Tetramorium

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Tetramorium
Tetramorium caespitum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Tetramorium
Mayr, 1855
Type species
Formica caespitum, now Tetramorium caespitum
Diversity
596 species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Tetramorium caespitum casent0106026 profile 1.jpg

Tetramorium caespitum

Tetramorium caespitum casent0106026 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships

Rostromyrmex






Cardiocondyla



Ocymyrmex






Nesomyrmex



Xenomyrmex





Terataner




Atopomyrmex



Cataulacus










Carebara



Diplomorium






Melissotarsus



Rhopalomastix






Calyptomyrmex



Tetramorium





Cyphoidris



Dicroaspis










Aretidris



Vollenhovia





Dacetinops



Indomyrma








Crematogaster



Meranoplus






Lophomyrmex




Adlerzia



Recurvidris






Stereomyrmex




Trichomyrmex





Eutetramorium




Royidris




Malagidris



Vitsika








Huberia



Podomyrma





Liomyrmex



Metapone













Kartidris



Mayriella





Tetheamyrma




Dacatria



Proatta









Dilobocondyla



Secostruma






Acanthomyrmex



Myrmecina





Perissomyrmex



Pristomyrmex









some Lordomyrma



Propodilobus





Lasiomyrma




[some Lordomyrma




Ancyridris



some Lordomyrma









Paratopula




Poecilomyrma




Romblonella



Rotastruma








Gauromyrmex



Vombisidris





Temnothorax




Harpagoxenus



Formicoxenus



Leptothorax













Based on Ward et al. (2014) and Blaimer et al. (2018).

Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - Distributed worldwide with its diversity approaching 600 species. The Afrotropical region holds the largest number of forms with more than 220 described species (Bolton, 1976; Bolton, 1980; Hita Garcia et al., 2010a, 2010b, 2010c). Members of this genus can be found in many habitats from humid rainforests to arid savannahs and deserts and in different strata from the ground and leaf litter layer to the high forest canopy (Bolton, 1980). Most species seem to be predaceous although some, such as the Kenyan savannah species Tetramorium rothschildi, are known to be granivorous.


Photo Gallery

  • Tetramorium Shattuck 53702 ANIC32-059589 Danum Valley Sabah-web.jpg
  • Shattuck C18072-web, ANIC32-030555, Tetramorium, Cairns, Queensland.jpg

Identification

Antennal count for most species is 12 segments. There are a fair number of species with 11 segments and even a few with 10.

Tetramorium is a diverse genus that has had many species organized into species groups.

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Subgenera or Species Groups in this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

One of the most species-rich ant genera (> 400 species), Tetramorium are found in the Afrotropical, Malagasy, Palaearctic, Oriental, and Indo-Australian regions. A few species, mostly non-native, are also found in the New World. Their largest center of diversity is in the Afrotropical region where there are more than 220 described species (Hita Garcia et al. 2010).

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Biology

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - In Vietnam Tetramorium species inhabit various habitats such as open lands, grasslands, forest edges and well-developed forests. Their nests are usually found in rotting logs, twigs, wood fragments, under stones and in soil. Workers forage mainly on the ground.

Association with Other Organisms

Species Uncertain

An unknown species of Tetramorium is a host for the eucharitid wasp Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" (Heraty 1990; Baker et al., 2019).

Unknown species are hosts for the ectoparasitic mites Caesarodispus khaustovi, Formicomotes octipes and Petalomium crinitus in Iran (Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2015; Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2020).

An unknown species is host for nymphs of the cricket Myrmecophilus ochraceus (Stalling & Cassar, 2020).

All Associate Records for Genus

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Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Tetramorium host cricket Myrmecophilus ochraceus myrmecophile Mediterranean region Stalling & Cassar, 2020 nymphs
Tetramorium host eucharitid wasp Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" parasite Heraty 1990; Baker et al., 2019 primary host
Tetramorium host mite Caesarodispus khaustovi parasite Iran Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2015 ectoparasite
Tetramorium host mite Formicomotes octipes parasite Iran Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2020 ectoparasite
Tetramorium host mite Petalomium crinitus parasite Iran Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2020 ectoparasite
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium caespitum host
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium chefketi host Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2012
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium impurum host
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium moravicum host Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2012
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Wilson 1971; Martin et al. 2007
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Strongylognathus testaceus slave maker
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Tetramorium inquilinum workerless inquiline
Tetramorium caespitum host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Tetramorium caespitum host mite Petalomium nataliae parasite Iran Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2020 ectoparasite
Tetramorium caespitum host nematode Oscheius dolichurus parasite Wahab, 1962
Tetramorium chefketi host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2012
Tetramorium forte mutualist butterfly Lampides boeticus Obregon et al. 2015
Tetramorium forte mutualist butterfly Leptotes pirithous Obregon et al. 2015
Tetramorium forte mutualist butterfly Tomares ballus Obregon et al. 2015
Tetramorium impurum host ant Strongylognathus alpinus slave maker Wagner et al. 2017
Tetramorium impurum host ant Strongylognathus testaceus slave maker Wagner et al., 2017
Tetramorium impurum host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline
Tetramorium impurum host ant Tetramorium inquilinum workerless inquiline
Tetramorium inquilinum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium caespitum host
Tetramorium inquilinum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium impurum host
Tetramorium kutteri workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium sp. host
Tetramorium microgyna inquiline ant Tetramorium sepositum host
Tetramorium microgyna inquiline ant Tetramorium sericeiventre host
Tetramorium moravicum host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2012
Tetramorium pacificum prey tiger beetle Cicindela duponti predator Western Ghats, India Sinu et al., 2006
Tetramorium semilaeve host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Tetramorium sepositum host ant Tetramorium microgyna inquiline
Tetramorium sericeiventre host ant Tetramorium microgyna inquiline
Tetramorium tsushimae host cricket Myrmecophilus tetramorii myrmecophile Japan

Flight Period

All Flight Records for Genus

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Taxon Month Source Notes
Tetramorium atratulum May Jun Jul Aug Sep antkeeping.info
Tetramorium bicarinatum May Jun antkeeping.info
Tetramorium caespitum Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Tetramorium hungaricum Jun
Tetramorium immigrans Jul
Tetramorium impurum Jul Aug Sep Oct antkeeping.info
Tetramorium moravicum May Jun antkeeping.info
Tetramorium semilaeve Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Tetramorium tsushimae May Jun Jul antkeeping.info

Life History Traits

  • Worker-produced males: absent (Goetsch (1953) cited in Fletcher and Ross (1985); Frumhoff & Ward, 1992) (worker ovaries reported to be vestigial or absent)

Castes

Many members of this speciose genera are either known from workers only or from a few queens but mainly workers have been collected. Males are unknown and uncollected for a majority of species.

Morphology

Worker Morphology

  • Antennal segment count: 10; 11; 12
  • Antennal club: 3
  • Palp formula: 4,3; 4,2; 4-3,2; 3,3; 3,2; 2,2
  • Total dental count: 6-11
  • Spur formula: 1 simple, 1 simple; 0, 0
  • Eyes: present
  • Scrobes: present, absent
  • Caste: monomorphic, polymorphic in some species
  • Sting: present

Male Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 10; 11 • Antennal club absent • Palp formula 4,3; 4,2; 3,3; 3,2 • Total dental count 4-7 • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple; 0,0

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • Tetramorium sp.(ANIC-2): 2n = 18 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977) (as Xiphomyrmex sp2.(ANIC)).
  • Tetramorium sp.(ANIC-3): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977) (as Xiphomyrmex sp3.(ANIC)).
  • Tetramorium sp.(ANIC-4): 2n = 18 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977) (as Xiphomyrmex sp4.(ANIC)).
  • Tetramorium sp.1: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982) (as Triglyphothrix sp. 1).
  • Tetramorium sp.1: 2n = 22 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Tetramorium sp.2: 2n = 18 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982) (as Triglyphothrix sp. 2).
  • Tetramorium sp.2: 2n = 20 (Sarawak) (Tjan et al., 1986).
  • Tetramorium sp.3: 2n = 35 (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Tetramorium sp.3: 2n = 36 (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Tetramorium sp.3: 2n = 26 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Tetramorium sp.3: 2n = 24 (Sarawak) (Tjan et al., 1986).
  • Tetramorium sp.4: 2n = 14 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Tetramorium: 2n = 20 (Taiwan) (Hung et al., 1972) (as Xiphomyrmex sp.).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

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Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Tetramorium 14 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Tetramorium 18 Australia Imai et al., 1977 as ''Xiphomyrmex'' sp2.(ANIC)
Tetramorium 18 Australia Imai et al., 1977 as ''Xiphomyrmex'' sp4.(ANIC)
Tetramorium 18 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982 as ''Triglyphothrix'' sp. 2
Tetramorium 20 Australia Imai et al., 1977 as ''Xiphomyrmex'' sp3.(ANIC)
Tetramorium 20 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982 as ''Triglyphothrix'' sp. 1
Tetramorium 20 Sarawak Tjan et al., 1986
Tetramorium 20 Taiwan Hung et al., 1972 as ''Xiphomyrmex'' sp.
Tetramorium 22 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Tetramorium 24 Sarawak Tjan et al., 1986
Tetramorium 26 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Tetramorium 35 India Imai et al., 1984
Tetramorium 36 India Imai et al., 1984
Tetramorium adelphon 22 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium brevidentatum 10 20 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium caespitum 14 5SM+2ST+7A Spain Palomeque et al., 1987; Palomeque et al., 1990b; Lorite et al., 2000
Tetramorium caespitum 14 28 Japan Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Imai & Yosida, 1964
Tetramorium caespitum 14 28 Switzerland Hauschteck, 1961
Tetramorium eleates 28 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Tetramorium forte 14 4SM+3ST+7A Spain Palomeque et al., 1987; Lorite et al., 2000 as ''T. hispanicum''
Tetramorium guineense 22 Japan Imai, 1969
Tetramorium insolens 22 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium kheperra 14 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium lanuginosum 14 12M+2A India Imai et al., 1984 as ''Triglyphothrix lanuginosa''
Tetramorium pacificum 22 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium pnyxis 20 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Tetramorium semilaeve 14 4SM+3ST+7A Spain Palomeque et al., 1987; Palomeque et al., 1990b; Lorite et al., 2000
Tetramorium seneb 20 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Tetramorium simillimum 14 India Imai et al., 1984
Tetramorium smithi 26 India Imai et al., 1984
Tetramorium smithi 26 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium smithi 26 Sarawak Tjan et al., 1986
Tetramorium spinosum 13 26 26M USA Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988
Tetramorium walshi 14 14M India Imai et al., 1984 as ''Triglyphothrix walshi''

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • TETRAMORIUM [Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini]
    • Tetramorium Mayr, 1855: 423. Type-species: Formica caespitum, by subsequent designation of Girard, 1879: 1016.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Tetrogmus: Roger, 1862c: 297.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Atopula, Lobomyrmex, Macromischoides, Tetrogmus, Xiphomyrmex: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Triglyphothrix: Bolton, 1985: 247.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Apomyrmex: Bolton, 2003: 227, 269.
  • ACIDOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex]
    • Acidomyrmex Emery, 1915i: 191 [as subgenus of Rhoptromyrmex]. Type-species: Rhoptromyrmex wroughtonii, by original designation.
    • Acidomyrmex raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 664, 672.
    • Acidomyrmex junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex: Brown, 1964c: 11; Bolton, 1986a: 2.
  • ANERGATES [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Anergates Forel, 1874: 67 (see also p. 93). Type-species: Myrmica atratula, by monotypy.
    • Teleutomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • APOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Apomyrmex Calilung, 2000: 66. Type-species: Apomyrmex manobo, by original designation.
    • Apomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 2003: 227, 269.
  • ATOPULA [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Atopula Emery, 1912b: 104. Type-species: Atopomyrmex nodifer, by original designation.
    • Atopula subgenus of Vollenhovia: Emery, 1912d: 273.
    • Atopula revived status as as genus: Emery, 1914a: 41.
    • Atopula subgenus of Terataner: Arnold, 1952b: 129.
    • Atopula revived status as as genus: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985: 257 (anachronism).
    • Atopula junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195 Bolton, 1994: 106.
  • DECAMORIUM [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Decamorium Forel, 1913a: 121 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Decamorium) decem, by monotypy.
    • Decamorium raised to genus: Emery, 1914a: 42; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 664, 906.
    • Decamorium junior synonym of Tetramorium: Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2014: 71.
  • HAGIOXENUS [junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex]
    • Hagioxenus Forel, 1910a: 8. Type-species: Hagioxenus schmitzi, by monotypy.
    • Hagioxenus junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex: Bolton, 1986a: 2.
  • IRENEELLA [junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex]
    • Ireneella Donisthorpe, 1941i: 175. Type-species: Ireneella papuensis (junior synonym of Tetramorium melleum), by original designation.
    • Ireneella junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex: Bolton, 1976: 298; Bolton, 1986a: 2.
  • LOBOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Lobomyrmex Kratochvíl, 1941: 84 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Lobomyrmex) ferox silhavyi (junior synonym of Tetramorium ferox), by monotypy.
    • Lobomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 196.
  • MACROMISCHOIDES [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Macromischoides Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 53. Type-species: Macromischa aculeata, by original designation.
  • [Macromichoides Santschi, 1924b: 206, incorrect subsequent spelling.]
    • Macromischoides junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 196.
  • SULCOMYRMEX [unavailable name]
    • Sulcomyrmex Kratochvíl, 1941: 84 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Unavailable name. Proposed without designation of type-species and therefore unavailable. Species included by Kratochvíl (1941) are all referable to Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359.
  • RHOPTROMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Rhoptromyrmex Mayr, 1901b: 18. Type-species: Rhoptromyrmex globinodis, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 172.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Acidomyrmex: Brown, 1964c: 11.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Ireneella: Bolton, 1976: 298.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Hagioxenus: Bolton, 1986a: 2.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • TELEUTOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Teleutomyrmex Kutter, 1950: 82. Type-species: Teleutomyrmex schneideri, by original designation.
    • Teleutomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • TETROGMUS [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Tetrogmus Roger, 1857: 10. Type-species: Tetrogmus caldarius, by monotypy.
    • Tetrogmus subgenus of Tetramorium: Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 141.
    • Tetrogmus junior synonym of Tetramorium: Roger, 1862c: 297; Bolton, 1976: 359.
  • TRIGLYPHOTHRIX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Triglyphothrix Forel, 1890b: cvi. Type-species: Triglyphothrix walshi, by monotypy.
    • Triglyphothrix subgenus of Tetramorium: Arnold, 1917: 274; Arnold, 1926: 272.
    • Triglyphothrix revived status as genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 196; Emery, 1924d: 272; Creighton, 1950a: 285.
    • Triglyphothrix junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1985: 247.
  • XIPHOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Xiphomyrmex Forel, 1887: 385 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Xiphomyrmex) kelleri, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 175.
    • Xiphomyrmex subgenus of Tetramorium: Forel, 1899c: 53; Arnold, 1917: 274; Arnold, 1926: 277.
    • Xiphomyrmex raised to genus: Emery, 1895j: 770; Emery, 1914a: 42; Forel, 1917: 245; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 193; Emery, 1924d: 286.
    • Xiphomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bingham, 1903: 175; Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195; Bolton, 1994: 106.

References