Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - M. excelsa is a rather thermophilous species. In the Russian Far East it inhabits fir and mixed forests of the southern type, that support a considerable number of rare and relict taxa. In Korea, where the climate is definitely warmer and drier than in the Far East of Russia, M. excelsa was found at a low and middle altitudes (100-650 m), preferring deciduous and mixed forests (oak, beech, sweet chestnut, pine) and shrubby areas but usually avoiding open grasslands. In these forests workers appeared to forage close to the soil surface under litter and dead leaves and were very cryptic, even for lobicornis-group species (personal observations). In Japan M. excelsa is rather a rare species living in grasslands at altitudes between 500 and 1500 m. In Japan and Korea nests are usually built in the soil, often under stones, but in the Russian Far East nests are mostly in dead wood. Nuptial flight in August-September (see also Kupyanskaya 1990; Imai et al. 2003; Radchenko 2005).
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
A member of the excelsa complex of the lobicornis species group. Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - M. excelsa is a distinctive species belonging to the lobicornis-group. Its most characteristic feature is the raised lateral portions of clypeus that form a sharp ridge in front of the antennal insertions, so that antennal sockets are distinctly separated from the clypeal surface (as in species of Tetramorium). This led Kim et al. (1997) to describe the antennal pits as "jar-like". Only two more Myrmica species are known to possess this feature: Myrmica transsibirica and Myrmica tamarae, both are lobicornis-group species. M. excelsa well differs from both by the shape of its antennal scape (for details see Kupyanskaya 1990; Radchenko 2005, and Key, Chapter 5.3), but due to the Tetramorium-like clypeus we place them together in the excelsa-complex.
Keys including this Species
- Key to Myrmica of China
- Key to Myrmica of species of East Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, Korean Peninsula, northern China, and Japan
Southern part of Russian Far East, NE China, Korean Peninsula, Japan.
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- excelsa. Myrmica excelsa Kupyanskaya, 1990: 115, figs. 16, 19, 20 (w.q.m.) RUSSIA. Senior synonym of cadusa: Radchenko, 2005b: 140; of sinica: Radchenko, Zhou, et al. 2008: 783. See also: Yamane, 2008: 29; Radchenko & Elmes, 2010: 131.
- sinica. Myrmica sinica Wu & Wang, 1995: 94, figs. 137, 145, 146 (w.q.) CHINA. Junior synonym of excelsa: Radchenko, Zhou, et al. 2008: 783.
- cadusa. Myrmica cadusa Kim, Park & Kim, 1997: 425, fig. 1 (w.) SOUTH KOREA. Junior synonym of excelsa: Radchenko, 2005b: 140.
- Myrmica sinica: Holotype, worker, Yantai City, Shandog Province, Chine, Hou Yulin, Chinese Academy of Forestry.
- Myrmica sinica: Paratype, 27 workers, 2 queens, Yantai City, Shandog Province, Chine, Hou Yulin, Chinese Academy of Forestry.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - from the Latin word excelsa = elevated or tall, to describe the elevated part of the clypeus in front of the antennal insertions.
- Kim, B.-J.; Park, S.-J.; Kim, J.-H. 1997. On the new species, Myrmica cadusa, from Korea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Korean J. Biol. Sci. 1: 425-427.
- Kim, G., Lyu, D. 2012. Distribution of Ants (Insecta, Hymenoptera) in Chiaksan Mountain, Prov. Gangweon, Korea. Journal of Korean Nature 5, 127–129 (doi:10.7229/jkn.2012.5.2.127).
- Kupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. (page 115, figs, 16, 19, 20 worker, queen, male described)
- Lyu, D.-P. 2006. Review of the genus Myrmica in Korea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 9: 189-202.
- Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. 2010. Myrmica ants of the Old World. Fauna Mundi 3: 1-789.
- Wu, J., Wang, C. 1995. The ants of China. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp.
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Chen Z. L., S. Y. Zhou, and J. H. Huang. 2016. Seven species new to science and one newly recorded species of the ant genus Myrmica Latreille, 1804 from China, with proposal of a new synonym (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). ZooKeys 551: 85–128.
- Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
- Kim B. J., S. J. Park, and J. H. Kim. 1997. On the new species, Myrmica cadusa, from Korea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Korean Journal of Biological Sciences 1: 425-427.
- Lelej A. S. 2012. Annotated catalogue of the Insects of Russian Far East. Volume 1. Hymenoptera. Dalnauka: Vladivostok. 635 p.
- Radchenko A. G., and G. W. Elmes. 2010. Myrmica ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Old World. Fauna Mundi 3. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 790 pp.
- Radchenko, A. 2005. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 55: 127-221.
- Radchenko, A. 2005. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici 55(2): 127-221.
- Wu W. 2010. The taxonomic and fauna study on the Formicidae of Liaoning Province (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Master's Thesis Northeast Normal University, 75 pages.
- Yamane S. 2008. On Myrmica excelsa from Japan. Ari 31: 29-31.