Strumigenys

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Strumigenys
Temporal range: 20.43–0 Ma Miocene – Recent
Strumigenys abdera
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Strumigenys
Smith, F., 1860
Type species
Strumigenys mandibularis
Diversity
859 species
4 fossil species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Strumigenys abdera casent0005466 profile 1.jpg

Strumigenys abdera

Strumigenys abdera casent0005466 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Attini

Ochetomyrmex (2 species), Tranopelta (2 species)




Allomerus (8 species), Blepharidatta (4 species), Diaphoromyrma (1 species), Lachnomyrmex (16 species), Wasmannia (11 species)






Acanthognathus (7 species), Colobostruma (16 species), Daceton (2 species), Epopostruma (20 species), Lenomyrmex (7 species), Mesostruma (9 species), Microdaceton (4 species), Orectognathus (29 species),




Acromyrmex (55 species), Apterostigma (44 species), Atta (20 species), Cyatta (1 species), Cyphomyrmex (23 species), Kalathomyrmex (1 species), Mycetophylax (21 species), Mycetagroicus (4 species), Mycetarotes (4 species), Mycetosoritis (2 species), Mycocepurus (6 species), Myrmicocrypta (31 species), Sericomyrmex (11 species), Trachymyrmex (9 species), Xerolitor (1 species)





Pheidole
  (1,293 species)




Cephalotes
  (123 species)



Procryptocerus
  (44 species)







Strumigenys
  (859 species)




Phalacromyrmex
  (1 species)



Pilotrochus
  (1 species)







Protalaridris
  (7 species)



Rhopalothrix
  (16 species)





Basiceros
  (8 species)




Octostruma
  (34 species)




Eurhopalothrix
  (54 species)



Talaridris
  (1 species)














Based on Ward et al. (2014), Blaimer et al. (2018) and Li et al. (2018).

Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - A species-rich, worldwide occurring genus mainly distributed in the world tropics and subtropics (Bolton, 2000). The current genus definition includes the former genus Pyramica, which was proposed as junior synonym some years ago (Baroni Urbani and De Andrade, 2007). The taxonomy of the whole tribe was exhaustively revised by Bolton (2000) on a global scale. Most Strumigenys species are small, cryptic ants that nest and forage in leaf litter, in soil, or in rotten wood, whereas there are far fewer genus members that prefer an arboreal life-style. Many species are specialised predators possessing trap-jaw mandibles, and mainly hunt collembolans or other small arthropods (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990; Bolton, 1999).

At a Glance • Trap-Jaw  

 

Photo Gallery

  • The mandibles of these Strumigenys are long and forceps-like. Despite the extreme shape, they are still able to handle their brood with care. Photo by Phil Hoenle.

Identification

Species Groups

Strumigenys species groups

Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Fossils

Fossils are known from: Dominican amber, Dominican Republic (Burdigalian, Early Miocene).

Biology

Keiichi Masuko and Alain Dejean have published various papers on predatory behaviour in this genus

Association with Other Organisms

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
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Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Strumigenys arizonica xenobiont ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis host
Strumigenys inquilina inquiline ant Strumigenys lujae host
Strumigenys membranifera host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen United States Pereira, 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Strumigenys perplexa host ant Strumigenys xenos workerless inquiline
Strumigenys xenos workerless inquiline ant Strumigenys perplexa host

Flight Period

All Flight Records for Genus

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Taxon Month Source Notes
Strumigenys dolichognatha Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Kaspari et al., 2001
Strumigenys elongata Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Kaspari et al., 2001
Strumigenys gundlachi Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Kaspari et al., 2001
Strumigenys lewisi Aug Japan
Strumigenys minutula Jun Jul Hong Kong
Strumigenys zeteki Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Kaspari et al., 2001

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 15-400 (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: not parasitic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging behaviour: solitary (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Eyes: 1;11-100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: dentiform; present • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • 2n = 38 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985) (as Smithistruma sp.).
  • 2n = 16 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982) (as Smithistruma sp.).
  • n = 13 (Crozier, 1975) (as Smithistruma sp.).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

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Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Strumigenys 16 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982 as ''Smithistruma'' sp.
Strumigenys 38 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985 as ''Smithistruma'' sp.
Strumigenys 13 Crozier, 1975 as ''Smithistruma'' sp.
Strumigenys diabola 40 18SM+12ST+10A French Guiana Aguiar et al., 2020
Strumigenys dohertyi 12 24 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983 as ''Strumigenys taipingensis''
Strumigenys doriae 22 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Strumigenys friedae 24 Australia Imai et al., 1977
Strumigenys godeffroyi 40 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Strumigenys godeffroyi 44 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Strumigenys louisianae 4 4M Brazil AlvesSilva et al., 2014
Strumigenys mutica 36 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985 as ''Kyidris mutica''

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • STRUMIGENYS [Myrmicinae: Dacetini]
    • Strumigenys Smith, F. 1860c: 72. Type-species: Strumigenys mandibularis, by monotypy.
    • Strumigenys senior synonym of Labidogenys: Roger, 1863b: 40; Brown & Wilson, 1959b: 281; Brown, 1960b: 37.
    • Strumigenys senior synonym of Eneria, Proscopomyrmex: Brown, 1949d: 15.
    • Strumigenys senior synonym of Quadristruma: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 12; Bolton, 1999: 1673.
    • Strumigenys senior synonym of: Asketogenys, Borgmeierita, Cephaloxys, Chelystruma, Cladarogenys, Codiomyrmex, Codioxenus, Dorisidris, Dysedrognathus, Epitritus, Glamyromyrmex, Gymnomyrmex, Kyidris, Miccostruma, Neostruma, Pentastruma, Platystruma, Polyhomoa, Pyramica, Serrastruma, Smithistruma, Tingimyrmex, Trichoscapa, Weberistruma, Wessonistruma: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 101.
  • ASKETOGENYS [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Asketogenys Brown, 1972: 23. Type-species: Asketogenys acubecca, by original designation.
    • Asketogenys junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Asketogenys junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 15; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 103.
  • BORGMEIERITA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Borgmeierita Brown, 1953g: 23. Type-species: Codiomyrmex excisus, by original designation.
    • Borgmeierita junior synonym of Glamyromyrmex: Brown, 1973a: 35.
    • Borgmeierita junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 103.
    • Borgmeierita junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
  • CEPHALOXYS [junior homonym, see Smithistruma]
    • Cephaloxys Smith, F. 1865: 76. Type-species: Cephaloxys capitata, by monotypy. [Junior homonym of Cephaloxys Signoret, 1847: 294 (Hemiptera).]
    • Smithistruma Brown, 1948e: 104, replacement name for Cephaloxys Smith.
  • CHELYSTRUMA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Chelystruma Brown, 1950a: 33 [as subgenus of Glamyromyrmex]. Type-species: Glamyromyrmex (Chelystruma) lilloana, by monotypy.
    • Chelystruma raised to genus: Kempf, 1959d: 338.
    • Chelystruma junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Chelystruma junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 14; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 103.
  • CLADAROGENYS [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Cladarogenys Brown, 1976b: 33. Type-species: Cladarogenys lasia, by original designation.
    • Cladarogenys junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Cladarogenys junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 14; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 103.
  • CODIOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Codiomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1916d: 326. Type-species: Codiomyrmex thaxteri, by monotypy.
    • Codiomyrmex subgenus of Strumigenys: Emery, 1924d: 325.
    • Codiomyrmex revived status as genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1916d: 326; Brown, 1948e: 114.
    • Codiomyrmex junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Codiomyrmex junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 14; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 101.
  • CODIOXENUS [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Codioxenus Santschi, 1931c: 278 [as subgenus of Epitritus]. Type-species: Epitritus (Codioxenus) simulans, by monotypy.
    • Codioxenus raised to genus: Brown, 1948e: 123.
    • Codioxenus junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Codioxenus junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 14; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 101.
  • DORISIDRIS [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Dorisidris Brown, 1948e: 116. Type-species: Strumigenys (Codiomyrmex) nitens, by original designation.
    • Dorisidris junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Dorisidris junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 14; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 102.
  • DYSEDROGNATHUS [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Dysedrognathus Taylor, 1968c: 132. Type-species: Dysedrognathus extemenus, by original designation.
    • Dysedrognathus junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Dysedrognathus junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 13; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 103.
  • ENERIA [junior synonym of Strumigenys]
    • Eneria Donisthorpe, 1948d: 598. Type-species: Eneria excisa (junior synonym of Strumigenys loriae), by original designation.
    • Eneria junior synonym of Strumigenys: Brown, 1949d: 15.
  • EPITRITUS [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Epitritus Emery, 1869a: 136. Type-species: Epitritus argiolus, by monotypy.
    • Epitritus junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1667; Bolton, 2000: 90.
    • Epitritus junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 12; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 101.
  • GLAMYROMYRMEX [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Glamyromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1915e: 487. Type-species: Glamyromyrmex beebei, by monotypy.
    • Glamyromyrmex senior synonym of Borgmeierita: Brown, 1973a: 35.
    • Glamyromyrmex junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1667; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Glamyromyrmex junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 14; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 101.
  • GYMNOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Gymnomyrmex Borgmeier, 1954b: 279. Type-species: Gymnomyrmex splendens, by original designation.
    • Gymnomyrmex junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Gymnomyrmex junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 14; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 103.
  • KYIDRIS [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Kyidris Brown, 1949d: 3. Type-species: Kyidris mutica, by original designation.
    • Kyidris senior synonym of Polyhomoa: Creighton, 1950b: 93; Brown & Yasumatsu, 1951: 93.
    • Kyidris junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Kyidris junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 15; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 103.
  • LABIDOGENYS [junior synonym of Strumigenys]
    • Labidogenys Roger, 1862a: 249. Type-species: Labidogenys lyroessa, by monotypy.
    • Labidogenys junior synonym of Strumigenys: Roger, 1863b: 40.
    • Labidogenys revived from synonymy: Brown, 1948e: 102.
    • Labidogenys junior synonym of Strumigenys: Brown & Wilson, 1959b: 281; Brown, 1960b: 38.
  • MICCOSTRUMA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Miccostruma Brown, 1948e: 123. Type-species: Epitritus mandibularis, by original designation.
    • Miccostruma junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Miccostruma junior synonym of Smithistruma: Bolton, 1983: 274.
  • NEOSTRUMA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Neostruma Brown, 1948e: 111. Type-species: Strumigenys crassicornis, by original designation.
    • Neostruma junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Neostruma junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 12; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 102.
  • PENTASTRUMA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Pentastruma Forel, 1912a: 50. Type-species: Pentastruma sauteri, by monotypy.
    • Pentastruma junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1667; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Pentastruma junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 15; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 101.
  • PLATYSTRUMA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Platystruma Brown, 1953g: 112 [as subgenus of Smithistruma]. Type-species: Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) depressiceps, by original designation.
    • Platystruma junior synonym of Smithistruma: Brown, 1973a: 35.
    • Platystruma junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
  • POLYHOMOA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Polyhomoa Azuma, 1950: 36. Type-species: Polyhomoa itoi (junior synonym of Kyidris mutica), by monotypy.
    • Polyhomoa junior synonym of Kyidris: Creighton, 1950b: 93; Brown & Yasumatsu, 1951: 93.
    • Polyhomoa junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
  • PROSCOPOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Strumigenys]
    • Proscopomyrmex Patrizi, 1946: 294. Type-species: Proscopomyrmex londianensis, by monotypy.
    • Proscopomyrmex junior synonym of Strumigenys: Brown, 1949d: 15; Bolton, 1999: 1673.
  • PYRAMICA [Myrmicinae: Dacetini]
    • Pyramica Roger, 1862a: 251. Type-species: Pyramica gundlachi, by monotypy.
    • Pyramica junior synonym of Strumigenys: Roger, 1863b: 40.
    • Pyramica revived from synonymy as subgenus of Strumigenys: Brown, 1948e: 110.
    • Pyramica senior synonym of: Asketogenys, Borgmeierita, Cephaloxys, Chelystruma, Cladarogenys, Codiomyrmex, Codioxenus, Dorisidris, Dysedrognathus, Epitritus, Glamyromyrmex, Gymnomyrmex, Kyidris, Miccostruma, Neostruma, Pentastruma, Platystruma, Polyhomoa, Serrastruma, Smithistruma, Tingimyrmex, Trichoscapa, Weberistruma, Wessonistruma: Bolton, 1999: 1667; Bolton, 2000: 90.
    • Pyramica junior synonym of Strumigenys: Brown & Wilson, 1959b: 281; Brown, 1960b: 37; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 101.
  • QUADRISTRUMA [junior synonym of Strumigenys]
    • Quadristruma Brown, 1949b: 47. Type-species: Epitritus emmae, by original designation.
    • Quadristruma junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 12; Bolton, 1999: 1673; Bolton, 2000: 492.
  • SERRASTRUMA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Serrastruma Brown, 1948e: 107 [as subgenus of Smithistruma]. Type-species: Strumigenys simoni, by original designation.
    • Serrastruma raised to genus: Brown, 1949d: 6.
    • Serrastruma junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Serrastruma junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 14; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 102.
  • SMITHISTRUMA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Smithistruma Brown, 1948e: 104. Replacement name for Cephaloxys Smith, F. 1865: 76. [Junior homonym of Cephaloxys Signoret, 1847: 294 (Hemiptera).]
    • [Type-species not Strumigenys pulchella, unjustified subsequent designation by Brown, 1948e: 104, repeated in Kempf, 1972a: 230, Bolton, 1983: 274 and Bolton, 1995b: 46.]
    • Smithistruma senior synonym of Platystruma, Weberistruma, Wessonistruma: Brown, 1973a: 35.
    • Smithistruma senior synonym of Miccostruma: Bolton, 1983: 274.
    • Smithistruma junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Smithistruma junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 14; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 102.
  • TINGIMYRMEX [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Tingimyrmex Mann, 1926: 104 [as subgenus of Strumigenys]. Type-species: Strumigenys (Tingimyrmex) mirabilis, by monotypy.
    • Tingimyrmex raised to genus: Brown, 1948e: 111.
    • Tingimyrmex junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.
    • Tingimyrmex junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 15; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 101.
  • TRICHOSCAPA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Trichoscapa Emery, 1869b: 24 [as subgenus of Strumigenys]. Type-species: Strumigenys (Trichoscapa) membranifera, by monotypy.
    • Trichoscapa junior synonym of Strumigenys: Dalla Torre, 1893: 145.
    • Trichoscapa junior synonym of Cephaloxys: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 668; Emery, 1924d: 323.
    • Trichoscapa revived from synonymy: Brown, 1948e: 112.
    • Trichoscapa subgenus of Strumigenys: Creighton, 1950a: 304.
    • Trichoscapa status as genus: Kempf, 1972a: 255; Bolton, 1983: 319.
    • Trichoscapa junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1667; Bolton, 2000: 90.
    • Trichoscapa junior synonym of Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994: 13; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 101.
  • WEBERISTRUMA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Weberistruma Brown, 1948e: 106 [as subgenus of Smithistruma]. Type-species: Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) leptothrix, by original designation.
    • Weberistruma raised to genus: Brown, 1949d: 7.
    • Weberistruma junior synonym of Smithistruma: Brown, 1973a: 35.
    • Weberistruma junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91].
  • WESSONISTRUMA [junior synonym of Pyramica]
    • Wessonistruma Brown, 1948e: 106 [as subgenus of Smithistruma]. Type-species: Strumigenys pergandei, by original designation.
    • Wessonistruma junior synonym of Smithistruma: Brown, 1973a: 35.
    • Wessonistruma junior synonym of Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1668; Bolton, 2000: 91.

Baroni Urbani & De Andrade (2007) - In our study this genus results characterized by the following synapomorphies:

Worker (and gyne) reduction of the labial palps from 2 to 1. CI 0.70, RI 0.67. This trait is shared also with Acanthognathus and with some Basiceros species previously included in Talaridris.

Worker (and gyne) presence of a basi mandibular process. CI 0.67, RI 0.86. The synapomorphic state of this character (sometimes of doubtful detection, see Fig. 10) is an artefact of character optimization due to the fact that the basi mandibular process is absent in Phalacromyrmex, Pilotrochus, Ishakidris, Basiceros, and the hypothetical ancestor of Acanthognathus (process present in highly transformed form) and the remaining Dacetini genera (process present). Because of its widespread presence in a number of Dacetini genera, presence of the basimandibular process is a poor discriminant trait to identify Strumigenys.

Worker (and gyne) mesosternal hair beds visible in profile. CT 0.91, RI 0.67. In spite of its perfect match within Strumigenys, this character is irregularly distributed among several dacetine genera including the three monotypic genera Phalacromyrmex, Pilotrochus and Ishakidris. Moreover, we regard the character itself as insecure: mesosternal hair beds are widespread and coding their visibility in profile as phylogenetically significant needs some imagination and abstraction capacity.

Worker (and gyne) eyes ventral. CI 0.67, RI 0.80. This trait is shared with all and only the former Phalacromyrmecini, but was coded as polymorphic in “Pyramica” as a result of our transfer to Strumigenys of the blind species inopinata (see below, the list of new combinations in Strumigenys) originally described in “Rhopalothrix”. The position of the eyes, otherwise, is likely to represent the main synypomorphy of the genus.

Gyne (and male?) secondary loss of the anal vein. CI 0.75, RI 0.50. This trait appears to be constant among Strumigenys but it reappears in some Acanthognathus and Basiceros species.

Strumigenys (including Pyramica) results weakly defined from our analysis, unable to focus on one single clear-cut synapomorphy. On the other hand, by appearing as branch in a tetratomy, its sister-group with which it could eventually be merged is also not clearly identified. For these reasons and for nomenclatorial conservationism we prefer to provisionally maintain Strumigenys as a valid genus defined by a combination of characters, a procedure seldom accepted in phylogenetic studies.

References

  • Smith, F. 1860c. Descriptions of new genera and species of exotic Hymenoptera. J. Entomol. 1: 65-84 (page 72, Strumigenys as genus)
  • Smith, F. 1871a. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and the Eastern Archipelago. With introductory remarks by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 11: 285-348 (page 334, Strumigenys in Myrmicidae)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 141, Strumigenys in Myrmicinae, Dacetini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 668, Strumigenys in Myrmicinae, Dacetini)