Tetramorium sulcinode

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Tetramorium sulcinode
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Tetramorium
Species: T. sulcinode
Binomial name
Tetramorium sulcinode
Santschi, 1927

Tetramorium sulcinode casent0235354 p 1 high.jpg

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Specimen Labels



Csösz, Radchenko and Schulz (2007) - Workers of T. sulcinode can be separated from related species (except for Tetramorium annectens) by well developed psammophore, relatively large eyes. The most distinctive features to separate T. sulcinode from T. annectens, is the PEW/PPW index and the sculpture of petiolar node: semi-circular rugulose in T. sulcinode, reticulate in T. annectens. Workers of T. sulcinode mostly resemble Tetramorium anatolicum by the fine, parallel body sculpture and the scape characters. These two species can also be separated by the absence/presence of the psammophore and by the non-overlapping relative size of the eyes.

Gynes of T. sulcinode are distinguishable by the well developed psammophore, short and smooth scape without a dorsal carina basally, wide scutum and relatively narrow petiole and postpetiole. Between T. sulcinode and T. annectens the relative petiole width gives separation.

Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 42.78° to 36.5697°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Oriental Region: Pakistan.
Palaearctic Region: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan (type locality), Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Türkiye, Turkmenistan, Turkmenistan.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Association with Other Organisms

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Csosz et al. 2007. FIGURES 61–67. Tetramorium sulcinode Santschi, 1927. Gyne: alitrunk petiole and postpetiole, Fig. 61. dorsal view, Fig. 62. lateral view, Fig. 63. head. Worker: Fig. 64. head. Alitrunk petiole and postpetiole, Fig. 65. dorsal view, Fig. 66. lateral view, Fig. 67. scape, dorsal view.


Images from AntWeb

Tetramorium sulcinode casent0906713 h 1 high.jpgTetramorium sulcinode casent0906713 p 1 high.jpgTetramorium sulcinode casent0906713 d 1 high.jpgTetramorium sulcinode casent0906713 l 1 high.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0906713. Photographer Estella Ortega, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Tetramorium sulcinode casent0906720 h 1 high.jpgTetramorium sulcinode casent0906720 p 1 high.jpgTetramorium sulcinode casent0906720 d 1 high.jpgTetramorium sulcinode casent0906720 l 1 high.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0906720. Photographer Estella Ortega, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Tetramorium sulcinode casent0906721 h 1 high.jpgTetramorium sulcinode casent0906721 p 1 high.jpgTetramorium sulcinode casent0906721 d 1 high.jpgTetramorium sulcinode casent0906721 l 1 high.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0906721. Photographer Estella Ortega, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • sulcinode. Tetramorium caespitum var. sulcinode Santschi, 1927a: 53 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN. Subspecies of caespitum: Pisarski, 1970: 318. Junior synonym of turcomanicum: Radchenko, 1992b: 52. Revived from synonymy, raised to species and senior synonym of karakalense: Csösz, Radchenko & Schulz, 2007: 31.
  • karakalense. Tetramorium karakalense Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 229, fig. 6 (q.) TURKMENIA. Junior synonym of sulcinode: Csösz, Radchenko & Schulz, 2007: 31.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Csösz, Radchenko and Schulz (2007) - Lectotype: CL: 865; CW: 840; FR: 305; FL: 310; SL: 665; ML: 945; MW: 540; PEW: 280; PEH: 310; NOH: 170; NOL: 160; PEL: 185; PPW: 330; PPL: 195; PPH: 290; SPL: 105; SPSP: 120; EL: 185; EH: 130; ED: 195.

Figs 64–67. Medium size, CS 801 [773, 853]. Whole body and appendages black. Head slightly longer than broad, CL/CW 1.02 [0.98, 1.03], with very weakly convex or straight sides, feebly convex or straight occipital margin and rounded occipital corners. Eyes large, EYE 0.186 [0.180, 0.190]. Frons moderately narrow, FR/CS 0.37 [0.36, 0.38], frontal lobes as wide as frons, or slightly wider, FL/FR 1.01 [1.0, 1.02]. Scape moderately long, SL/CS 0.78 [0.76, 0.81], without dorsal carina basally, smooth and shiny. Promesonotal dorsum convex, metanotal groove very shallow or completely absent. Propodeal teeth short. Dorsal surface of petiole steeply rounded backward, NOH/NOL 1.14 [1.06, 1.21], petiole relatively high, PEH/NOL 1.99 [1.87, 2.07]. General appearance finely rugulose, ground surface usually smooth and shiny (except for head). Head dorsum and occiput longitudinally rugulose and microreticulate, and sides ruguloso-reticulate, ground surface microreticulate. Alitrunk dorsum longitudinally rugulose ground surface smooth. Mesopleuron longitudinally rugulose and microreticulate. Dorsum of petiolar node semi-circularly rugulose, ground surface smooth, dorsum of postpetiole longitudinally rugulose and finely microreticulate. Polygonal striation continuous on 1st gastral tergite basally, disrupted posteriorly. Basal part of 1st gastral tergite sometimes very feebly costulate (not microreticulate), extending to 80μm [0, 120] posteriorly. Ventral surface of head with a row of short setae and very long psammophore arising just posteriorly to buccal cavity (see fig. 3, 4.).


Csösz, Radchenko and Schulz (2007) - Figs 61–63. Small size, CS 973 [940, 1018]. Whole body and appendages black. Head slightly wider than long, CL/CW 0.94 [0.92, 0.97], with feebly convex sides, straight occipital margin and rounded occipital corners. Frons moderately narrow, FR/CS 0.37 [0.36, 0.37], frontal lobes as wide as frons, FL/FR 1.0 [1.0, 1.0]. Scape moderately short, SL/CS 0.73 [0.72, 0.74], without dorsal carina basally, smooth and shiny. Head wider than scutum, MW/CS 0.93 [0.92, 0.94]. Propodeal teeth short. Dorsal crest of petiolar node straight in frontal view; in profile petiolar node dorsum blunt. Petiole and postpetiole relatively narrow, WAIST 0.81 [0.80, 0.84]. General appearance rugulose, ground surface feebly microreticulate, shiny. Frons and occiput longitudinally rugulose, ground surface feebly microreticulate, sides ruguloso-reticulate, ground surface microreticulate. Scutum longitudinally rugose (mainly medially), anteriorly and laterally smooth, scutellum more or less smooth medially, laterally finely rugulose. Sides of alitrunk ruguloso-reticulate and microreticulate, ventral part of katepisternum usually smooth and shiny. Dorsum of petiolar node reticulate, medially smooth, dorsum of postpetiole reticulate. Polygonal striation disrupted on 1st gastral tergite, superficially microreticulate basally. Ventral surface of head with a row of short and several very long C-shaped setae arising just posteriorly to buccal cavity.


Csösz, Radchenko and Schulz (2007) - Whole body and appendages black. Head with convex sides, nearly semi-circular occipital margin and widely rounded occipital corners. Scutum wider than head. Propodeal teeth poorly developed. Dorsal crest of petiolar node with sharp edge, slightly emarginated in frontal view. Head, alitrunk and waist quite coarsely sculptured, ground surface microreticulate, dull. Head longitudinally rugulose, ground surface microreticulate. Scutum and scutellum longitudinally rugose. Sides of alitrunk with longitudinal rugae, katepisternum sometimes smooth and shiny ventrally. Dorsum of petiolar node coarsely reticulate, postpetiole longitudinally rugulose. First gastral tergite shiny.

Type Material

Lectotype worker and Paralectotype workers. The syntype series of Tetramorium caespitum var. sulcinode Santschi, 1927 consists of six workers on two pins, Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel. One pin with four workers and a second pin with two workers. In order to prevent further nomenclatural problems it is necessary to designate the lectotype of T. sulcinode.

From the first pin with four workers: Only one worker of the investigated type material is nearly intact, hence we designate this specimen, positioned on the distal end of the upper card, as the lectotype. The right antenna, the left funiculus and the right foreleg are missing. Lectotype is labeled as: [label with Latin letters] “Ssemiretschie 14/vii.24”, “Ssukuluk, westlich”, “von Pithpek, NB.ii”, “N. Kusnetzow” Type. Paralectotype worker on the same pin are positioned on the distal end of the lower card. Its head is missing, other parts are intact and have other features corresponding to the species characteristics. Two erroneously designated syntype specimens (D(4) =-4.074, p< 0.001, and =-1.571, p< 0.01 respectively) on that pin are in fact T. caespitum indocile; these are positioned on the proximal end of both, upper and lower, cards.

We designated one worker from the second pin as a paralectotype of T. sulcinode, the other worker cannot be determined correctly due to its very poor condition. The details of this second pin: two workers, collected at the same locality: [label with Cyrillic letters] ìSsemiretschie. Ssukulukî, 14-vii-1924. “N. Kusnetzov”. This locality (Ssemiretschie, Ssuskuluk; Pishpek, leg. Kusnetzov) is mentioned as the type locality of T. caespitum var. sulcinode in the original description (Santschi 1927: 53, 54).


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Csősz S., A. Radchenko, and A. Schulz. 2007. Taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic Tetramorium chefketi species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 1405: 1-38.
  • Dlussky G. M., O. S. Soyunov, and S. I. Zabelin. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Kuznetsov G. T. 1990. Comparative analysis of Hymenoptera (Formicidae) population on altitudinal zones of central Kopetdag. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk 1990(3): 64-67.
  • Rasheed M. T., I. Bodlah, A. G. Fareen, A. A. Wachkoo, X. Huang, and S. A. Akbar. 2019. A checklist of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Pakistan. Sociobiology 66(3): 426-439.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2018. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Greek ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-51.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2019. Comments to distribution of several Greek Tetramorium Mayr, 1855 species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 28(2): 1-9.