Temnothorax

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Temnothorax
Temporal range: 37.2–0 Ma
Eocene – Recent
Temnothorax adustus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Temnothorax
Mayr, 1861
Type species
Myrmica recedens, now Temnothorax recedens
Diversity
450 species
7 fossil species
(Species Checklist)

Temnothorax adustus lateral view

Temnothorax adustus

Temnothorax adustus dorsal view

Specimen label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships



Cardiocondyla



Ocymyrmex






Nesomyrmex



Xenomyrmex





Terataner




Atopomyrmex



Cataulacus










Carebara



Diplomorium






Melissotarsus



Rhopalomastix






Calyptomyrmex



Tetramorium





Cyphoidris



Dicroaspis










Aretidris



Vollenhovia





Dacetinops



Indomyrma








Crematogaster



Meranoplus






Lophomyrmex




Adlerzia



Recurvidris






Stereomyrmex




Trichomyrmex





Eutetramorium




Royidris




Malagidris



Vitsika








Huberia



Podomyrma





Liomyrmex



Metapone













Kartidris



Mayriella





Tetheamyrma




Dacatria



Proatta









Dilobocondyla



Secostruma






Acanthomyrmex



Myrmecina





Perissomyrmex



Pristomyrmex









some Lordomyrma



Propodilobus





Lasiomyrma




[some Lordomyrma




Ancyridris



some Lordomyrma









Paratopula




Poecilomyrma




Romblonella



Rotastruma








Gauromyrmex



Vombisidris





Temnothorax




Harpagoxenus




Formicoxenus



Leptothorax













Based on Ward et al. (2014) and Blaimer et al. (2018).

The workers of Temnothorax species are generally small. Colonies are typically monogynous, although facultative polygyny has been documented in several species (Alloway et al. 1983, Buschinger 1974, Buschinger and Linksvayer 2004, Rüppell et al. 1998). Colony populations are usually quite small, often with less than 100 workers (Beckers et al. 1989). However, several studies have found colonies of some species to be widely dispersed with several to many satellite nests (Alloway et al. 1983, Foitzik and Heinze 2001, Partridge et al. 1997). Many species are arboreal, living within hollow stems, old beetle or termite galleries, or in galls (Mackay 2000). Temnothorax species appear to be trophic generalists, feeding on a wide variety of scavenged items, including the elaiosomes of seeds (Espadaler 1997, Fokuhl et al. 2012). None have been documented to be active or aggressive predators. (Snelling et al. 2014)

The socially parasitic species formerly placed in the genus Myrmoxenus (synonymised with Temnothorax by Ward et al., 2014) vary strongly in fundamental life history traits, such as queen-worker ratio, the timing of sexual production, and mating behavior. Queens of these species generally take over nests of other Temnothorax species, kill the resident queen by throttling, and force the workers to take care of the social parasite’s brood. Young queens of Temnothorax ravouxi and other species produce large numbers of workers, which during “slaveraids” pillage host pupae from neighboring Temnothorax host colonies to increase the workforce in their own nests. Other species, such as Temnothorax corsicus, have lost caste polyphenism and rear only male and female sexual offspring. (Heinze et al., 2015.)

Photo Gallery

Identification

Antennal count is typically twelve segments but there are a small number of species with only eleven.

New World Temnothorax species groups

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - The worker of Temnothorax is similar to that of Vombisidris and Cardiocondyla.

Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Biology

Matthew Prebus is actively investigating the systematics and biology of the genus. The following is from a recent study (Prebus 2017, see this publication for citations):

General Biology

While the biology of most species of Temnothorax is poorly known, several taxa are frequently used as model organisms for social insect behavior and ecology. Studies on this genus have led investigators to discover new forms of social learning and inspired hypotheses about speciation and the origins of parasitism.

Temnothorax has a primarily Holarctic distribution, but notable exceptions include several species in Sub-Saharan Africa and many species in Mesoamerica, including the islands of the Caribbean . Generally, Temnothorax ants are encountered in the mesic forests of the Northern hemisphere at mid-to-high elevations, where they are typically found under rocks, in leaf litter, or as arboreal foragers. However, these ants have adapted to a broad variety of habitats, from arid deserts to tropical rain forests, and are found at elevations from sea level up to 4000 m. The workers of most species in the Holarctic region are diminutive, timid, slow moving, and cryptically colored. Because of their inconspicuous nature, these ants are often overlooked despite their broad geographical distribution. The islands of the Greater Antilles harbor many Temnothorax endemics, however, that provide an exception to this habitus: the islands Cuba and Hispaniola, for example, have more than thirty described endemic species, which are large, brightly colored, and capable of delivering powerful stings.

Temnothorax ants are believed to be trophic generalists, and have been observed scavenging for a variety of food items, including dead insects, honeydew on leaves without tending aphids, honeydew from tended aphids and membracids, the axillary nectaries of bracken ferns and Baccharis (an Asteraceae genus), seeds, and elaiosomes. In competitions at baits, they appear to be opportunistic foragers, often absconding as more aggressive species arrive, and occasionally insinuating themselves into baits dominated by other species (Prebus, pers. obs.). Recruitment of workers to food and nest sites often appears to involve tandem running.

Nests of Temnothorax are generally small, often with fewer than 200 workers, which may be distributed among several satellite nests. With the worker caste of most species measuring less than four millimeters in length, these ants often take advantage of small cavities for their nesting sites, such as crevices in rocks, hollow nut shells, dead twigs, or directly in the soil. Temnothorax colonies tend to be monogynous, with only one queen per nest. This is hardly the rule, however: this genus displays a remarkable diversity of sociometry, with many species being either functionally monogynous (with several queens present, but only one actively producing eggs), or facultatively polygynous, both within and among species.

Many species appear to be arboreal specialists, nesting in dead hollow twigs on live trees, under bark, in galls, or under the roots of epiphytes.

Several taxa have intriguing life histories: it appears that Temnothorax and its sister group, the Leptothorax genus group (composed of Formicoxenus, Harpagoxenus, and Leptothorax) are unusually prone to developing a set of interrelated lifestyles collectively known as ‘social parasitism’.

Dulotic Temnothorax

Siefert et al. (2014) - Three slave-making species of the Temnothorax genus group (Bolton 2003) of the ant tribe Formicoxenini are known from North America. Each of the three represents an unmistakable combination of phenotypic characters. They all use species of the genus Temnothorax Forel, 1890 as hosts and cluster genetically with species of this genus (Beibl et al. 2005). The first species and outgroup to all the others (Beibl et al. 2005), Temnothorax americanus (Emery, 1895), is characterized by an elongated, semi-rectangular head capsule with extremely long antennal scobes that fully accommodate the short and flattened scape when it is folded back. These characters are a convergence to the Holarctic genus Harpagoxenus that belongs to the distantly related Leptothorax genus group. The second one, Temnothorax duloticus (Wesson, 1937), shows an acute, frontoventrally directed dent on the postpetiolar sternite, a high petiole with a bulky, truncate node that slopes down to the caudal cylinder with a distinct step. This particular petiolar shape and the reduction of antennal segments to 11 resemble the situation in the subgenus Mychothorax Ruzsky, 1904 of the genus Leptothorax Mayr, 1855. However, T. duloticus differs from the latter by the absence of a curved transverse carina on the stipes of the maxillae. On the third species….only little information exists to date (Herbers and Foitzik 2002, Beibl et al. 2005). Its phenotype is an unmistakable combination of an acute, frontoventrally directed dent on postpetiolar sternite, a stout, hump-backed mesosoma, small scape length, a high petiole that is in lateral aspect roughly triangular, a wide petiole and reduced mandibular dentition. Robin Stuart was the first who recognized the new species (Herbers and Foitzik 2002). We follow his proposal to name this slave-making species Temnothorax pilagens.

Phylogeny and Biogeography

Molecular analyses suggested the genus first arose 35Ma, with an initial succession of rapid diversification into distinctive clades. Early diversification occurred in the Neartic with large scale dispersal (Carribean, Neotropical mainland, Palearctic) following soon after the formation of the initial clades. The phylogeny clarifies and resolves numerous long standing problems with various past generic, subgeneric and species-group hypotheses. The data show support for Temnothorax originating as a terrestrial nesting species that later evolved arboreal species. Parasitism appears to have arisen numerous times, as it is not confined to a single node of the phylogeny.

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - Temnothorax species are rare in Vietnam where they have been collected around or above 1000 m alt. in northern Vietnam.

Association with Other Organisms

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Temnothorax affinis host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax albipennis host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax ambiguus host ant Temnothorax americanus slave maker
Temnothorax ambiguus host ant Temnothorax duloticus slave maker
Temnothorax ambiguus host ant Temnothorax pilagens slave maker
Temnothorax americanus slave maker ant Temnothorax ambiguus host
Temnothorax americanus slave maker ant Temnothorax curvispinosus host
Temnothorax americanus slave maker ant Temnothorax longispinosus host
Temnothorax angustulus host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax brunneus workerless inquiline ant Leptothorax host ''Leptothorax'' cf. ''marocanus''
Temnothorax corsicus workerless inquiline ant Temnothorax exilis host
Temnothorax curvispinosus host ant Temnothorax americanus slave maker
Temnothorax curvispinosus host ant Temnothorax duloticus slave maker
Temnothorax curvispinosus host ant Temnothorax minutissimus workerless inquiline
Temnothorax duloticus slave maker ant Temnothorax ambiguus host
Temnothorax duloticus slave maker ant Temnothorax curvispinosus host
Temnothorax duloticus slave maker ant Temnothorax longispinosus host
Temnothorax exilis host ant Temnothorax corsicus workerless inquiline
Temnothorax exilis host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax lichtensteini host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax longispinosus host ant Temnothorax americanus slave maker
Temnothorax longispinosus host ant Temnothorax duloticus slave maker
Temnothorax longispinosus host ant Temnothorax pilagens slave maker
Temnothorax minutissimus workerless inquiline ant Temnothorax curvispinosus host
Temnothorax muellerianus host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax nylanderi host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax pilagens slave maker ant Temnothorax ambiguus host
Temnothorax pilagens slave maker ant Temnothorax longispinosus host
Temnothorax racovitzai host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax recedens host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax tuberum host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax unifasciatus host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012

Castes

Morphology

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • Temnothorax cf. interrupus: n = 12 (Greece) (Fischer, 1987) (as Leptothorax cf. interruptus).
  • Temnothorax cf. lichtensteini: n = 14 (France; Spain) (Fischer, 1987) (as Leptothorax cf. lichtensteini).
  • Temnothorax: n = 9 (Croatia, France, Greece) (Fischer, 1987) (as Leptothorax spp., tuberum group).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

Explore Karyotype Data: All, Drilldown
Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Temnothorax 12 Greece Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax'' cf. ''interruptus''
Temnothorax 14 France; Spain Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax'' cf. ''lichtensteini''
Temnothorax 9 Croatia, France, Greece Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax'' spp., ''tuberum'' group
Temnothorax adlerzi 10 Greece Douwes et al., 1988 as ''Epimyrma adlerzi''
Temnothorax affinis 9 France, Germany, Switzerland Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax affinis''
Temnothorax albipennis 8 Germany Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax albipennis'', ''L. tuberointerruptus'', ''Stenamma albipennis''
Temnothorax albipennis 8 Great Britain Orledge, 1998 as ''Leptothorax albipennis'', ''L. tuberointerruptus'', ''Stenamma albipennis''
Temnothorax algerianus 10 Douwes et al., 1988 as ''Epimyrma algeriana''
Temnothorax ambiguus 22 Canada Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax ambiguus''
Temnothorax americanus 11 Canada; USA Fischer, 1987 as ''Harpagoxenus americanus''
Temnothorax andrei 10 USA Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax andrei''
Temnothorax angustulus 23 France Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax angustulus''
Temnothorax aveli 9 France Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax rabaudi''
Temnothorax bernardi 10 Spain Buschinger et al., 1986; Fischer, 1987 as ''Epimyrma bernardi''
Temnothorax congruus 9 18 Japan Imai & Kubota, 1972 as ''Leptothorax congruus''
Temnothorax corsicus 10 France Buschinger et al., 1986; Fischer, 1987 as ''Epimyrma corsica''
Temnothorax corticalis 12 Germany Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax corticalis''
Temnothorax corticalis 9 Crozier, 1975 as ''Leptothorax corticalis''
Temnothorax curvispinosus 23 USA Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax curvispinosus''
Temnothorax duloticus 23 Canada Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax duloticus''
Temnothorax duloticus 24 Canada Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax duloticus''
Temnothorax duloticus 25 Canada Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax duloticus''
Temnothorax exilis 11 Croatia; France; Italy; Turkey Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax exilis''
Temnothorax exilis 17 Italy Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax specularis''
Temnothorax flavicornis 11 Italy Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax flavicornis''
Temnothorax gordiagini 10 Croatia Buschinger et al., 1983; Fischer, 1987 as ''Myrmoxenus gordiagini''
Temnothorax gredosi 17 Spain Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax gredosi''
Temnothorax interruptus 24 Germany Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983 as ''Leptothorax interruptus''
Temnothorax interruptus 12 Croatia; Germany Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax interruptus''
Temnothorax kraussei 10 France, Italy, Spain Fischer, 1987 as ''Epimyrma kraussei''
Temnothorax kutteri 12 France Fischer, 1987 as ''Chalepoxenus kutteri''
Temnothorax lichtensteini 14 Croatia, France, Italy Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax lichtensteini''
Temnothorax longispinosus 12 Canada Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax longispinosus''
Temnothorax longispinosus 12 24 USA Crozier, 1970b as ''Leptothorax longispinosus''
Temnothorax luteus 21 France; Switzerland Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax tristis''
Temnothorax mediterraneus 10 20 France, Italy, Spain Buschinger et al., 1986; Fischer, 1987 as ''Epimyrma kraussei'', ''E.foreli'', ''E.vandeli''
Temnothorax melas 13 France Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax melas''
Temnothorax muellerianus 12 Croatia; France; Greece; Italy Fischer, 1987 as ''Chalepoxenus siciliensis''
Temnothorax niger 18 France; Italy Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax niger''
Temnothorax nigriceps 18 Switzerland Hauschteck, 1962 as ''Leptothorax nigriceps''
Temnothorax nigriceps 9 Croatia; France; Germany; Italy Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax nigriceps''
Temnothorax nylanderi 11 Croatia, France, Germany Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax nylanderi''
Temnothorax nylanderi 11 22 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983 as ''Leptothorax nylanderi''
Temnothorax parvulus 14 France, Italy, Switzerland Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax parvulus''
Temnothorax racovitzai 21 France Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax racovitzai''
Temnothorax ravouxi 10 France; Germany; Italy; Switzerland Buschinger et al., 1986; Fischer, 1987 as ''Epimyrma ravouxi''
Temnothorax recedens 12 Italy Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax recedens''
Temnothorax rottenbergii 11 Italy Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax rottenbergii''
Temnothorax rougeti 8 Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax rougeti'' (subspecies of ''Temnothorax unifasciatus'')
Temnothorax rugatulus 26 USA Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988 as ''Leptothorax rugatulus''
Temnothorax rugatulus 27 USA Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988 as ''Leptothorax rugatulus''
Temnothorax rugatulus 14 USA Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax rugatulus''
Temnothorax schaumii 9 USA Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983 as ''Leptothorax schaumii''
Temnothorax sordidulus 11 Croatia, Italy, Switzerland Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax sordidulus''
Temnothorax spinosior 12 24 Japan Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Imai, 1974; Imai & Yosida, 1964; Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax spinosior''
Temnothorax spinosus 16 Algeria Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax spinosus''
Temnothorax stumperi 10 France; Switzerland Buschinger et al., 1986; Fischer, 1987 as ''Epimyrma stumperi''
Temnothorax tuberum 9 France, Sweden, Switzerland Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax tuberum''
Temnothorax tuberum 9 18 Switzerland Hauschteck, 1962; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983 as ''Leptothorax tuberum''
Temnothorax unifasciatus 9 Croatia; France; Germany; Greece; Italy Fischer, 1987 as ''Leptothorax unifasciatus''
Temnothorax unifasciatus 9 18 Germany; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983 as ''Leptothorax unifasciatus''

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • TEMNOTHORAX [Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini]
    • Temnothorax Mayr, 1861: 68. Type-species: Myrmica recedens, by monotypy.
    • Temnothorax junior synonym of Leptothorax: Forel, 1890a: lxxii.
    • Temnothorax revived from synonymy as subgenus of Leptothorax: Forel, 1892i: 315; maintained as subgenus: Emery, 1915g: 24; Forel, 1915d: 27; Bondroit, 1918: 117; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 679; Emery, 1924d: 259.
    • Temnothorax junior synonym of Leptothorax: Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 96; Bolton, 1982: 319; Bolton, 1994: 105.
    • Temnothorax revived status as genus: Bernard, 1967: 185; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 543; Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 79; Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 125; Bolton, 2003: 252, 270.
    • Temnothorax senior synonym of Antillaemyrmex, Croesomyrmex, Dichothorax, Icothorax, Macromischa, Myrmammophilus, Myrafant: Bolton, 2003: 252, 270.
    • Current subgenera of Temnothorax: nominal plus Gonepimyrma.
  • ANTILLAEMYRMEX [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Antillaemyrmex Mann, 1920: 408 [as subgenus of Macromischa]. Type-species: Macromischa (Antillaemyrmex) terricola, by original designation.
    • Antillaemyrmex raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1931b: 4 (in text).
    • Antillaemyrmex junior synonym of Macromischa: Smith, M.R. 1937: 849; Smith, M.R. 1939e: 502.
    • Antillaemyrmex junior synonym of Leptothorax: Snelling, R.R. 1986: 154.
    • Antillaemyrmex junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • CHALEPOXENUS [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Chalepoxenus Menozzi, 1923a: 257. Type-species: Chalepoxenus gribodoi (junior synonym of Leptothorax muellerianus), by monotypy.
    • [Name of type-species initially misspelled gridoboi, p. 257; correct spelling as gribodoi, p. 258.]
    • Chalepoxenus senior synonym of Leonomyrma: Buschinger, 1987: 117.
    • Chalepoxenus junior synonym of Temnothorax: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • CROESOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Croesomyrmex Mann, 1920: 408 [as subgenus of Macromischa]. Type-species: Macromischa (Croesomyrmex) wheeleri, by original designation.
    • Croesomyrmex raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1931b: 4 (in text).
    • Croesomyrmex junior synonym of Macromischa: Smith, M.R. 1937: 849; Smith, M.R. 1939e: 502.
    • Croesomyrmex junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • DICHOTHORAX [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Dichothorax Emery, 1895c: 323 [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax (Dichothorax) pergandei, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 161.
    • Dichothorax raised to genus: Ashmead, 1905b: 383.
    • Dichothorax subgenus of Leptothorax: Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 139.
    • Dichothorax junior synonym of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
    • Dichothorax junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • EPIMYRMA [junior synonym of Myrmoxenus]
    • Epimyrma Emery, 1915a: 262. Type-species: Epimyrma kraussei, by original designation.
    • Epimyrma senior synonym of Myrmoxenus (and its junior synonym Myrmetaerus): Buschinger, 1990: 245 (provisional synoynym); Bolton, 1994: 105 [incorrect seniority].
    • Epimyrma junior synonym of Myrmoxenus: Schulz & Sanetra, 2002: 162.
  • ICOTHORAX [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Icothorax Hamann & Klemm, 1967: 415 [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax (Icothorax) megalops, by monotypy.
    • Icothorax junior synonym of Myrafant: Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 556; Bolton, 1995b: 32.
    • Icothorax junior synonym of Chalepoxenus: Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 13.
    • Icothorax junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • LEONOMYRMA [junior synonym of Chalepoxenus]
    • Leonomyrma Arnol'di, 1968: 1809. Type-species: Leonomyrma spinosa, by original designation.
    • Leonomyrma junior synonym of Chalepoxenus: Buschinger, 1987: 117.
  • MACROMISCHA [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Macromischa Roger, 1863a: 184. Type-species: Macromischa purpurata, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 166.
    • Macromischa subgenus of Leptothorax: Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 398.
    • Macromischa revived status as genus: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1390.
    • Macromischa senior synonym of Antillaemyrmex, Croesomyrmex: Smith, M.R. 1937: 849; Smith, M.R. 1939e: 502; Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 398.
    • Macromischa junior synonym of Leptothorax: Snelling, R.R. 1986: 154; Bolton, 1994: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 34.
    • Macromischa junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 252, 271.
  • MYRAFANT [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Myrafant Smith, M.R. 1950: 30 [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax curvispinosus, by original designation.
    • Myrafant senior synonym of Icothorax: Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 556.
    • Myrafant junior synonym of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
    • Myrafant junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • MYRMAMMOPHILUS [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Myrmammophilus Menozzi, 1925d: 29 [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax (Myrmammophilus) finzii, by monotypy.
    • Myrmammophilus junior synonym of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
    • Myrmammophilus junior synonym of Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 253, 271.
  • MYRMETAERUS [junior synonym of Myrmoxenus]
    • Myrmetaerus Soudek, 1925a: 33. Type-species: Myrmetaerus microcellatus (junior synonym of Myrmoxenus gordiagini), by monotypy.
    • [Myrmetaerus also described as new by Soudek, 1925b: 14.]
    • Myrmetaerus junior synonym of Camponotus: Snelling, R.R. 1981: 404 (error).
    • Myrmoxenus junior synonym of Epimyrma: Bolton, 1994: 105.
    • Myrmetaerus junior synonym of Myrmoxenus: Buschinger, Winter & Faber, 1984: 336; Bolton, 2003: 248.
  • MYRMOXENUS [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Myrmoxenus Ruzsky, 1902b: 474. Type-species: Myrmoxenus gordiagini, by monotypy.
    • Myrmoxenus senior synonym of Myrmetaerus: Buschinger, Winter & Faber, 1984: 336.
    • Myrmoxenus junior synonym of Epimyrma: Bolton, 1994: 105 [incorrect seniority].
    • Myrmoxenus senior synonym of Epimyrma: Schulz & Sanetra, 2002: 162.
    • Myrmoxenus junior synonym of Temnothorax: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • PROTOMOGNATHUS [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Protomognathus Wheeler, W.M. 1905a: 3 [as subgenus of Tomognathus]. Type-species: Tomognathus americanus, by monotypy.
    • Protomognathus junior synonym of Harpagoxenus: Emery, 1924d: 265.
    • Protomognathus revived from synonymy and raised to genus: Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 65.
    • Protomognathus junior synonym of Temnothorax: Ward et al., 2014: 15.

References

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