Key to Myrmica of East Europe, West Siberia, northern Kazakhstan, Caucasus, Asia Minor, Turkmenistan and Iran

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This key is based on: Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. 2010. Myrmica ants of the Old World. Fauna Mundi 3: 1-789. The first key is a key to workers.

This key does not include Myrmica karavajevi which is a worker-less social parasite living in nests of several Myrmica species. Its queens have well developed ventral process on the petiole, males have 12-segmented antennae, both queens and males are small: in queens HW < 0.90, AL < 1.40 mm, in males HW < 0.75, AL < l.30 mm. On forewing vein 2+3RS completely reduced and cells 1 +2r and rm are fused (Also see the Key for the socially parasitic species of West Europe).

You may also be interested in

1

  • Lateral portion of clypeus raised into a sharp ridge in front of antennal insertions, so that antennal sockets are distinctly separated from clypeal surface (similar to that of Tetramorium) . . . . . 2
  • Lateral portion of clypeus not raised into a sharp ridge in front of antennal insertions, so that antennal sockets lay on the same level with clypeal surface . . . . . 3

2

return to couplet #1

  • Head dorsum with coarse rugosity, frons between frontal carinae level with the eyes with ≤ 10 rugae. Metanotal groove very shallow to almost absent. - Asia Minor . . . . . Myrmica tamarae
  • Head dorsum with finer rugosity, frons between frontal carinae level with the eyes with ≥ 13 rugae. Metanotal groove distinct. - South Siberia (including Altai Mts.), southern part of Russian Far East, north-eastern China, Korean Peninsula, Japan (Hokkaido) . . . . . Myrmica transsibirica

3

return to couplet #1

  • Frontal carinae curve outwards to merge with the rugae that surround antennal sockets. Scape very smoothly curved at the base, not angled and without any trace of lobe or carina . . . . . 4
  • Frontal carinae merging with the rugae that extend to the occipital margin, they do not curve outwards and do not merge with rugae that surround antennal sockets. Scape strongly curved, often angled at the base, with or without lobe, ridge or carina . . . . . 5

4

return to couplet #3

  • Petiolar node with rounded dorsum, without a flattened dorsal plate, node of petiole and postpetiole smooth, at most very finely striated; propodeal spines short, mean ESLI 0.26. Males: scape and tibiae with numerous, rather long standing hairs - Europe, Caucasus, West Siberia, northern Kazakhstan, Tien-Shan, Pamir, East Siberia, to the east until Transbaikal region . . . . . Myrmica rubra
Head of Myrmica rubra worker
Profile of Myrmica rubra worker
  • Petiolar node flattened, with a dorsal plate, node of petiole and postpetiole with quite coarse, short sinuous, longitudinal rugae, propodeal spines longer, mean ESLI 0.41. Males: scape and tibiae with sparser and short standing hairs. – Transpalaearctic species, distributed from Atlantic to Pacific Oceans, including Japan, Caucasus, absent in Tien-Shan . . . . . Myrmica ruginodis
Head of Myrmica ruginodis worker
Profile of Myrmica ruginodis worker

5

return to couplet #3

  • Scape with a vertical lobe or dent and sharply angled at the base . . . . . 6
  • Scape never with vertical lobe or dent, varying from gradually curved to sharply angled at the base, often with horizontal lobe, ridge or carina of various shapes . . . . . 14

6

return to couplet #5

  • Frontal carinae very strongly curved, frons extremely narrow (the narrowest among all known Myrmica species), FI < 0.19, FLI > 1.95. Scape at the base with an extremely massive, vertical plate-like lobe. - Albania, former Yugoslavia, Greece, Asia Minor, Transcaucasus . . . . . Myrmica ravasinii
Head of Myrmica ravasinii worker
Profile of Myrmica ravasinii worker
  • Frontal carinae less curved, frons wider, FI > 0.20, FLI < 1.90. Scape at the base with vertical lobe ranging from moderately sized platelike structure to a small dent . . . . . 7

7

return to couplet #6

  • Head and alitrunk with strongly reduced sculpture, only with fine striation, surface between striae smooth and appears shiny, only petiole and postpetiole finely punctated. Whole body appears shiny black. - Kazakhstan . . . . . Myrmica inucta
  • Head and alitrunk with well developed, often quite coarse rugosity, surface between rugae does not appear smooth and shiny. Body colour various, but never entirely black . . . . . 8

8

return to couplet #7

  • Foot of scape with an extended shield-like plate. Males: scape short, SI1 < 0.50 . . . . . 9
  • Foot of scape without an extended shield-like plate. Males: scape long, SI1 > 0.60 . . . . . 12

9

return to couplet #8

  • Frontal carinae strongly curved, frons narrower, species' means FI ≤ 0.26 . . . . . 10
  • Frontal carinae less curved, frons wider, species' means FI ≥ 0.29 . . . . . 11

10

return to couplet #9

  • Scape at the base with well developed, large lobe. Frontal carinae strongly curved, frons narrower, mean FI < 0.24. Males: scape, hind and middle tibiae with short hairs. - Central and North Europe, Caucasus, West Siberia, northern Kazakhstan, Tien-Shan, East Siberia, to Enisei river in the east . . . . . Myrmica schencki
Head of Myrmica schencki worker
Profile of Myrmica schencki worker
  • Scape at the base with small, dentiform lobe. Frontal carinae less curved, frons wider, FI 0.25-0.29, mean 0.26. Males: scape, hind and middle tibiae with very long hairs. - Transcaucasus . . . . . Myrmica caucasicola
Head of Myrmica caucasicola worker
Profile of Myrmica caucasicola worker

11

return to couplet #9

  • Frontal lobes less extended, FLI 1.36-1.52, mean 1.41. Propodeal spines short, ESLI 0.18-0.30, mean 0.24. Body colour usually dark reddish-brown. Males: scape very short, shorter than 1st and 2nd funicular segments together, mean SI2 0.34. - Central Europe, Balkans, south of East Europe, Transcaucasus, Iran, Turkmenistan, south of West Siberia, northern Kazakhstan, Tien-Shan, to Altai Mts. in the east . . . . . Myrmica deplanata
Head of Myrmica deplanata worker
Profile of Myrmica deplanata worker
  • Frontal lobes more extended, FLI 1.50-1.67, mean 1.60. Propodeal spines longer, ESLI 0.27-0.34, mean 0.31. Alitrunk yellowish-brown, head reddish-brown, gaster dark brown. Males: scape longer than 1st and 2nd funicular segments together, mean SI2 0.40. – West Siberia from Irtysh river in the west, Tarbagatai and Saur Mts., South and East Siberia, Mongolia, southern part of Russian Far East, northern China, Korean Peninsula . . . . . Myrmica koreana
Head of Myrmica koreana worker
Profile of Myrmica koreana worker

12

return to couplet #8

  • Frons relatively wide, FI > 0.35. Scape at the base with small vertical dentiform lobe or even small dentiform ridge. Petiole with well developed peduncle, its anterior surface not steep, distinctly concave, meeting the dorsal one to form an obtuse, rounded angle, petiolar node without a distinct dorsal plate, with a convex or at most slightly flattened dorsum. - Asia Minor . . . . . Myrmica anatolica
Head of Myrmica anatolica worker
Profile of Myrmica anatolica worker
  • Frons narrower, FI < 0.34. Scape at the base with a vertical (sometimes inclined anteriorly), usually large lobe, which sometimes can be smaller but never dentiform. Petiole of various shape . . . . . 13

13

return to couplet #12

  • Petiole with a short peduncle, its anterior surface steep, only slightly concave, meeting the dorsal one at an acute or right angle, petiolar node with a distinct, declined posterioriy, flattened dorsal plate. Lobe at the base of the scape projecting almost vertically. - Boreal species: Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor, Siberia, northern Kazakhstan, to the east until Transbaikal region . . . . . Myrmica lobicornis
Head of Myrmica lobicornis worker
Profile of Myrmica lobicornis worker
  • Petiole with a well developed peduncle, its anterior surface not steep, distinctly concave, meeting the dorsal one to form an obtuse, rounded angle, petiolar node without a distinct dorsal plate and with a convex dorsum. Lobe at the base of the scape inclined anteriorly. - Altai Mts. and Southern Ural . . . . . Myrmica zojae

14

return to couplet #5

  • Alitrunk and waist with very coarse, straight (not sinuous) longitudinal rugae; petiole with a very short peduncle, a steep anterior surface that meets the dorsal one at an almost right angle, dorsal plate well developed and flattened. Scape strongly but gradually curved at the base, at most slightly angled, sometimes with a weak longitudinal ridge on the foot of scape. Large and robust species, usually bicoloured, with reddish alitrunk and blackish head dorsum and gaster. - Boreal species, distributed from Ireland to Kamchatka, absent in Japan . . . . . Myrmica sulcinodis
Head of Myrmica sulcinodis worker
Profile of Myrmica sulcinodis worker
  • Alitrunk, and especially waist, with less coarse, usually sinuous longitudinal rugosity; petiole having a different shape, scape of various shapes . . . . . 15

15

return to couplet #14

  • Scape gradually curved at the base or at most slightly angled, without horizontal lobe, at most with very weak short horizontal ridge (seen under magnification > 50x) . . . . . 16
  • Scape strongly angled at the base, with horizontal lobe, carina or well developed ridge (seen under magnification > 50x) . . . . . 20

16

return to couplet #15

  • Frons extremely wide, FI > 0.50. Males: scape long, SI1 > 0.75. – Asia Minor . . . . . Myrmica jennyae
  • Frons narrower, FI < 0.50. Males: scape shorter, SI1 < 0.65 . . . . . 17

17

return to couplet #16

  • Scape at the base bent in an "ideal" curve, with no trace of an angle, carina or ridge. Head dorsum with longitudinal rugosity, reticulation, if present, developed on its lateral parts above the eyes and/or near occipital margin. Pronotal dorsum longitudinally rugose . . . . . 18
  • Scape at the base either slightly angled or with a weak horizontal ridge. Posterior third of head dorsum, as well as pronotal dorsum, reticulate . . . . . 19

18

return to couplet #17

  • Propodeal spines short, mean ESLI 0.28, petiole low, mean PI1 1.24. Generally bigger, mean HW 1.12, mean AL 1.80, more robust and darker coloured species. - Delta of Danube riv., southern parts of Ukraine and European Russia, southeastern Transcaucasus, northeastern Iran, Kazakhstan, plains and mountains of Middle Asia . . . . . Myrmica bergi
Head of Myrmica bergi worker
Profile of Myrmica bergi worker
  • Propodeal spines longer, mean ESLI 0.36, petiole higher, mean PI1 1.14. Generally smaller, mean HW 1.04, mean AL 1.62, more slender and lighter coloured species. - Europe, Caucasus, south of West Siberia . . . . . Myrmica gallienii
Head of Myrmica gallienii worker
Profile of Myrmica gallienii worker

19

return to couplet #17

  • Scape at the base with no trace of a ridge. - Central, North and East Europe (absent in British Isles), Balkans and Greece mountains, Caucasus . . . . . Myrmica rugulosa
Head of Myrmica rugulosa worker
Profile of Myrmica rugulosa worker
  • Scape at the base with weak ridge. - Ukraine, Poland, southern Finland, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Romania, Italy, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece . . . . . Myrmica constricta
Head of Myrmica constricta worker
Profile of Myrmica constricta worker

20

return to couplet #15

  • Frons very narrow, FI < 0.30, mean 0.27. Lobe at the base of scape quite large, but not extended to form a longitudinal carina on the dorsal surface of scape. -Central Europe, Balkans, central and southern parts of East Europe, southern part of West Siberia, northern Kazakhstan . . . . . Myrmica curvithorax
Head of Myrmica curvithorax worker
Profile of Myrmica curvithorax worker
  • Frons wider, FI ≥ 0.30, species' means ≥ 0.33. Base of the scape with ornamentation ranging from a ridge or a distinct carina to a large, well developed lobe, but if the lobe is large, it extends to form a longitudinal carina on the dorsal surface of scape . . . . . 21

21

return to couplet #20

  • Postpetiole very wide, PPI4 > 0.55; whole body with very abundant, long hairs; frons wide, FI 0.40-0.42. Males: scape relatively long, as long as 4 basal funicular segments together, SI1 > 0.50. Head margins and waist with numerous long hairs. - England, Denmark, Sweden, southern Finland, Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Hungary, southern Poland, Czech and Slovak Republics, Serbia, European part of Russia (social parasite) . . . . . Myrmica hirsuta
  • Postpetiole narrower, PPI4 < 0.45; body with less abundant and shorter hairs. Males: scape of various length . . . . . 22

22

return to couplet #21

  • Hairy species, petiole with more than 10 (usually with 12-20) long, thin and often curved hairs. Entire alitrunk dorsum with longitudinal, slightly sinuous rugae, without reticulation; postpetiolar dorsum with partly reduced sculpture. Anterior clypeal margin shallowly but distinctly notched medially. Spurs on middle and hind tibiae at least partly reduced and usually not pectinate. Queens: petiolar node with coarse, regular longitudinally-concentric rugosity, without reticulation. Males: scape relatively long, as long as 4 basal funicular segments together, SI1 > 0.50. Head margins with numerous long hairs. - West Europe, Ukraine (Transcarpathian Prov.) (facultative social parasite) . . . . . Myrmica vandeli
Head of Myrmica vandeli worker
Profile of Myrmica vandeli worker
  • Generally less hairy species, petiole with less than 10 (usually not more than 8) long, straight, thick hairs. Alitrunk dorsum with strongly sinuous longitudinal rugae and often also with reticulation; postpetiolar dorsum with coarser sculpture. Anterior clypeal margin not-notched medially. Spurs on middle and hind tibiae as a rule well developed and pectinate. Queens: petiolar node with various sculpture, but never with coarse, regular longitudinally-concentric rugosity. Males: scape shorter; if the same length (i.e. SI1 > 0.50) then head margins with very short and sparse hairs . . . . . 23 or 34


  • At this point if you have no males or wish to determine species primarily on worker characters go to couplet . . . . . 23
  • Otherwise, to determine species primarily on male characters go to alternative key couplet . . . . . 34

23

return to couplet #22

  • Scape at the base with very large, massive lobe, which is clearly raised over the dorsal plane of scape (seen in profile). Frons narrow, mean FI 0.32. Males: scape relatively long, as long as 4-4.5 basal funicular segments together, SI1 > 0.50. - Central and North Europe, Balkans (from northwestern Italy to Bulgaria), East Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, West Siberia and northern Kazakhstan . . . . . Myrmica lonae
Head of Myrmica lonae worker
Profile of Myrmica lonae worker
  • Scape at the base with smaller and not massive lobe, which is never raised over the dorsal plane of the scape (seen in profile). Males: scape of various lengths . . . . . 24

24

return to couplet #23

  • More hairy species, head margins with very abundant, relatively long but subdecumbent hairs; scape with abundant suberect hairs; hairs on the body quite coarse and whitish, coarser and more abundant than in related species. Frons relatively wide, mean FI 0.39, frontal lobes moderately extended, mean FLI 1.34. Males: scape somewhat longer than 1-3 basal funicular segments together, rnean SI1 0.44. Tibiae and tarsi on both anterior and posterior surfaces with long suberect to erect hairs; the longest hairs on tibiae distinctly longer than their maximal width, those on the basitarsus more than twice longer than its maximal width. - Georgia . . . . . Myrmica bakurianica
  • Less hairy species, head margins with less abundant, usually suberect hairs; scape with much less abundant suberect hairs; hairs on the body not coarse. Frontal carinae and frontal lobes of various shape. Males: scape of various length, character of pilosity on tibiae and tarsi different . . . . . 25

25

return to couplet #24

  • Frons relatively narrow, species' means FI ≤ 0.35. Scape at the base with relatively large lobe that is more extended posteriorly than anteriorly . . . . . 26
  • Frons relatively wide, species' means PI ≥ 0.36. Scape at the base with smaller lobe that is more extended anteriorly than posteriorly, sometimes with narrow carina only . . . . . 29

26

return to couplet #25

  • Frons somewhat wider, mean FI 0.35, frontal lobes less extended, mean FLI 1.50. Males: scape somewhat shorter than 1-3 basal funicular segments together, mean SI1 0.42. Standing hairs on tibiae and tarsi shorter, longest hairs on tibiae not longer than the tibial width, same on tarsi less than twice longer than tarsal width. - Steppes from southern Ukraine till Kazakhstan . . . . . Myrmica kozakorum (= Myrmica specioides)
  • Frons narrower, species' means FI 0.33 ... 034, frontal lobes more extended, means FLI 1.53-1.57. Males: scape short (SI1 < 0.40) or long (SI1 > 0.50). Standing hairs on tibiae and tarsi very long, longest hairs on tibiae distinctly longer than the tibial width, same on tarsi more than twice longer than tarsal width (males of Myrmica georgica are unknown) . . . . . 27

27

return to couplet #26

  • Workers: propodeal spines shorter, mean ESLI 0.38. - Georgia . . . . . Myrmica georgica
  • Workers: propodeal spines longer, mean ESLI 0.42 . . . . . 28

28

return to couplet #27

  • Workers: spur of hind and middle tibiae well developed, pectinate. Males: scape relatively long, as long as 4-4.5 basal funicular segments together, SI1 > 0.50. - Europe (to southern Sweden, Finland and Norway in the north), Caucasus . . . . . Myrmica sabuleti
Head of Myrmica sabuleti worker
Profile of Myrmica sabuleti worker
  • Workers: spur of hind and middle tibiae often reduced in different extent. Males: scape short; shorter than 1-3 basal funicular segments together, SI1 < 0.40. - Turkey, Georgia, France, Italy, Netherlands, Poland . . . . . Myrmica tulinae
Head of Myrmica tulinae worker
Profile of Myrmica tulinae worker

29

return to couplet #25

  • Frons wide, mean FI 0.43; frontal lobes weakly extended, mean FLI 1.15 (for Turkish, Crimean and Caucasian populations). Scape at the base distinctly angled with a narrow horizontal lobe, carina or even distinct ridge (size of this structure is quite variable). - Caucasus, Asia Minor, Ukraine (Crimea), Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Croatia, Slovenia and Serbia . . . . . Myrmica hellenica
Head of Myrmica hellenica worker
Profile of Myrmica hellenica worker
  • Frons generally narrower, species' means FI ≤ 0.40; frontal lobes distinctly more extended, species' means FLI ≥ 1.30. Scape at the base with a much more pronounced, larger horizontal lobe or carina . . . . . 30

30

return to couplet #29

  • Frons wider, mean FI 0.38 frontal lobes less extended, mean FLI 1.32, propodeal spines relatively short, mean ESLI 0.36; petiolar node without a distinct horizontal dorsal plate, its posterior surface declines gradually to postpetiole. Males: middle and hind tibiae and tarsi with short hairs, they are shorter than maximum width of tibia. - Europe (to southern England and Denmark in the north), Caucasus, Asia Minor, Iran, Turkenistan, south of West Siberia, northern Kazakhstan, to Altai Mts. in the east . . . . . Myrmica specioides
Head of Myrmica specioides worker
Profile of Myrmica specioides worker
  • Frons narrower, species' mean FI 0.36, shape of frontal lobes, petiole and propodeum various . . . . . 31

31

return to couplet #30

  • Frontal lobes less extended, mean FLI 1.31,. Scape at the base with narrow horizontal ridge or at most very small carina. Propodeal spines short (mean ESLI 0.31), not widened at the base, thin, often needle-like; metanotal groove weak or completely absent; petiolar node without dorsal plate, usually only rounded, its posterior surface gradually declines to postpetiole; sides of alitrunk with relatively coarse, regular, almost straight longitudinal rugae. Body colour rather dark, brownish-red. Males: scape very short, mean SI1 < 0.33, tibiae and tarsi with short sub decumbent hairs. - Steppes from the lower reaches of the Dnepr River to the eastern Kazakhstan, to the north - until Samara Province of Russia . . . . . Myrmica stangeana
Head of Myrmica stangeana worker
Profile of Myrmica stangeana worker
  • Frontal lobes more extended, species' means FLI ≥ 1.40. Scape at the base with more developed, but never massive, horizontal carina,or lobe. Propodeal spines longer (species' means ESLI > 0.35), usually widened at the base (more thorn-like) never needle-like; metanotal groove well developed, often deep; petiolar node of various shape; sides of alitrunk with less coarse sinuous longitudinal rugae. Body colour lighter, usually ochreous- or yellowish-red. Males: scape somewhat longer, species' means SI1 ≥ 0.36, often > 0.40). Tibiae and tarsi with various hairs . . . . . 32

32

return to couplet #31

  • Propodeal spines longer, mean ESLI > 1.40; petiolar node with a distinct horizontal or slightly declined posteriorly dorsal plate. Males: middle and hind tibiae and tarsi with very long erect, often curved hairs, they are distinctly longer than maximum width of tibia. - Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor, northern Kazakhstan, West Siberia; the easternmost confirmed localities - vicinity of Krasnoyarsk (ca. 93°E) and 100 km N of Kansk (ca. 96°E) . . . . . Myrmica scabrinodis
Head of Myrmica scabrinodis worker
Profile of Myrmica scabrinodis worker
  • Propodeal spines shorter, species' means ESLI ≤ 1.36; petiolar node dorsum with or without dorsal plate. Males: middle and hind tibiae and tarsi with much shorter hairs, they are not longer than maximum width of tibia . . . . . 33

33

return to couplet #32

  • Frontal lobes less extended, FLI 1.40. Petiolar node with a distinct horizontal dorsal plate. - south of West Siberia and northern Kazakhstan . . . . . Myrmica salina
Head of Myrmica salina worker
Profile of Myrmica salina worker
  • Frontal lobes more extended, mean FLI 1.47 Petiolar node without a distinct horizontal dorsal plate, its posterior surface declines gradually to postpetiole. - Asia Minor . . . . . Myrmica turcica (= Myrmica specioides)

Alternative key based primarily on male characters

(males of Myrmica georgica are unknown)

34

return to couplet #22

  • Males: scape relatively long, as long as 4-4.5 basal funicular segments together, SI1 > 0.50 (Myrmica sabuleti and Myrmica lonae; these species can only be separated with certainty on worker characters) . . . . . 35
  • Males: scape short, as long as 3-3.5 basal funicular segments together or less, SI1 < 0.45 . . . . . 36

35

return to couplet #34

  • Workers: scape at the base with very large, massive lobe, which is clearly raised over the dorsal plane of scape (seen in profile). - Central and North Europe, Balkans (from north-western Italy to Bulgaria), East Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, West Siberia and northern Kazakhstan . . . . . Myrmica lonae
Head of Myrmica lonae male
Profile of Myrmica lonae male
  • Workers: scape at the base with smaller lobe, which is never raised over the dorsal plane of the scape (seen in profile). - Europe (to southern Sweden, Finland and Norway in the north), Caucasus . . . . . Myrmica sabuleti

36

return to couplet #34

  • Males: middle and hind tibiae and tarsi on both anterior and posterior surfaces with very long erect, often curved hairs, the longest hairs on tibiae distinctly longer than maximum width of tibia, those on the basitarsus more than twice as long as its maximal width (Myrmica bakurianica, Myrmica tulinae and Myrmica scabrinodis; these species can only be separated with certainty on worker characters) . . . . . 37
  • Males: middle and hind tibiae and tarsi with much shorter hairs, the longest hairs on tibiae not longer than the tibial width, same on basitarsus less than twice as long as its width . . . . . 39

37

return to couplet #36

  • Workers: more hairy species, head margins with very abundant, relatively long but subdecumbent hairs; scape with abundant suberect hairs; hairs on the body quite coarse and whitish, coarser and more abundant than in related species. Frons relatively wide, mean FI 0.39, frontal lobes moderately extended, mean FLI 1.34 – Georgia . . . . . Myrmica bakurianica
  • Workers: less hairy species, head margins with less abundant, usually suberect hairs; scape with much less abundant suberect hairs; hairs on the body not coarse. Frons narrower, species' means FLI 0.34 ... 36, frontal lobes more extended, species' means FLI > 1.40 . . . . . 38

38

return to couplet #37

  • Workers: frons narrower, mean FI 0.34, frontal lobes more extended, mean FLI 1.53. Scape at the base with relatively large lobe that is more extended posteriorly than anteriorly. Spur of hind and middle tibiae often reduced in different extent. - Turkey, Georgia, France, Italy, Netherlands, Poland . . . . . Myrmica tulinae
  • Workers: frons wider, mean FI 0.36, frontal lobes less extended, mean FLI 1.42. Scape at the base with smaller lobe that is more extended anteriorly than posteriorly,. Spur of hind and middle tibiae well developed and pectinate. - Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor, northern Kazakhstan, West Siberia; the easternmost confirmed localities - vicinity of Krasnoyarsk (ca. 93°E) and 100 km N of Kansk (ca. 96°E) . . . . . Myrmica scabrinodis
Profile of Myrmica scabrinodis male

39

return to couplet #36

  • Males: scape very short, mean SI1 0.36. - Steppes from the lower reaches of the Dnepr River to the eastern Kazakhstan, to the north - until Samara Province of Russia . . . . . Myrmica stangeana
  • Males: scape longer, species' means SI1 ≥ 0.40 . . . . . 40

40

return to couplet #39

  • Males: petiole rather massive, shorter and higher, PI1 1.33; postpetiole relatively wider, PPI4 0.61. - South of West Siberia and northern Kazakhstan . . . . . Myrmica salina
  • Males: petiole somewhat elongate, not massive, species' means PI, ~ 1.40; postpetiole relatively narrower, species' means PPI4 < 0.60: (M. specioides, M. turcica, M. hellenica and M. kozakorum; it is not possible to separate the males of these species, however the geographical location can indicate which is most probable):

- Europe (to southern England and Denmark in the north), Caucasus, Asia Minor, Iran, Turkmenistan, south of West Siberia, northern Kazakhstan, to Altai Mts. in the east . . . . . Myrmica specioides

Head of Myrmica specioides worker
Profile of Myrmica specioides worker

- Asia Minor . . . . . Myrmica turcica (= Myrmica specioides)

- Caucasus, Asia Minor, Ukraine (Crimea), Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Croatia, Slovenia and Serbia . . . . . Myrmica hellenica

- Steppes from southern Ukraine to Kazakhstan . . . . . Myrmica kozakorum (= Myrmica specioides)