., R. Palacios, and J. Retana. 2009. Ant community structure in Citrus orchards in the Mediterranean basin: impoverishment as a consequence of habitat homogeneity. Environ. Entomol. 38(2): 317-324.
  • Collingwood C., and A. Prince. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5: 1-49.
  • Comín del Río, P., and Andrés de Haro. "Datos iniciales para un estudio ecológico de las hormigas de Menorca." Bolletí de la Societat d´Historia Natural de les Balears 24 (1980): 23-48.
  • Comín del Río, P. "Los Formícidos de Menorca. Contribución al estudio taxonómico, geográfico y biológico." Tesina de licenciatura Universida (1977): 135 pp.
  • Comín del Río, P. Estudio de los formícidos de Baleares: Contribución al estudio taxonómico, geográfìco y biológico. Palma de Mallorca: Universidad de las Islas Baleares, 1988.
  • Cros S., X. Cerda, and J. Retana. 1997. Spatial and temporal variations in the activity patterns of Mediterranean ant communities. Ecoscience 4(3): 269-278.
  • Emery C. 1916. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47: 79-275.
  • Emery, C. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte seconda. Formiche dell'Europa e delle regioni limitrofe in Africa e in Asia." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 12 (1878): 43-59.
  • Emery, C. "Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae." Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana 47 (1916): 79-275.
  • Emery, C. "Formiche di Spagna raccolte dal Prof. Filippo Silvestri." Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura, Portici 17 (1924): 164-171.
  • Espadaler, X., and H. Cagniant. "Leptothorax mirabilis n. sp., an enigmatic species from Morocco (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 121 (4) (1996): 331-337.
  • Gasperini, R. "Notizia sulla fauna imenotterologadalmata, II, Formicidae-Mutillidae-Scoliadae-Sapygidae-Pompilidae-Sphegidae-Chrysididae." Anuario Dalmatico 4 (1887): 143-160.
  • Gasperini, R. "Notizia sulla fauna imenotterologadalmata, III, Supplemento agli Hymenoptera aculeata Gerst." Anuario Dalmatico 5 (1889): 57-71.
  • Gomez C., D. Casellas, J. Oliveras, and J. M. Bas. 2003. Structure of ground-foraging ant assemblages in relation to land-use change in the northwestern Mediterranean region. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 2135–2146.
  • Gomez K., D. Martinez, and X. Espadaler. 2018. Phylogeny of the ant genus Aphaenogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberian Peninsula, with the description of a new species. Sociobiology 65: 215-224.
  • Gomez, C., D. Casellas, J. Oliveras, and J. M. Bas. "Structure of ground-foraging ant assemblages and land-use change in rural ecosystems in the north-western mediterranean region." Biodiversity and Conservation 12 (2007): 2135-2146.
  • Gonçalves, C., I. Patanita, and X. Espadaler. "Substantial, and significant, expansion of ant hosts range for Myrmicinosporidium Hölldobler, 1933 (Fungi)." Insectes Sociaux 59 (2012): 395-399.
  • Grandi G. 1935. Contributi alla conoscenza degli Imenotteri Aculeati. XV. Boll. R. Ist. Entomol. Univ. Studi Bologna 8: 27-121.
  • Ichinose, K. and A. Lenoir. 2010. Hydrocarbons detection levels in ants. Insectes Sociaux 57:453-455
  • Krausse, A. H. "Ueber sardische Ameisen." Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin A 78(7) (1912): 162-166.
  • Lorite P., J. A. Carrillo, M. F. García, and T. Palomeque. 2000. Chromosome numbers in Spanish Formicidae. III. Subfamily Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera). Sociobiology 36: 555-570.
  • Luque-García, G., J. L. Reyes-López, and J. Fernández-Haeger. "Estudio faunístico de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la cuenca del río Guadiamar: Primeras aportaciones." Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 30 (2002): 153-159.
  • Martínez Ibáñez, M. D., and X. Espadaler. "Revisión de las hormigas ibéricas de la colección M. Medina y nuevos datos de distribución." Actas de las VIII Jornadas de la Asociación Española de Entomología (1986): 1022-1034.
  • Neto-Silva A., R. J. Dinis-Oliveira, and C. Prado e Castro. 2018. Diversity of the Formicidae (Hymenoptera) carrion communities in Lisbon (Portugal): preliminary approach as seasonal and geographic indicators. Forensic Sciences Research 3(1): 65-73.
  • Nieves-Aldrey J. L., F. Fontal-Cazalla, A. M. Garrido-Torres, and C. Rey del Castillo. 2003. Inventorio de Hymenoptera (Hexapoda) en el ventorrillo: un rico enclave de biodiversidad en la Sierra de Guadarrama (Espana Central). Graellsia 59(2-3): 25-43.
  • Obregon R., J. Lopez, J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2014. A catalogue of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Sierra Mágina (Jaén, southern Spain). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 54: 370–374.
  • Ordóñez-Urbano C., J. Reyes-López, and S. Carpintero-Ortega. 2007. Estudio faunísidos de los formícidos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) asociados a los bosques de ribera en la Provincia de Córdoba (España). Primeras Aportaciones. Boletin Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 40: 367-375.
  • Paiva, M. R., M. J. Way, and M. E. Cammell. "Estudo preliminar sobre a distribuçao das formigas nos sistemas florestais em Portugal." Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências Naturais 119 (1990): 197-205.
  • Pascual, M. R. "Estudio taxonómico y ecológico de los Formícidos de las Sierras de Alfacar, La Yedra, Huétor y Harana." Tesis Doctoral Universida (1986): 264 pp.
  • Pekar S., J. Smeda, M. Hruskova, O. Sedo, C. Muster, P. Cardoso, Z. Zdrahal, S. Korenko, P. Bures, E. Liznarova, and L. Sentenska. 2012. Prey-race drives differentiation of biotypes in ant-eating spiders. Journal of Animal Ecology 81: 838–848.
  • Poldi B., M. Mei, and F. Rigato. 1995. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Vol 102. Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana: 1-10.
  • Redolfi I., A. Tinaut, F. Pascual, and M. Campos. 2004. Nest density of the nat assemblage (Formicidae) in three olive orchards under different agricultural management in Granada, Spain. Ecología Aplicada 3(1,2): 73-81.
  • Retana J., and X. Cerdá X. 2000. Patterns of diversity and composition of Mediterranean ground ant communites tracking spatial and temporal variability in the thermal environment. Oecologia 123: 436-444.
  • Reyes, J. L., and G. Luque. "Nuevos datos sobre el género Cardiocondyla (Hym.: Formicidae) en andalucía (Sur de la Península Ibérica)." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 25 (3-4) (2001): 125-126.
  • Reyes, J. L. "Descripción de Messor celiae nov. sp." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 9 (1985): 255-261.
  • Reyes-Lopez J., S. Carpintero. 2014. Comparison of the exotic and native ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in urban green areas at inland, coastal and insular sites in Spain. Eur. J. Entomol. 111(3): 421–428.
  • Rigato S., and I. Toni. 2011. Short notes 21. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Pp. 873-882 in: Nardi, G.; Whitmore, D.; Bardiani, M.; Birtele, D.; Mason, F.; Spada, L.; Cerretti, P. (eds.) 2011. Biodiversity of Marganai and Montimannu (Sardinia). Research in the framework of the ICP Forests network. Conservazione Habitat Invertebrati, 5. Sommacampagna, Verona: Cierre Edizioni, 896 pp.
  • Rodríguez, A. "Contribución al conocimiento de las hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de Sierra Morena Central." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 5 (1982): 181-188.
  • Sanchez-Gil Jimeno R., and J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2016. Study of ants species of the Sierra de San Carlos del Valle (Ciudad Real) and updating the provincial check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 40 (1-2): 93-109.
  • Santschi F. 1925. Fourmis d'Espagne et autres espéces paléartiques EOS (Revista española de entomología) 1: 339-360.
  • Santschi, F. "Inventa entomologica itineris Hispanici et Maroccani, quod a. 1926 fecerunt Harald et Håkan Lindberg. Fourmis du Bassin Méditerranéen occidental et du Maroc récoltées par MM. Lindberg." Societas Scientiarum Fennica (Helsingfors) 3 (14) (1931): 1-13.
  • Santschi, F. "Étude sur le sous-genre Aphaenogaster Mayr." Revue Suisse de Zoologie 40 (1933): 389-408.
  • Scupola A., and R. Poggi. 2014. Ricerche zoologiche della nave oceanografica "minerva" (C.N.R.) sulle isole circumsarde. XXXIII. Formiche. Estratto dagli Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria” 106: 93-131.
  • Sommer F. 1984. Etude de la myrmécofaune de la réserve de la Massane. Laboratoire Arago, Banyuls sur Mer (66), 29 pages.
  • Sommer F., and H. Cagniant. 1988. Peuplements de fourmis des Albères Orientales (Pyrénées-Orientales, France) (Première partie). Vie Milieu 38: 189-200.
  • Suñer i Escriche, David. "Contribució al coneixement mirmecologic de Gavarres, Montgrí, Guilleríes i la Serralada Transversal." Tesis Doctoral Universida (1991): 577 pp.
  • Taheri A., and J. Reyes-Lopez. 2017. First record in Morocco of the wooly ant Tetramorium lanuginosum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an Asian species now known from all southern Mediterranean countries. Transactions American Entomological Society 143: 515-516.
  • Tinaut A. 2016. Ants of the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Mountains Natural Park (Andalusia, Spain) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent., 40 (1-2): 125-159.
  • Tinaut A. 2016. Wilhelm Gottlieb Rosenhauer (1813-1881), Maximilien Spinola (1780- 1857) and the first records of ants from Andalusia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent., 40 (1-2): 161-174
  • Tinaut, A., J. Jiménez Rojas, and R. Pascual. "Estudio de la mirmecofauna de los bosques de Quercus Linneo 1753 de la provincia de Granada." Ecología 8 (1995): 429-438.
  • Tinaut, A. "Contribución al conocimiento de los formícidos del Parque Nacional de Doñana." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 15 (1991): 57-63.
  • Tinaut, A. "Contribución al estudio de los formícidos de la región del estrecho de Gibraltar y su interés biogeográfico." Graellsia 45 (1989): 19-29.
  • Trigos Peral G., and J. Reyes Lopez. 2016. Ants as bioindicators for monitoring of urban green in the south of the Iberian Peninsula. Proposal of functional groups. Iberomyrmex 8: 37-38.
  • Trigos-Peral G., and J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2013. Primera relacion de los formicidos (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de la Reserva Natural Lagunas de Campillos (Malaga). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 37 (3-4): 217-224.
  • Zina V., M. Branco, and J. C. Franco. 2017. Ant community associated to citrus canopy in Southern Portugal over a century after the invasion by the Argentine ant. Phytoparasitica 45:183–200.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por Andalucia." Boletín de la Estación Central de Ecología 6 (12) (1977): 85-90.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por Extremadura (España) y Sao Brás-Almodovar, Alcácer do Sal, Serra da Estrela (Portugal)." Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia Suplemento 3(1) (1992): 95-104.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por la península Tingitana al norte del Rif (Marruecos)." Orsis (Organismes i Sistemes) 12 (1997): 93-99.
  • de Haro, Andrés. "Formícidos del Valle de las Batuecas y parte occidental de la Cordillera Central (Salamanca)." Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia natural (Madrid) 72 (1974): 229-235.