Ectatomma

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ectatomma
Temporal range: 11.608–0 Ma Late/Upper Miocene – Recent
Ectatomma tuberculatum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ectatomminae
Tribe: Ectatommini
Genus: Ectatomma
Smith, F., 1858
Type species
Formica tuberculata, now Ectatomma tuberculatum
Diversity
15 species
1 fossil species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Ectatomma tuberculatum casent0173380 profile 1.jpg

Ectatomma tuberculatum

Ectatomma tuberculatum casent0173380 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Evolutionary Placement
Heteroponerini

Bazboltonia
  (1 species)




Acanthoponera
  (4 species)



Heteroponera
  (27 species)




Ectatommini


Ectatomma
  (15 species)



Rhytidoponera
  (104 species)





Stictoponera
  (42 species)





Gnamptogenys
  (32 species)



Typhlomyrmex
  (10 species)





Poneracantha
  (18 species)




Alfaria
  (9 species)



Holcoponera
  (40 species)







Based on Brady et al. (2006) and Camacho et al. (2022).

Nettel-Hernanz et a. (2015) - The genus Ectatomma, with 15 recognized species, includes relatively large ants, endemic to the Neotropics (Kugler and Brown 1982). Most of these species are relatively common in diverse habitats (wet forest, dry forest, and savannah) below an altitude of 1500 min the Neotropics (Brown 1958). Some of them are commonly found in plantations where they are considered ecologically dominant (Majer et al. 1994; Schatz and Lachaud 2008). Most are generalist predators (Brown 1958), and the two most common species Ectatomma tuberculatum and Ectatomma ruidum have been extensively studied as they are regarded as important natural biological control agents against cotton, coffee, cocoa and maize pests in Guatemala, Panama, Nicaragua and Mexico (Perfecto 1990; Ibarra-Núñez et al. 2001). In contrast, some Ectatomma species present a restricted distribution, and their taxonomy is surprisingly poorly known.

Identification

AntWeb icon 02.png See images of species within this genus

Keys including this Genus

 

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Fossils

Fossils are known from: Sicilian amber, Italy (Late/Upper Miocene).

Biology

Nettel-Hernanz et al. (2015) - Although the geographical distribution of most Ectatomma species is in South America, the two most common species, Ectatomma ruidum and Ectatomma tuberculatum, display variation in their colony structures, both regarding the number of queens (strictly monogynous vs polygynous populations in E. tuberculatum) and their phenotypes, presenting miniaturized queens (Hora et al. 2005; Lenoir et al. 2011) in the northern part of their range.

Our phylogenetic analysis unveils cases of unrecognized or cryptic diversity strongly suggesting there are more than 15 species present in the genus. The miniaturization of queens, known from two species, has evolved independently. Ectatomma appears to have originated in the early or middle Miocene,between 15.8 and 22.8MYA.

Association with Other Organisms

Species Uncertain

  • An unknown species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Tricoryna ectatommae (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (associate, primary host).
  • An unknown species is a host for the eucharitid wasp Tricoryna ectatommae (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest).

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
Click here to show/hide associate data.
Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Ectatomma host eucharitid wasp Tricoryna ectatommae parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Ectatomma host eucharitid wasp Tricoryna ectatommae parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Ectatomma brunneum host eucharitid wasp Dicoelothorax platycerus parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma brunneum host eucharitid wasp Galearia latreillei parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Ectatomma brunneum host eucharitid wasp Kapala sp. 1 parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Ectatomma goninion host phorid fly Apocephalus catholicus parasite Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma lugens host phorid fly Apocephalus paraponerae parasite Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma lugens host phorid fly Dohrniphora sp (not D. longi-gp) parasite Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma lugens prey phorid fly Dohrniphora sp. predator Quevillon, 2018
Ectatomma parasiticum inquiline ant Ectatomma tuberculatum
Ectatomma ruidum host eucharitid wasp Isomerala azteca parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma ruidum host eucharitid wasp Isomerala coronata parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma ruidum host eucharitid wasp Kapala iridicolor parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Ectatomma ruidum host eucharitid wasp Kapala izapa parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Ectatomma ruidum host eucharitid wasp Kapala sulcifacies parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma ruidum host fungus Beauveria bassiana parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Ectatomma ruidum host nematode Meximermis ectatommi parasite Mexico Poinar et al., 2006 see also Weber, 1946 (Trinidad)
Ectatomma ruidum host phorid fly Apocephalus glabriventris parasite phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma ruidum host phorid fly Apocephalus paraponerae parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Ectatomma ruidum prey ''Microdon'' fly Microdon sp. predator Quevillon, 2018
Ectatomma tuberculatum host ant Ectatomma parasiticum inquiline
Ectatomma tuberculatum host eucharitid wasp Dilocantha lachaudii parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Ectatomma tuberculatum host eucharitid wasp Isomerala azteca parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Ectatomma tuberculatum host eucharitid wasp Isomerala coronata parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Ectatomma tuberculatum host eucharitid wasp Kapala sp. 2 parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 multiple encounter modes; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Ectatomma tuberculatum host nematode Mermis sp. parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest
Ectatomma tuberculatum host nematode Mermithidae (unspecified "Mermix") parasite Panama, Trinidad Wheeler, 1930; Laciny, 2021
Ectatomma tuberculatum host nematode unidentified nematode parasite French Guiana
Ectatomma tuberculatum host phorid fly Apocephalus comosus parasite Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum host phorid fly Apocephalus lobicauda parasite Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum host phorid fly Apocephalus lobicauda parasite phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma tuberculatum host phorid fly Apocephalus paraponerae parasite Brown et al., 2015 attracted to injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum host phorid fly Apocephalus paraponerae parasite phorid.net attacked
Ectatomma tuberculatum host phorid fly Megaselia sp parasite Brown et al., 2015 injured
Ectatomma tuberculatum host phorid fly Megaselia sp. parasitoid Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest

Flight Period

All Flight Records for Genus

Explore Data: All, Drilldown
Click here to show/hide flight data.
Taxon Month Source Notes
Ectatomma ruidum Jan Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec antkeeping.info; Kaspari et al., 2001
Ectatomma tuberculatum May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Kaspari et al., 2001

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 30-400 (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: inquilinism (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: omnivore (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter; arboreal (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging behaviour: solitary (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

• Antennal segment count: 12 • Antennal club: absent • Palp formula: 2,2 • Total dental count: 12-30 • Spur formula: 1 simple-barbulate, 1 simple-barbulate • Eyes: >100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: absent; dentiform • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: absent; dentiform • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: present

Male Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 13 • Antennal club 0 • Palp formula 5,3 • Total dental count 8-9 • Spur formula 1 barbulate- pectinate, 1 barbulate- pectinate

Karyotype

All Karyotype Records for Genus

Explore Data: All, Drilldown
Click here to show/hide karyotype data.
Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Ectatomma brunneum 22 44 22M+22A Brazil Barros et al., 2008; Mariano et al., 2015
Ectatomma edentatum 23 46 Brazil Barros et al., 2008; Mariano et al., 2015
Ectatomma muticum 20 16M+4A; 32M+ 8A Brazil Barros et al., 2008; Mariano et al., 2015
Ectatomma permagnum 23 46 20M+26A Brazil Barros et al., 2008; Mariano et al., 2015
Ectatomma tuberculatum 18 36 30M+6A Brazil Barros et al., 2008; Mariano et al., 2015

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • ECTATOMMA [Ectatomminae: Ectatommini]
    • Ectatomma Smith, F. 1858b: 102. Type-species: Formica tuberculata, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1903: 82.

References