Orectognathus

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Bolton 2000 - What little is known of the general biology is summarised by Brown (1953). Of the 29 described species (Taylor, 1980) one, Orectognathus versicolor, has evolved worker polymorphism. Division of labour in this species has been studied by Carlin (1982) and contrasted with the worker polyethism described by Wilson (1962) in the polymorphic Daceton armigerum. Holldobler (1982) has shown that O. versicolor is also a trail-layer, a rare feature among the dacetines.

At a Glance • Trap-Jaw  

Identification

Heterick (2009) - Workers with five-segmented antenna, with the third segment much more elongate than the remaining segments of the flagellum. The mandibles are of the trap-jaw variety, long and thin.

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Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Species by Region

Number of species within biogeographic regions, along with the total number of species for each region.

Afrotropical Region Australasian Region Indo-Australian Region Malagasy Region Nearctic Region Neotropical Region Oriental Region Palaearctic Region
Species 0 19 10 0 0 0 0 0
Total Species 2841 1736 3045 932 835 4379 1741 2862

Biology

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: "usually less than 60" to 104 (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: not parasitic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging behaviour: cooperative (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

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 • Eyes: 11->100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: dentiform; present • Mesonotal Spines: absent; dentiform • Propodeal Spines: dentiform; present • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent

Karyotype

All Karyotype Records for Genus

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Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Orectognathus clarki 30 Australia Crozier, 1968d
Orectognathus darlingtoni 11 22 Australia Imai et al., 1977
Orectognathus versicolor 11 22 Australia Imai et al., 1977

Phylogeny

Myrmicinae
Myrmicini
Pogonomyrmecini
Stenammini
Solenopsidini
Attini

Ochetomyrmex  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Tranopelta  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Diaphoromyrma  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Lachnomyrmex  (16 species, 0 fossil species)

Blepharidatta  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Allomerus  (8 species, 0 fossil species)

Wasmannia  (11 species, 0 fossil species)

Pheidole  (1,294 species, 7 fossil species)

Cephalotes  (123 species, 16 fossil species)

Procryptocerus  (44 species, 0 fossil species)

Strumigenys  (879 species, 4 fossil species)

Phalacromyrmex  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Pilotrochus  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Protalaridris  (7 species, 0 fossil species)

Rhopalothrix  (19 species, 0 fossil species)

Basiceros  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Octostruma  (35 species, 0 fossil species)

Eurhopalothrix  (54 species, 0 fossil species)

Talaridris  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Acanthognathus  (7 species, 1 fossil species)

Daceton  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Lenomyrmex  (7 species, 0 fossil species)

Microdaceton  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Orectognathus  (29 species, 0 fossil species)

Colobostruma  (16 species, 0 fossil species)

Epopostruma  (20 species, 0 fossil species)

Mesostruma  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Paleoattina

Apterostigma  (44 species, 2 fossil species)

Mycocepurus  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Myrmicocrypta  (31 species, 0 fossil species)

Neoattina

Cyatta  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Kalathomyrmex  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetarotes  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetosoritis  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

some Cyphomyrmex  (23 species, 2 fossil species)

some Cyphomyrmex

Paramycetophylax  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetophylax  (21 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetagroicus  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Mycetomoellerius  (31 species, 1 fossil species)

Sericomyrmex  (11 species, 0 fossil species)

Xerolitor  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Paratrachymyrmex  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Trachymyrmex  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Amoimyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Atta  (20 species, 1 fossil species)

some Acromyrmex  (56 species, 0 fossil species)

some Acromyrmex

Pseudoatta  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Crematogastrini

Rostromyrmex  (1 species, 6 fossil species)

Cardiocondyla  (90 species, 0 fossil species)

Ocymyrmex  (34 species, 0 fossil species)

Nesomyrmex  (84 species, 2 fossil species)

Xenomyrmex  (5 species, 0 fossil species)

Terataner  (14 species, 0 fossil species)

Atopomyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Cataulacus  (65 species, 3 fossil species)

Carebara  (249 species, 9 fossil species)

Diplomorium  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Melissotarsus  (4 species, 1 fossil species)

Rhopalomastix  (14 species, 0 fossil species)

Calyptomyrmex  (38 species, 0 fossil species)

Strongylognathus  (27 species, 0 fossil species), Tetramorium  (598 species, 2 fossil species)

Cyphoidris  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Dicroaspis  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Aretidris  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Vollenhovia  (83 species, 3 fossil species)

Dacetinops  (7 species, 0 fossil species)

Indomyrma  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Crematogaster  (783 species, 3 fossil species)

Meranoplus  (91 species, 0 fossil species)

Lophomyrmex  (13 species, 0 fossil species)

Adlerzia  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Recurvidris  (12 species, 0 fossil species)

Stereomyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Trichomyrmex  (29 species, 0 fossil species)

Eutetramorium  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Royidris  (15 species, 0 fossil species)

Malagidris  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Vitsika  (16 species, 0 fossil species)

Huberia  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Podomyrma  (62 species, 1 fossil species)

Liomyrmex  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Metapone  (31 species, 0 fossil species)

Kartidris  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Mayriella  (9 species, 0 fossil species)

Tetheamyrma  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Dacatria  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Proatta  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Dilobocondyla  (22 species, 0 fossil species)

Secostruma  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Acanthomyrmex  (19 species, 0 fossil species)

Myrmecina  (106 species, 0 fossil species)

Perissomyrmex  (6 species, 0 fossil species)

Pristomyrmex  (61 species, 3 fossil species)

some Lordomyrma  (36 species, 0 fossil species)

Propodilobus  (1 species, 0 fossil species)

Lasiomyrma  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

some Lordomyrma

Ancyridris  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

some Lordomyrma

Paratopula  (12 species, 0 fossil species)

Poecilomyrma  (2 species, 0 fossil species)

Romblonella  (10 species, 0 fossil species)

Rotastruma  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Gauromyrmex  (3 species, 0 fossil species)

Vombisidris  (19 species, 0 fossil species)

Temnothorax  (512 species, 7 fossil species)

Harpagoxenus  (4 species, 0 fossil species)

Formicoxenus  (8 species, 0 fossil species)

Leptothorax  (20 species, 0 fossil species)

See Phylogeny of Myrmicinae for details.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • ORECTOGNATHUS [Myrmicinae: Dacetini]
    • Orectognathus Smith, F. 1853: 227. Type-species: Orectognathus antennatus, by monotypy.
    • Orectognathus senior synonym of Arnoldidris: Taylor, 1977: 581; Bolton, 1999: 1655; Bolton, 2000: 19.
  • ARNOLDIDRIS [junior synonym of Orectognathus]
    • Arnoldidris Brown, 1950c: 143. Type-species: Orectognathus chyzeri, by original designation.
    • Arnoldidris junior synonym of Orectognathus: Taylor, 1977: 581; Bolton, 1999: 1655.

Bolton (2000) - Workers Mandibles linear and elongate, with kinetic mode of action , each with an apical fork of 3 spiniform teeth that interlock at full closure. Mandibles at full gape open to 170 degrees or more. Basal process of mandible a curved spur; at full mandibular closure process is dorsal to labrum and fits into a mediodorsal impression on labrum. Palp formula 5, 3. Labrum roughly T-shaped , short and not capable of reflexing to conceal the labio-maxillary complex , which is permanently exposed. Each lateral labral arm locks into a deep emargination near the inner mandibular base. A single long trigger hair arises from each transverse arm of the T-shaped labrum. Eye not located ventrolaterally on side of head. Antenna with 5 segments, of which the second funicular segment (= third antennal) is an elongate bar-like fusion segment; with a weakly differentiated apical club of 2 segments. Scape, when laid back in its normal resting position , passes above the eye; apical portion of extended scape not to distinctly curved anteriorly when seen in full-face view; scape slightly downcurved near base. Scrobe absent to weakly present. Pronotal humeri and mesonotum armed or unarmed, the former more usual. Propodeal spiracle well in front of margin of declivity, at approximately the midheight of the sclerite. Metapleural gland bulla small, with its apex widely separated from the propodeal spiracle. Waist segments without spongiform tissue and without lateral laminar cuticular processes; petiole node unarmed to bidentate; postpetiolar spiracle lateral. Limbus absent from first gastral tergite; suture between first gastral tergite and sternite rounded laterobasally; basigastral costulae absent.

Baroni Urbani & De Andrade (2007) - Only one, convincing, synapomorphy is known for this genus: the hypertrophy of the second funicular joint of workers and gynes (CI 1.00, RI 0.00).

References