Tetramorium

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Tetramorium
Tetramorium caespitum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Alliance: Carebara genus group
Genus: Tetramorium
Mayr, 1855
Type species
Formica caespitum, now Tetramorium caespitum
Diversity
598 species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Tetramorium caespitum casent0106026 profile 1.jpg

Tetramorium caespitum

Tetramorium caespitum casent0106026 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - Distributed worldwide with its diversity approaching 600 species. The Afrotropical region holds the largest number of forms with more than 220 described species (Bolton, 1976; Bolton, 1980; Hita Garcia et al., 2010a, 2010b, 2010c). Members of this genus can be found in many habitats from humid rainforests to arid savannahs and deserts and in different strata from the ground and leaf litter layer to the high forest canopy (Bolton, 1980). Most species seem to be predaceous although some, such as the Kenyan savannah species Tetramorium rothschildi, are known to be granivorous.

Ward et al. (2014) found that Strongylognathus is a synonym of Tetramorium, and note that it has nomenclatural priority over Tetramorium (meaning that all species of Tetramorium should be transferred to Strongylognathus). Transfer of the hundreds of valid Tetramorium species names to Strongylognathus, with consequent changes in spelling to many of them (because the gender of Tetramorium is neuter while Strongylognathus is masculine), would create considerable confusion. In this instance a ruling by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature would be required to validate a reversal of precedence (ICZN Article 23.9.3). In the interim they maintained current usage as two separate genera and refrained from synonymizing them.


Photo Gallery

  • Tetramorium Shattuck 53702 ANIC32-059589 Danum Valley Sabah-web.jpg
  • Shattuck C18072-web, ANIC32-030555, Tetramorium, Cairns, Queensland.jpg
  • Tetramorium sp. alate queen. Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Photo by yathumon M A.
  • Tetramorium sp. alate queen. Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Photo by yathumon M A.

Identification

Antennal count for most species is 12 segments. There are a fair number of species with 11 segments and even a few with 10.

Tetramorium is a diverse genus that has had many species organized into species groups.

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Subgenera or Species Groups in this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

One of the most species-rich ant genera (> 400 species), Tetramorium are found in the Afrotropical, Malagasy, Palaearctic, Oriental, and Indo-Australian regions. A few species, mostly non-native, are also found in the New World. Their largest center of diversity is in the Afrotropical region where there are more than 220 described species (Hita Garcia et al. 2010).

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Species by Region

Number of species within biogeographic regions, along with the total number of species for each region.

Afrotropical Region Australasian Region Indo-Australian Region Malagasy Region Nearctic Region Neotropical Region Oriental Region Palaearctic Region
Species 262 31 78 107 12 15 66 142
Total Species 2841 1736 3045 932 835 4379 1741 2862

Fossils

Fossils are known from: Zhangpu amber, Zhangpu County, Fujian Province, China (Miocene) (an unidentified species, Wang et al., 2021).

Biology

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - In Vietnam Tetramorium species inhabit various habitats such as open lands, grasslands, forest edges and well-developed forests. Their nests are usually found in rotting logs, twigs, wood fragments, under stones and in soil. Workers forage mainly on the ground.

Association with Other Organisms

Explore-icon.png Explore: Show all Associate data or Search these data. See also a list of all data tables or learn how data is managed.

Species Uncertain

  • An unknown species of Tetramorium is a host for the eucharitid wasp Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" (Heraty 1990; Baker et al., 2019).
  • Unknown species are hosts for the ectoparasitic mites Caesarodispus khaustovi, Formicomotes octipes and Petalomium crinitus in Iran (Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2015; Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2020).
  • An unknown species is host for nymphs of the cricket Myrmecophilus ochraceus (Stalling & Cassar, 2020).
  • An unknown species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Orasema sp. (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode independent; direct transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the cestode Raillietina echinobothrida (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the cestode Raillietina echinobothrida (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the cestode Raillietina tetragona (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest).
  • An unknown species is a host for the fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest).

All Associate Records for Genus

Click here to show/hide associate data.
Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Tetramorium aculeatum associate (details unknown) fungus Pseudogibellula formicarum associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Tetramorium aculeatum associate (details unknown) fungus Sporothrix insectorum associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Tetramorium aculeatum associate (details unknown) fungus Verticillium nodulosum associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Tetramorium aculeatum host fungus Akanthomyces gracilis parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium aculeatum host fungus Ophiocordyceps myrmicarum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium aculeatum host fungus Stilbella buquetti var. formicarum parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium albenae workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium kephalosi host Greece Salata et al., 2023
Tetramorium alpestre host ant Strongylognathus alpinus slave maker Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Tetramorium alpestre host ant Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium alpestre host ant Strongylognathus testaceus slave maker Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Tetramorium aspina inquiline ant Tetramorium immigrans host Turkey de la Mora et al., 2021; Wagner et al., 2018
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium caespitum host Buschinger, 1995; de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al., 2017
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium chefketi host de la Mora et al., 2021; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2012
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium diomedeum host Buschinger, 1995; de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al., 2017
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium immigrans host de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al., 2017 rare host
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium impurum host Buschinger, 1995; de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al., 2017
Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium moravicum host Buschinger, 1995; de la Mora et al., 2021; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2012; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al., 2017
Tetramorium bicarinatum mutualist aphid Aphis gossypii trophobiont Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium bicarinatum mutualist aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa trophobiont Idechiil et al., 2007; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium brevicorne host ant Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Seifert, 1996; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium buschingeri inquiline ant Tetramorium chefketi Bulgaria de la Mora et al., 2021; Kiran et al., 2017
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Strongylognathus christophi slave maker de la Mora et al., 2021; Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Strongylognathus huberi slave maker de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Strongylognathus italicus slave maker de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''caespitum''
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Strongylognathus kratochvili slave maker de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Seifert, 1996; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al., 2017
Tetramorium caespitum host ant Tetramorium inquilinum workerless inquiline
Tetramorium caespitum mutualist aphid Aphis fabae trophobiont Shiran et al., 2013; Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium caespitum xenobiont ant Formica fusca xenobiont Poland Kanizsai et al., 2013; Włodarczyk et al., 2009 Clearcut of managed forest, in tree stumps
Tetramorium caespitum xenobiont ant Formicoxenus nitidulus xenobiont Martin et al. 2007; Wilson 1971
Tetramorium caespitum xenobiont ant Lasius flavus xenobiont Finland Czechowski, 2004; Kanizsai et al., 2013 Different successional series of rocky habitats. Under stone
Tetramorium chefketi host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline Bulgaria, Turkey Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2012
Tetramorium chefketi host ant Tetramorium buschingeri inquiline Bulgaria Kiran et al., 2017
Tetramorium chefketi host ant Tetramorium seiferti inquiline Turkey Kiran et al., 2017
Tetramorium chefketi mutualist aphid Aphis craccivora trophobiont Özdemir et al., 2008; Mortazavi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium chefketi mutualist aphid Aphis rumicis trophobiont Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium diomedeum host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline Sanetra et al., 1999; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium ferox host ant Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Tetramorium ferox host ant Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Seifert, 1996; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium forte mutualist aphid Aphis craccivora trophobiont Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist aphid Aphis rumicis trophobiont Özdemir et al., 2008; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist aphid Brachycaudus cardui trophobiont Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist aphid Cinara pilicornis trophobiont Akyildirim et al., 2014; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist aphid Uroleucon sonchi trophobiont Akyürek et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium forte mutualist butterfly Lampides boeticus Obregon et al. 2015
Tetramorium forte mutualist butterfly Leptotes pirithous Obregon et al. 2015
Tetramorium forte mutualist butterfly Tomares ballus Obregon et al. 2015
Tetramorium immigrans host ant Tetramorium aspina Turkey Wagner et al., 2018
Tetramorium immigrans host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline Wagner et al. 2017
Tetramorium immigrans host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia Csősz et al., 2012
Tetramorium impurum host ant Strongylognathus alpinus slave maker Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Wagner et al. 2017; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Tetramorium impurum host ant Strongylognathus christophi slave maker de la Mora et al., 2021; Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Tetramorium impurum host ant Strongylognathus destefanii slave maker de la Mora et al., 2021; Menozzi, 1921; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Tetramorium impurum host ant Strongylognathus huberi slave maker Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Tetramorium impurum host ant Strongylognathus italicus slave maker Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; de la Mora et al., 2021
Tetramorium impurum host ant Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''impurum''
Tetramorium impurum host ant Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Seifert, 1996; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al. 2017
Tetramorium impurum host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline Wagner et al., 2017; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium impurum host ant Tetramorium inquilinum workerless inquiline Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium inerme host ant Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Tetramorium inquilinum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium alpestre host de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium inquilinum workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium impurum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018 Seifert (2018) suggests probable host
Tetramorium kephalosi host ant Tetramorium albenae workerless inquiline Greece Salata et al., 2023
Tetramorium kutteri workerless inquiline ant Tetramorium sp. host
Tetramorium lucidulum host ant Strongylognathus silvestrii slave maker Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; de la Mora et al., 2021
Tetramorium microgyna inquiline ant Tetramorium sepositum host
Tetramorium microgyna inquiline ant Tetramorium sericeiventre host
Tetramorium moravicum host ant Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Tetramorium moravicum host ant Strongylognathus kratochvili slave maker de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium moravicum host ant Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Seifert, 1996; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al. 2017
Tetramorium moravicum host ant Tetramorium atratulum workerless inquiline Bulgaria (Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2012; Sanetra et al., 1999; Seifert, 2018
Tetramorium pacificum prey tiger beetle Cicindela duponti predator Western Ghats, India Sinu et al., 2006
Tetramorium seiferti inquiline ant Tetramorium chefketi Turkey de la Mora et al., 2021; Kiran et al., 2017
Tetramorium semilaeve host ant Strongylognathus destefanii slave maker de la Mora et al., 2021; Menozzi, 1921; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Tetramorium semilaeve host ant Strongylognathus huberi slave maker Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Tetramorium semilaeve host ant Strongylognathus silvestrii slave maker Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; de la Mora et al., 2021
Tetramorium semilaeve host cestode Raillietina echinobothrida parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium semilaeve host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Portugal, Spain García & Espadaler, 2010; Gonçalves et al., 2012; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Tetramorium semilaeve mutualist aphid Paracletus cimiciformis trophobiont Salazar et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium sepositum host ant Tetramorium microgyna inquiline
Tetramorium sericeiventre host ant Tetramorium microgyna inquiline
Tetramorium simillimum host cestode Raillietina echinobothrida parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium simillimum host cestode Raillietina tetragona parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium staerckei host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia Csősz et al., 2012
Tetramorium sulcinode host ant Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Tetramorium tortuosum host cestode Raillietina echinobothrida parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium tortuosum host cestode Raillietina tetragona parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium tsushimae host ant Strongylognathus dao slave maker China Radchenko et al., 2017
Tetramorium tsushimae host ant Strongylognathus koreanus slave maker Japan Collingwood, 1976
Tetramorium tsushimae host cestode Raillietina echinobothrida parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest; as Tetramorium caespitum jacoti
Tetramorium tsushimae host cestode Raillietina tetragona parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest; as Tetramorium caespitum jacoti
Tetramorium tsushimae host cricket Myrmecophilus tetramorii myrmecophile Japan
Tetramorium tsushimae mutualist aphid Aphis craccivora trophobiont Suzuki et al., 2004; Katayama et al., 2013; Hayashi et al., 2015; Hayashi et al., 2016; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium tsushimae mutualist aphid Aphis fabae trophobiont Hayashi et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Tetramorium tsushimae xenobiont ant Formica japonica xenobiont Japan Czechowski & Yamauchi, 1998; Kanizsai et al., 2013 Urban area. In the soil.
Tetramorium wroughtonii host cestode Raillietina echinobothrida parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium wroughtonii host cestode Raillietina tetragona parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest

Flight Period

All Flight Records for Genus

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Taxon Month Source Notes
Tetramorium atratulum May Jun Jul Aug Sep antkeeping.info
Tetramorium bicarinatum May Jun antkeeping.info
Tetramorium caespitum Jun Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Tetramorium hungaricum Jun
Tetramorium immigrans Jul
Tetramorium impurum Jul Aug Sep Oct antkeeping.info
Tetramorium moravicum May Jun antkeeping.info
Tetramorium semilaeve Jul Aug antkeeping.info
Tetramorium tsushimae May Jun Jul antkeeping.info

Life History Traits

  • Worker-produced males: absent (Goetsch (1953) cited in Fletcher and Ross (1985); Frumhoff & Ward, 1992) (worker ovaries reported to be vestigial or absent)
  • Mean colony size: 10975 (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: inquilinism (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic; arboreal (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter; arboreal (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging behaviour: cooperative (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Many members of this speciose genera are either known from workers only or from a few queens but mainly workers have been collected. Males are unknown and uncollected for a majority of species.

Morphology

Worker Morphology

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• Antennal segment count: 10; 11; 12 • Antennal club: 3 • Palp formula: 4,3; 4,2; 4-3,2; 3,3; 3,2; 2,2 • Total dental count: 6-11 • Spur formula: 1 simple, 1 simple; 0, 0 • Eyes: 11-100 ommatidia • Scrobes: absent; present • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: dentiform; present • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: monomorphic, polymorphic in some species • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: absent; present • Cocoon: absent

Male Morphology

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 • Antennal segment count 10; 11 • Antennal club absent • Palp formula 4,3; 4,2; 3,3; 3,2 • Total dental count 4-7 • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple; 0,0

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • Tetramorium sp.(ANIC-2): 2n = 18 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977) (as Xiphomyrmex sp2.(ANIC)).
  • Tetramorium sp.(ANIC-3): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977) (as Xiphomyrmex sp3.(ANIC)).
  • Tetramorium sp.(ANIC-4): 2n = 18 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977) (as Xiphomyrmex sp4.(ANIC)).
  • Tetramorium sp.1: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982) (as Triglyphothrix sp. 1).
  • Tetramorium sp.1: 2n = 22 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Tetramorium sp.2: 2n = 18 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982) (as Triglyphothrix sp. 2).
  • Tetramorium sp.2: 2n = 20 (Sarawak) (Tjan et al., 1986).
  • Tetramorium sp.3: 2n = 35 (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Tetramorium sp.3: 2n = 36 (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Tetramorium sp.3: 2n = 26 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Tetramorium sp.3: 2n = 24 (Sarawak) (Tjan et al., 1986).
  • Tetramorium sp.4: 2n = 14 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Tetramorium: 2n = 20 (Taiwan) (Hung et al., 1972) (as Xiphomyrmex sp.).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

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Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Tetramorium adelphon 22 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium brevidentatum 10 20 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium eleates 28 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Tetramorium forte 14 4SM+3ST+7A Spain Palomeque et al., 1987; Lorite et al., 2000 as ''T. hispanicum''
Tetramorium guineense 22 Japan Imai, 1969
Tetramorium insolens 22 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium kheperra 14 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium lanuginosum 14 12M+2A India Imai et al., 1984 as ''Triglyphothrix lanuginosa''
Tetramorium pacificum 22 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium pnyxis 20 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Tetramorium semilaeve 14 4SM+3ST+7A Spain Palomeque et al., 1987; Palomeque et al., 1990b; Lorite et al., 2000
Tetramorium seneb 20 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Tetramorium simillimum 14 India Imai et al., 1984
Tetramorium smithi 26 India Imai et al., 1984
Tetramorium smithi 26 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Tetramorium smithi 26 Sarawak Tjan et al., 1986
Tetramorium spinosum 13 26 26M USA Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988
Tetramorium walshi 14 14M India Imai et al., 1984 as ''Triglyphothrix walshi''

Phylogeny

Myrmicinae
Myrmicini
Pogonomyrmecini
Stenammini
Solenopsidini
Attini

Ochetomyrmex  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Tranopelta  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Diaphoromyrma  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Lachnomyrmex  (16 species, 0 fossil species)

Blepharidatta  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Allomerus  (8 species, 0 fossil species)

Wasmannia  (11 species, 0 fossil species)

Pheidole  (1,294 species, 7 fossil species)

Cephalotes  (123 species, 16 fossil species)

Procryptocerus  (44 species, 0 fossil species)

Strumigenys  (879 species, 4 fossil species)

Phalacromyrmex  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Pilotrochus  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Protalaridris  (7 species, 0 fossil species)

Rhopalothrix  (19 species, 0 fossil species)

Basiceros  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Octostruma  (35 species, 0 fossil species)

Eurhopalothrix  (54 species, 0 fossil species)

Talaridris  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Acanthognathus  (7 species, 1 fossil species)

Daceton  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Lenomyrmex  (7 species, 0 fossil species)

Microdaceton  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Orectognathus  (29 species, 0 fossil species)

Colobostruma  (16 species, 0 fossil species)

Epopostruma  (20 species, 0 fossil species)

Mesostruma  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Paleoattina

Apterostigma  (44 species, 2 fossil species)

Mycocepurus  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Myrmicocrypta  (31 species, 0 fossil species)

Neoattina

Cyatta  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Kalathomyrmex  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetarotes  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetosoritis  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

some Cyphomyrmex  (23 species, 2 fossil species)

some Cyphomyrmex

Paramycetophylax  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetophylax  (21 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetagroicus  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetomoellerius  (31 species, 1 fossil species)

Sericomyrmex  (11 species, 0 fossil species)

Xerolitor  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Paratrachymyrmex  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Trachymyrmex  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Amoimyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Atta  (20 species, 1 fossil species)

some Acromyrmex  (56 species, 0 fossil species)

some Acromyrmex

Pseudoatta  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Crematogastrini

Rostromyrmex  (1 species, 6 fossil species)

Cardiocondyla  (90 species, 0 fossil species)

Ocymyrmex  (34 species, 0 fossil species)

Nesomyrmex  (84 species, 2 fossil species)

Xenomyrmex  (5 species, 0 fossil species)

Terataner  (14 species, 0 fossil species)

Atopomyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Cataulacus  (65 species, 3 fossil species)

Carebara  (249 species, 9 fossil species)

Diplomorium  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Melissotarsus  (4 species, 1 fossil species)

Rhopalomastix  (14 species, 0 fossil species)

Calyptomyrmex  (38 species, 0 fossil species)

Strongylognathus  (27 species, 0 fossil species), Tetramorium  (598 species, 2 fossil species)

Cyphoidris  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Dicroaspis  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Aretidris  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Vollenhovia  (83 species, 3 fossil species)

Dacetinops  (7 species, 0 fossil species)

Indomyrma  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Crematogaster  (783 species, 3 fossil species)

Meranoplus  (91 species, 0 fossil species)

Lophomyrmex  (13 species, 0 fossil species)

Adlerzia  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Recurvidris  (12 species, 0 fossil species)

Stereomyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Trichomyrmex  (29 species, 0 fossil species)

Eutetramorium  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Royidris  (15 species, 0 fossil species)

Malagidris  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Vitsika  (16 species, 0 fossil species)

Huberia  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Podomyrma  (62 species, 1 fossil species)

Liomyrmex  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Metapone  (31 species, 0 fossil species)

Kartidris  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Mayriella  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Tetheamyrma  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Dacatria  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Proatta  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Dilobocondyla  (22 species, 0 fossil species)

Secostruma  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Acanthomyrmex  (19 species, 0 fossil species)

Myrmecina  (106 species, 0 fossil species)

Perissomyrmex  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Pristomyrmex  (61 species, 3 fossil species)

some Lordomyrma  (36 species, 0 fossil species)

Propodilobus  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Lasiomyrma  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

some Lordomyrma

Ancyridris  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

some Lordomyrma

Paratopula  (12 species, 0 fossil species)

Poecilomyrma  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Romblonella  (10 species, 0 fossil species)

Rotastruma  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Gauromyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Vombisidris  (19 species, 0 fossil species)

Temnothorax  (512 species, 7 fossil species)

Harpagoxenus  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Formicoxenus  (8 species, 0 fossil species)

Leptothorax  (20 species, 0 fossil species)

See Phylogeny of Myrmicinae for details.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • TETRAMORIUM [Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini]
    • Tetramorium Mayr, 1855: 423. Type-species: Formica caespitum, by subsequent designation of Girard, 1879: 1016.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Tetrogmus: Roger, 1862c: 297.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Atopula, Lobomyrmex, Macromischoides, Tetrogmus, Xiphomyrmex: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Triglyphothrix: Bolton, 1985: 247.
    • Tetramorium senior synonym of Apomyrmex: Bolton, 2003: 227, 269.
  • ACIDOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex]
    • Acidomyrmex Emery, 1915i: 191 [as subgenus of Rhoptromyrmex]. Type-species: Rhoptromyrmex wroughtonii, by original designation.
    • Acidomyrmex raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 664, 672.
    • Acidomyrmex junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex: Brown, 1964c: 11; Bolton, 1986a: 2.
  • ANERGATES [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Anergates Forel, 1874: 67 (see also p. 93). Type-species: Myrmica atratula, by monotypy.
    • Teleutomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • APOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Apomyrmex Calilung, 2000: 66. Type-species: Apomyrmex manobo, by original designation.
    • Apomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 2003: 227, 269.
  • ATOPULA [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Atopula Emery, 1912b: 104. Type-species: Atopomyrmex nodifer, by original designation.
    • Atopula subgenus of Vollenhovia: Emery, 1912d: 273.
    • Atopula revived status as as genus: Emery, 1914a: 41.
    • Atopula subgenus of Terataner: Arnold, 1952b: 129.
    • Atopula revived status as as genus: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985: 257 (anachronism).
    • Atopula junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195 Bolton, 1994: 106.
  • DECAMORIUM [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Decamorium Forel, 1913a: 121 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Decamorium) decem, by monotypy.
    • Decamorium raised to genus: Emery, 1914a: 42; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 664, 906.
    • Decamorium junior synonym of Tetramorium: Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2014: 71.
  • HAGIOXENUS [junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex]
    • Hagioxenus Forel, 1910a: 8. Type-species: Hagioxenus schmitzi, by monotypy.
    • Hagioxenus junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex: Bolton, 1986a: 2.
  • IRENEELLA [junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex]
    • Ireneella Donisthorpe, 1941i: 175. Type-species: Ireneella papuensis (junior synonym of Tetramorium melleum), by original designation.
    • Ireneella junior synonym of Rhoptromyrmex: Bolton, 1976: 298; Bolton, 1986a: 2.
  • LOBOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Lobomyrmex Kratochvíl, 1941: 84 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Lobomyrmex) ferox silhavyi (junior synonym of Tetramorium ferox), by monotypy.
    • Lobomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 196.
  • MACROMISCHOIDES [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Macromischoides Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 53. Type-species: Macromischa aculeata, by original designation.
  • [Macromichoides Santschi, 1924b: 206, incorrect subsequent spelling.]
    • Macromischoides junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 196.
  • SULCOMYRMEX [unavailable name]
    • Sulcomyrmex Kratochvíl, 1941: 84 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Unavailable name. Proposed without designation of type-species and therefore unavailable. Species included by Kratochvíl (1941) are all referable to Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359.
  • RHOPTROMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Rhoptromyrmex Mayr, 1901b: 18. Type-species: Rhoptromyrmex globinodis, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 172.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Acidomyrmex: Brown, 1964c: 11.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Ireneella: Bolton, 1976: 298.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Hagioxenus: Bolton, 1986a: 2.
    • Rhoptromyrmex senior synonym of Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • TELEUTOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Teleutomyrmex Kutter, 1950: 82. Type-species: Teleutomyrmex schneideri, by original designation.
    • Teleutomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • TETROGMUS [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Tetrogmus Roger, 1857: 10. Type-species: Tetrogmus caldarius, by monotypy.
    • Tetrogmus subgenus of Tetramorium: Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 141.
    • Tetrogmus junior synonym of Tetramorium: Roger, 1862c: 297; Bolton, 1976: 359.
  • TRIGLYPHOTHRIX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Triglyphothrix Forel, 1890b: cvi. Type-species: Triglyphothrix walshi, by monotypy.
    • Triglyphothrix subgenus of Tetramorium: Arnold, 1917: 274; Arnold, 1926: 272.
    • Triglyphothrix revived status as genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 196; Emery, 1924d: 272; Creighton, 1950a: 285.
    • Triglyphothrix junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1985: 247.
  • XIPHOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Tetramorium]
    • Xiphomyrmex Forel, 1887: 385 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Xiphomyrmex) kelleri, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 175.
    • Xiphomyrmex subgenus of Tetramorium: Forel, 1899c: 53; Arnold, 1917: 274; Arnold, 1926: 277.
    • Xiphomyrmex raised to genus: Emery, 1895j: 770; Emery, 1914a: 42; Forel, 1917: 245; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 193; Emery, 1924d: 286.
    • Xiphomyrmex junior synonym of Tetramorium: Bingham, 1903: 175; Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195; Bolton, 1994: 106.

References