|Alliance:||Podomyrma genus group|
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)
|Based on Ward et al. (2014) and Blaimer et al. (2018).|
Forest dwelling species of ants, the genus is endemic to Madagascar and Comoros.
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Morphology
- 6 Nomenclature
- 7 References
One of a number of closely related Myrmicinae genera - the Eutetramorium group - from Madagascar, species in the genus Eutetramorium superficially resemble Tetramorium.
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Keys including this Genus
Keys to Species in this Genus
Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps
Life History Traits
- Mean colony size: 1-50 (Greer et al., 2021)
- Compound colony type: not parasitic (Greer et al., 2021)
- Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
- Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
- Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
- Foraging behaviour: cooperative (Greer et al., 2021)
• Antennal segment count: 12 • Antennal club: 3 • Palp formula: 4,3; 4,2 • Spur formula: 1 simple-barbulate, 1 simple-barbulate; 0, 0 • Eyes: 11-100 ommatidia • Scrobes: absent • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: present • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent
• Antennal segment count 13 • Antennal club 0 • Palp formula 4,3 • Total dental count 7 • Spur formula 1 simple- barbulate, 1 barbulate- pectinate
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- EUTETRAMORIUM [Myrmicinae: Myrmicini]
- Eutetramorium Emery, 1899f: 280. Type-species: Eutetramorium mocquerysi, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 163.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Bolton and Fisher (2014):
This small genus was established by Emery (1899) for two conspicuous, large, darkly coloured Madagascan species that superficially resemble Tetramorium. Initially, Emery (1912, 1914) was of the opinion that the genus was referable to the tribe Myrmecinini, but Ashmead (1905) and Wheeler (1910) had already referred it to Tetramoriini, an opinion that Emery (1915b, 1924) also came to accept. Bolton (1976) excluded Eutetramorium from Tetramoriini on morphological grounds, and tentatively transferred it to Myrmicini. This placement persisted until recently, when a molecular analysis of Myrmicini by Jansen & Savolainen (2010) showed that the monophyly of the tribe was dubious, and that Eutetramorium formed a clade with Huberia. The yet unpublished, more detailed, DNA analysis of Myrmicinae by Philip S. Ward has established that Eutetramorium belongs in a strongly supported, endemic Madagascan clade that also includes four other genera.
Monomorphic myrmicine ants.
Mandible triangular; masticatory margin with 6–8 teeth, longer than the basal margin.
Palp formula 4,3, or 4,2.
Stipes of maxilla with a coarse transverse crest.
Clypeus posteriorly moderately broadly inserted between the frontal lobes; median portion of clypeus broad, not bicarinate.
Clypeus with lateral portions raised into a shielding wall or sharp ridge in front of the antennal sockets.
Clypeus with a tooth or triangular point at midpoint of anterior margin; without an unpaired seta at the midpoint.
Frontal carinae restricted to frontal lobes, never extending to the posterior margin of the head.
Antennal scrobes absent.
Antenna with 12 segments, with an apical club of 3 segments; scape distinctly downcurved near its base.
Antennal socket and torulus subtended by a depressed antennal fossa; anterior margin of the fossa is formed by the posterior surface of the narrow, raised, lateral portion of the clypeus.
Torulus with upper lobe concealed by the frontal lobe in full-face view. In profile the torulus lobe large, directed downward over the condyle of the scape.
Eyes present, located slightly in front of, to slightly behind, the midlength of the side of the head capsule in full-face view.
Head capsule without a median, longitudinal carina.
Pronotal humeri rounded in dorsal view.
Metanotal groove impressed.
Propodeum bispinose or bidentate.
Propodeal spiracle behind midlength of sclerite.
Metasternal process present.
Tibial spurs: mesotibia 0 or 1; metatibia 0 or 1; simple when present.
Abdominal segment 4 (first gastral) tergite does not broadly overlap the sternite on the ventral gaster; gastral shoulders absent.
Sting simple, without a spatulate to pennant-shaped lamellate appendage that projects from the dorsum of the shaft near or at its apex.
Main pilosity of dorsal head and body: simple.
Extreme ergatoid in mocquerysi, alate in monticellii. In parvum a normal dealate queen is present in the type-series, but there is also a specimen that may be an ergatoid or a worker-queen intercaste, or possibly merely an oversized worker, as discussed under parvum. Dealate queen with characters as worker except for the usual modifications of the mesosoma and the presence of ocelli. Venation: see under male.
Known only for E. mocquerysi. Smaller than conspecific worker. Mandible stoutly triangular, with 7 teeth. Palp formula 4,3. Stipital crest present on maxilla. Antenna with 13 segments, filiform. SI 31. First funicular segment short but not globular, about one quarter the length of the second funicular segment. In full-face view eye located in front of midlength of head capsule. Ocelli small, conspicuous. Occipital carina sharp but not forming a raised crest. Mesotibia and metatibia each with a single spur, barbulate on mesotibia, weakly pectinate on metatibia. Notauli weakly present, the anterior arms forming a V-shape. Mesoscutum anteriorly, between the notauli arms, with a longitudinal median carina that is narrowly bifurcated anteriorly. Mesopleuron with a marked transverse sulcus. Propodeum unarmed, the spiracle low on the side and in front of the midlength of the sclerite; propodeal lobes conspicuous, rounded. Petiole with a short, stout anterior peduncle and a short but relatively high node, the spiracle about level with the base of the anterior face of the node. Postpetiole greatly elongated, in profile almost twice the length of the petiole. Subpetiolar process present, small. Cerci present.
Forewing venation (based on male of mocquerysi and queen of monticellii). Rs·f4–5 does not meet R·f3 on anterior margin of wing (= marginal cell open). 2rs-m absent. 1m-cu present. Fusion of Rs+M extended distally, so that 1m-cu arises from Rs+M, not from M. Rs·f3 present (Rs+M divides into Rs·f3 and M·f3–4 proximal of the junction with 2r-rs). A·f2 long, not merely a stub distal of cu-a. In monticellii queens cu-a is retracted toward the wing base and arises from M+Cu, proximal of the point where it divides into M·f1 and Cu·f1–2. However, in the single mocquerysi male examined, cu-a arises at the point where M+Cu divides.
- Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
- Blaimer, B.B., Ward, P.S., Schultz, T.R., Fisher, B.L., Brady, S.G. 2018. Paleotropical diversification dominates the evolution of the hyperdiverse ant tribe Crematogastrini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insect Systematics and Diversity 2(5): 3; 1-14 (doi:10.1093/isd/ixy013).
- Bolton, B. & Fisher, B.L. 2014. The Madagascan endemic myrmicine ants related to Eutetramorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): taxonomy of the genera Eutetramorium Emery, Malagidris nom. n., Myrmisaraka gen. n., Royidris gen. n., and Vitsika gen. n. Zootaxa 3791:1–99. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3791.1.1
- Bolton, B. 1976. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Constituent genera, review of smaller genera and revision of Triglyphothrix Forel. Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 34: 281-379 (page 293, Noes on genus)
- Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 106, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
- Bolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Nat. Hist. 2 29: 1037-1056 (page 1049, census)
- Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 190, catalogue)
- Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 220, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
- Cantone S. 2018. Winged Ants, The queen. Dichotomous key to genera of winged female ants in the World. The Wings of Ants: morphological and systematic relationships (self-published).
- Emery, C. 1899e. Formiche di Madagascar raccolte dal Sig. A. Mocquerys nei pressi della Baia di Antongil (1897-1898). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 31: 263-290 (page 280, Eutetramorium as genus)
- Emery, C. 1912b. Études sur les Myrmicinae. [I-IV.]. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 56: 94-105 (page 105, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Myrmicinini)
- Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 41, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Myrmicinini)
- Emery, C. 1915g. Noms de sous-genres et de genres proposés pour la sous-famille des Myrmicinae. Modifications à la classification de ce groupe (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1915: 189-192 (page 192, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
- Emery, C. 1924f . Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C: 207-397 (page 291, diagnosis, catalogue)
- Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 245, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
- Jansen, G., Savolainen, R. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the ant tribe Myrmicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160(3), 482–495 (doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00604.x).
- Kugler, C. 1979b . Further studies of the myrmicine sting apparatus: Eutetramorium, Oxyopomyrmex, and Terataner (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Psyche (Camb.) 85: 255-263 (page 225, sting structure)
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1985b. A simplified conspectus of the Formicidae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 111: 255-264 (page 257, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini (anachronism))
- Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 141, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1911g. A list of the type species of the genera and subgenera of Formicidae. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 21: 157-175 (page 163, Type-species: Eutetramorium mocquerysi; by subsequent designation)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 664, Eutetramorium in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1922k. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. IX. A synonymic list of the ants of the Malagasy region. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 4 45: 1005-1055 (page 1032, catalogue)