Brown & Kempf, 1961
|Rhopalothrix bolaui, now Eurhopalothrix bolaui|
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)
|Based on Ward et al. (2014), Blaimer et al. (2018) and Li et al. (2018).|
The genus Eurhopalothrix occurs throughout the Neotropics and Indo-Australian tropics, where it is an inhabitant of forest leaf litter and soil.
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Morphology
- 6 Nomenclature
- 7 References
Eurhopalothrix are characterized as basicerotines with 7-segmented antennae and triangular mandibles (Brown and Kempf, 1960; Bolton, 2003). The tribe basicerotini is taxonomically problematic as there is no single accepted classification of its species into genera. Baroni Urbani and de Andrade (2007) synonymized the tribe Basicerotini with the Dacetini and proposed that all basicerotine genera be placed in the genus Basiceros. Longino (2013) revised the New World basicerotine species with 7-segmented antennae and triangular mandibles, as Eurhopalothrix, and recognized 28 species. Other Eurhopalothrix species are found in Australia and southeast Asia.
|See images of species within this genus|
Keys including this Genus
- Key to Australian Genera of Myrmicinae
- Key to North American Genera of Myrmicinae
- Key to Vietnamese Myrmicinae Genera
Keys to Species in this Genus
- Key to Australian Eurhopalothrix Species
- Key to New World Eurhopalothrix
- Key to Old World Basicerotini
- Key to Eurhopalothrix platisquama group workers
Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps
Little is known about the biology of most species in this genus. Nests are rarely found, and queens and males have not been collected for many species. Longino (2013) summarized their biology "Eurhopalothrix specimens are encountered almost exclusively in samples from mass extraction techniques that recover small arthropods in sifted litter, rotten wood, and soil. Densities, at least in the northern Neotropics, are usually low, with workers occurring in < 10% of quantitative samples of 1 m2 litter plots, but occasionally may reach densities as high as 40% of samples. Live colonies of Old World Eurhopalothrix were observed by Wilson (1956) and Wilson and Brown (1984), and a Costa Rican colony of Basiceros manni was observed by Wilson and Hölldobler (1986). All basicerotines, including Eurhopalothrix, are thought to be predators in tropical leaf litter, relying on stealth or sit-and-wait techniques. Sampled specimens are often coated with a thin layer of clay, especially on the face, which is thought to function as camouflage, enhancing crypsis (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1986). Highly specialized spatulate setae may be instrumental in acquisition and adherence of the clay layer (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1986)."
Life History Traits
- Mean colony size: 50 (Greer et al., 2021)
- Compound colony type: not parasitic (Greer et al., 2021)
- Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
- Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
- Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
- Foraging behaviour: cooperative (Greer et al., 2021)
• Eyes: 11-100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: dentiform; present • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent
- 2n = 18 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983) ('E. procera group).
All Karyotype Records for Genus
|Eurhopalothrix||18||Malaysia||Imai et al., 1983||'E. procera'' group|
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- EURHOPALOTHRIX [Myrmicinae: Basicerotini]
- Eurhopalothrix Brown & Kempf, 1961: 44. Type-species: Rhopalothrix bolaui, by original designation.
- [Eurhopalothrix Brown & Kempf, 1960: 202; unavailable name, proposed without designation of type-species.]
- Eurhopalothrix junior synonym of Basiceros: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 88.
All taxa of genera Eurhopalothrix, Octostruma, Protalaridris, Rhopalothrix and Talaridris were combined in Basiceros, sensu Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 90-93. Synonymy of all basicerotine genera under Basiceros, by Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 88, is incorrect procedure as Rhopalothrix has priority. Basicerotine genus-rank taxonomy documented in Bolton, 2003: 183-185, is retained.
- Baroni Urbani, C.; De Andrade, M. L. 1994. First description of fossil Dacetini ants with a critical analysis of the current classification of the tribe (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera, Formicidae. VI: Dacetini). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd. Ser. B ( (page 31, Eurhopalothrix in Myrmicinae, Dacetini)
- Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 105, Eurhopalothrix in Myrmicinae, Basicerotini)
- Bolton, B. 1998a. Monophyly of the dacetonine tribe-group and its component tribes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Entomol. Ser. 67: 65-78 (page 67, Eurhopalothrix in Myrmicinae, Basicerotini)
- Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 184, Eurhopalothrix in Myrmicinae, Basicerotini [Eurhopalothrix Brown & Kempf, 1960: 202; unavailable name, proposed without designation of type-species.])
- Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kempf, W. W. 1960. A world revision of the ant tribe Basicerotini. Stud. Entomol. (n.s.) 3: 161-250 (page 202, 245, Eurhopalothrix ; unavailable name, proposed without designation of type species; Key to world species)
- Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kempf, W. W. 1961 . The type species of the ant genus Eurhopalothrix. Psyche (Camb.) 67: 44 (page 44, Eurhopalothrix in Myrmicinae, Basicerotini)
- Longino J. T. 2013. A review of the Central American and Caribbean species of the ant genus Eurhopalothrix Brown and Kempf, 1961 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with a key to New World species. Zootaxa. 3693:101-151. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3693.2.1
- Taylor, R. W. 1968c. Notes on the Indo-Australian basicerotine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust. J. Zool. 16: 333-348 (page 334, Key to Indo-Australian species)
- Taylor, R. W. 1990c. New Asian ants of the tribe Basicerotini, with an on-line computer interactive key to the twenty-six known Indo-Australian species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Invertebr. Taxon. 4: 397-425 (page 401, Key to Indo-Australian species)