Colobopsis truncata

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Colobopsis truncata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Colobopsis
Species: C. truncata
Binomial name
Colobopsis truncata
(Spinola, 1808)

Camponotus truncatus casent0179881 p 1 high.jpg

Camponotus truncatus casent0179881 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


Colobopsis truncata is a common mediterranean zoogeographical element distributed mostly in southern and central Europe and in the southern part of eastern Europe, as well as occurring east as far as Kopet Dag, Iran (Radchenko 1997c, Suchocka et al. 2008) and south as far as Maghreb, Algeria (Rigato & Toni, 2011). It is a thermophilous species living exclusively arboreally in open habitats, orchards and light forests (Marko et al., 2009).

Photo Gallery

  • Colobopsis truncata minor worker. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Colobopsis truncata major worker. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Colobopsis truncata workers (major and minor) and larvae. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Colobopsis truncata queen. Photo by Michal Kukla.


Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - This is a small dimorphic species with a phragmotic “soldier”. The major worker has a cylindrical, abruptly truncate head. The minor worker has a rounded head and can be recognized by the straight frontal carina, antennal insertion close to the middle of the frontal carina, propodeum dorsum distinctly concave in lateral view, and by the petiole scale with acute summit in lateral view and indented dorsum in front view.

Keys including this Species


Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - Mostly southern and central Europe, also northwest Africa, Crimea, Caucasus, eastern Mediterranean, and the Middle East (Radchenko, 1997b).

This is a common species, recorded from all Greek provinces except Cyclades (Borowiec et al., 2022).

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 52.23333333° to 31.25°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Balearic Islands, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Israel, Italy (type locality), Jordan, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, North Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Türkiye, Turkmenistan, Ukraine.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.


Flight Period

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 50 (Beckers et al., 1989)
  • Foraging behaviour: solitary forager (Beckers et al., 1989)



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • truncata. Formica truncata Spinola, 1808: 244 (q.) ITALY.
    • Type-material: holotype queen.
    • Type-locality: Italy: Liguria, (“Habitat in montibus Orerii”) (Spinola).
    • [Note: Schifani, et al. 2021: 4, say that the holotype bears the data, “ truncata Spin. in Ligur, Genova”.]
    • Type-depository: MRSN.
    • Dufour & Perris, 1840: 49 (w.); Mayr, 1861: 38 (w.q.); Emery, 1869b: 5 (s.q.m.); Forel, 1874: 45 (s.w.); Ruzsky, 1905b: 260 (m.); Emery, 1916b: 235 (m., in key).
    • Combination in Colobopsis: Mayr, 1861: 38 (in key);
    • combination in Camponotus (Colobopsis): Emery, 1891b: 21; Forel, 1893b: 435;
    • combination in Colobopsis: Ward, Blaimer & Fisher, 2016: 350.
    • Status as species: Dufour & Perris, 1840: 49; Mayr, 1855: 320 (footnote); Nylander, 1856b: 58; Smith, F. 1858b: 12; Roger, 1859: 231; Mayr, 1861: 38 (in key); Mayr, 1863: 403; Roger, 1863b: 9; Emery, 1869b: 5 (redescription); Dours, 1873: 164; Forel, 1874: 44 (in key); André, 1874: 178 (in key); Emery, 1878b: 46; Emery & Forel, 1879: 449; André, 1882b: 160 (in key); Forel, 1886e: clxvii; Forel, 1889: 256; Nasonov, 1889: 13; Forel, 1890a: lxvii; Saunders, E. 1890: 202; Emery, 1891b: 21; Forel, 1892i: 306; Dalla Torre, 1893: 255; Forel, 1893b: 435; Forel, 1894d: 7; Emery, 1896d 376 (in list); Ruzsky, 1902d: 8; Ruzsky, 1905b: 260; Forel, 1909c: 106; Bondroit, 1910: 488; Forel, 1911d: 354; Karavaiev, 1912b: 596; Ito, T. 1914: 45; Stitz, 1914: 96; Forel, 1915d: 73 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1915d: 350; Emery, 1916b: 227; Escherich, 1917: 332; Bondroit, 1918: 66; Menozzi, 1921: 32; Soudek, 1922: 96; Müller, 1923b: 165; Emery, 1925b: 147; Menozzi, 1925d: 35; Soudek, 1925b: 15; Karavaiev, 1926e: 193; Menozzi, 1926b: 182; Santschi, 1926f: 288; Stärcke, 1926: 118 (in key); Karavaiev, 1927a: 295; Donisthorpe, 1927a: 9; Donisthorpe, 1927b: 405; Santschi, 1929e: 164; Finzi, 1930d: 318; Santschi, 1931a: 13; Santschi, 1932g: 5; Arnol'di, 1933b: 602 (in key); Menozzi, 1933b: 81; Grandi, 1935: 103; Zimmermann, 1935: 60; Santschi, 1936c: 208; Menozzi, 1936d: 304; Santschi, 1939c: 5; Novák & Sadil, 1941: 111 (in key); Bernard, 1945: 137; Arnol'di, 1948: 212 (in list); Schmitz, 1950: 13; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 228; Consani & Zangheri, 1952: 43; Bernard, 1956b: 260; Baroni Urbani, 1964c: 160; Samšiňák, 1964: 158; Bernard, 1967: 345 (redescription); Cagniant, 1968a: 145; Kutter, 1968a: 60; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 85; Cagniant, 1970c: 38; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 197; Collingwood, 1971: 164; Kutter, 1977c: 207; Schembri & Collingwood, 1981: 438; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 59; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 282 (in key); Kugler, J. 1988: 259; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 137; Le Moli & Rosi, 1991: 36; Collingwood, 1993b: 195; Arakelian, 1994: 88; Bolton, 1995b: 128; Poldi, et al. 1995: 7; Cagniant, 1996b: 94; Radchenko, 1996b: 1195 (in key); Espadaler, 1997b: 27; Radchenko, 1997d: 811; Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 24 (in key); Gallé, et al. 1998: 216; Csösz, & Markó, 2005: 227; Bračko, 2006: 146; Cagniant, 2006a: 194; Markó, Sipos, et al. 2006: 67; Petrov, 2006: 107 (in key); Bračko, 2007: 19; Seifert, 2007: 270; Werner & Wiezik, 2007: 143; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowsky, 2009: 480; Vonshak, et al. 2009: 39; Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 46; Ionescu-Hirsch, 2010: 91; Csösz, et al. 2011: 58; Karaman, C. et al. 2011: 191; Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 73; Legakis, 2011: 33; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 482; Czechowski, et al. 2012: 250; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 8; McArthur, 2012: 112; Karaman, C. & Aktaç, 2013: 49 (in key); Borowiec, L. 2014: 44; Bračko, et al. 2014: 18; Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, 2014: 138; Lebas, et al. 2016: 132; Radchenko, 2016: 338; Steiner, et al. 2017: 7; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2018: 5; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 44; Seifert, 2018: 266; Werner, et al. 2018: 6; Bračko, 2019: 170; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2020: 7; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2020: 6; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2022: 149.
    • Senior synonym of fuscipes: Forel, 1874: 97 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 449; Dalla Torre, 1893: 255; Emery, 1896d 376; Ruzsky, 1905b: 260; Forel, 1915d: 73 (in key); Emery, 1925b: 147; Bolton, 1995b: 128; Radchenko, 1997d: 811; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowsky, 2009: 480; Radchenko, 2016: 338.
    • Distribution: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bosnia & Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France (+ Corsica), Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy (+ Sardinia), Jordan, Lebanon, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Portugal (+ Madeira), Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (+ Balearics), Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine.
    • [Note: distribution based on Borowiec, L. 2014: 44, Schifani, et al. 2021: 16.]
  • fuscipes. Formica fuscipes Mayr, 1853c: 280 (w.) AUSTRIA.
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Austria: Vienna, Prater (G. Mayr).
    • Type-depositories: MNHU, NHMW.
    • [Misspelled as fustipes by Radchenko, 1997d: 811, Radchenko, 2016: 338.]
    • Combination in Colobopsis: Mayr, 1861: 38 (in key).
    • Status as species: Mayr, 1855: 317 (redescription); Nylander, 1856b: 57; Smith, F. 1858b: 12; Mayr, 1861: 38 (in key); Mayr, 1863: 403; Roger, 1863b: 9; Dours, 1873: 164; André, 1874: 178 (in key).
    • Junior synonym of truncata: Forel, 1874: 97 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 449; Dalla Torre, 1893: 255; Emery, 1896d 376; Ruzsky, 1905b: 260; Forel, 1915d: 73 (in key); Emery, 1925b: 147; Bolton, 1995b: 101; Radchenko, 1997d: 811; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowsky, 2009: 480; Radchenko, 2016: 338.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - TL = 3.5–4.4, HL = 0.92–1.21, HW = 0.78–1.05, EL = 0.29–0.31, SL = 0.72–0.66, ML = 1.23–1.23, PW = 0.59–0.78, mTbL = 0.66–0.62, hTbL = 0.82–0.78 (n = 10).

Borowiec and Salata (2022) - Moderately large, polymorphic; minor workers HL: 0.841-1.000 (mean 0.931); HW: 0.683-0.889 (mean 0.794); SL: 0.675-0.794 (mean 0.807); EL: 0.254-0.303 (mean 0.275); ML: 1.11-1.34; MW: 0.52-0.63. Color. Head, mesosoma and petiolar scale from uniformly yellow reddish to completely dark brown, often head darker than mesosoma, or mesosoma bicolored with dark dorsum and pale sides; gaster dark brown to black, second tergite in anterolateral corners often with pale, white to yellowish spot, antennae from yellow with slightly infuscate funicle to almost completely brown, legs from mostly yellow with slightly infuscate femora to mostly brown with yellowish tarsi. Head. 1.1-1.2 times longer than wide, broadly oval, softly rounded in front of eyes and regularly rounded behind eyes, occipital margin convex. Clypeus trapezoidal, stout, its anterior margin convex, sides convergent posterad, posterior margin shallowly concave in the middle, on the whole surface distinctly microreticulated, surface from shiny to slightly dull; whole clypeal surface with sparse and short, hardly visible appressed hairs, a row of short to moderately long hairs at anterior margin, a row of four long setae close to anterior margin, a pair of erected setae in the middle and on to two erected setae in posterolateral corners. Head distinctly microreticulate, from shiny to slightly dull, with sparse and short appressed pubescence, with a pair of erected setae on frontal plate close to lateral margin and a pair of long erected setae in postocular area, without setae on genae and in occipital part of head, gular area and ventral side of head lacking erected setae. Scape short, slightly shorter than width of head, moderately thick, distinctly, regularly widened from base to apex, its surface microreticulate but shiny, with very short and very sparse appressed pubescence, erected setae absent. Funicular segments elongate, thin, first segment 2.1 times as long as wide and approximately 2.3 times as long as second segment, the second segment approximately as long as wide, third segment 1.3 times as long as second, the rest of funicular segments slightly longer than broad. Eyes big, elongate oval, 0.29 length of head. Mandibles very short and stout, without longitudinal sculpture, surface shiny. Mesosoma. Elongate 2.1 times as long as wide, dorsally distinctly microreticulated, laterally with microstriation, surface indistinctly shiny. In lateral view mesosomal dorsuml profile with three concavities – between promesonotum, between mesonotum and propodeum and in the middle of propodeum. Surface of pronotal dorsum with short and scarce, hardly visible depressed hairs, resto of mesosoma appears unhairy, erected setae absent. Waist and gaster. Petiolar scale broad, thick in lateral view, widest in the middle and distinctly narrowed to base and to apex, apical margin deeply emarginate medially thus petiole appears bidentate; surface of petiole transversely striate, margins lacking erected setae. Gaster shorter than mesosoma, tergites with transverse microstriation, surface shiny, covered with short and scarce, hardly visible appressed hairs only posterior margin with more visible hairs; first tergite with a pair of long erected setae in the middle and row of 4-6 erected setae close to posterior margin, second and third gastral segment with 2-4 long erected setae anteriorly and a row of 6-8 moderately long erected setae close to posterior margin. Ventral surface of femora lacking erected setae. Legs. Moderately long, covered with short and sparse appressed hairs, inner margin of hind tibiae lacking row of thorns.

Major workers: HL: 0.998-1.095 (mean 1.063); HW: 0.935-1.063 (mean 0.988); SL: 0.603-0.717 (mean 0.659); EL: 0.306-0.336 (mean 0.325); ML: 1.35-1.44; MW: 0.73-0.82. Color. Color variation as in minor worker. Head. Large, approximately 1.1 times as long as wide, in front of eyes parallelsided or slightly widened anterad, behind eyes regularly rounded, occipital margin straight. Anterior part truncate, narrow clypeus and the perpendicularly pivoted apical part of the gene form a plate that is perpendicular to the surface of the forehead; surface of this plate with rugose sculpture, the rugosities occur also on dorsal part of clypeus and lateral parts of gena, surface of perpendicular plate without setae or hairs, rugose parts of gena and dorsal part of clypeus with sparse, short erected setae, partly clavate. Mandibles very short, triangular, their surface with rugose sculpture. Surface of frons anteriorly with rugose sculpture, posteriorly microretiulate, rest of head with microreticulation and occipital part with transverse striation, rugose and posterior part of frons with sparse, long erected setae, interocular area with two pairs of erected setae, occipital part lacking erected setae. Scape very short, 0.6-0.7 times as long as width of head, thick, distinctly widened from base to apex, flattened dorso-ventrally, its surface with diffused microreticulation, shiny, appears unhaired, erected setae absent. Funicular segments elongate, thin, first segment twice as long as wide and twice as long as second segment, the second funicular segment approximately as long as wide, third segment as long as second, the rest of funicular segments as long aa to slightly wider than long. Eyes big, elongate oval, 0.31 length of head. Mesosoma. Elongate 1.7-1.9 times as long as wide dorsally distinctly microreticulated, laterally with microstriation, surface shiny. In lateral view mesosomal dorsuml profile almost regular, with concavities characteristic for minor worker only with three slightly marked grooves. Surface of dorsum without or with hardly visible depressed hairs, erected setae absent. Waist and gaster. Petiolar scale very broad, moderately thick in lateral view, widest in the middle and only slightly narrowed to base and to apex, apical margin shallowly emarginate medially thus lateral corners rounded; surface of petiole transversely striate, margins lacking erected setae. Gaster shorter than mesosoma, tergites with transverse microstriation, surface shiny, covered with short and scarce, hardly visible appressed hairs only posterior margin with more visible hairs; first tergite with 2-4 short erected setae anteriorly and a row of 4-6 short, erected setae close to posterior margin, second and third gastral segment with 2-4 long erected setae anteriorly and a row of 6-8 moderately long erected setae close to posterior margin. Legs. Moderately long, appears unhaired and shiny, inner margin of hind tibiae lacking row of thorns. Ventral surface of femora lacking erected setae.


Borowiec and Salata (2022) - head as in major worker with truncate anterior slope.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Abril S., C. Gómez. 2012. Lista actualizada de las especies de hormigas de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España) y primera cita de Monomorium andrei Saunders, 1890 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de la isla Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 50: 403-407.
  • Agosti, D. and C.A. Collingwood. 1987. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 60: 51-62
  • Aldawood AS, Sharaf MR (2011) Monomorium dryhimi sp. n., a new ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the M. monomorium group from Saudi Arabia, with a key to the Arabian Monomorium monomorium-group. ZooKeys 106: 47–54. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.106.139
  • Alvarado M., and L. Galle. 2000. Ant assemblages associated with lowland forests in the southern part of the great Hungarian plain. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientarum Hungaricae 46(2): 79-102.
  • Alvarez-Blanco P., S. Caut, X. Cerda, and E. Angulo. 2017. Native predators living in invaded areas: responses of terrestrial amphibian species to an Argentine ant invasion. Oecologia 185: 95-106.
  • Andoni V. 1977. Kontribut mbi Himenopteret e familjes Formicidae te vendit tone. Buletini I Shkencave te Natyres 31(2): 93-101.
  • AntArea. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at
  • Antarea (Personal Communication - Rumsais Blatrix- 27 April 2018)
  • Antarea (at on June 11th 2017)
  • Antonova V., and L. Penev. 2008. Classification of assemblages of ants in the green areas in Sofia City. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 60(2): 103-110.
  • Arnan, X., A. Rodrigo and J. Retana. 2006. Post-fire recovery of Mediterranean ground ant communities follows vegetation and dryness gradients. Journal of Biogeography 33(7):1246-1258
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2011. List of species collected during the Taxomara Lisboa 2010. Iberomyrmex 3: 32-33.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2012. List of species collected during the Taxomara Tres Cantos 2012. Iberomyrmex 4: 17-18.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2013. List of species collected during the Taxomara 2013. Iberomyrmex 4: 35-36.
  • Bernadou A., V. Fourcassié, and X. Espadaler. 2013. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Andorra. Zookeys 277: 13-23.
  • Bernard F. 1960. Fourmis récoltées en Corse par J. Bonfils (1957). Compte Rendu Sommaire des Séances de la Société de Biogéographie 36: 108-114.
  • Bernard F. 1967. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp.
  • Bernard, F.. "Notes sur l'écologie des fourmis en forêt de Mamora (Maroc)." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 35 (1945): 125-140.
  • Bernard, F.. "Remarques sur le peuplement des Baléares en fourmis." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 47 (1956): 254-266.
  • Berville L., C. Santelli, J. Reybaud, M. Renucci, P. Ponel, O. Blight, and E. Provost. 2014. Suivi d’un site atelier dans le golfe de Fos: Une diversite myrmecologique insoupconne. Etudes Vauclusiennes 82: 71-78.
  • Berville L., M. Renucci, and E. Provost. 2012. Mise en place de protocoles de contrôle de la fourmi d’Argentine (Linepithema humile) sur les îles de Port-Cros et de Porquerolles (Var, France). Sci. Rep. Port-Cros natl. Park, 26: 91-108.
  • Bezdecka P. 1996. The ants of Slovakia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomofauna carpathica 8: 108-114.
  • Blatrix R., C. Lebas, C. Galkowski, P. Wegnez, P. Pimenta, and D. Morichon. 2016. Vegetation cover and elevation drive diversity and composition of ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Mediterranean ecosystem. – Myrmecological News 22: 119-127.
  • Bonaric J. C. 1971. Contribution a l'etude systematique et ecologique des formicides du Bas-Languedoc. PhD thesis Universite des sciences et techniques du Languedoc, 175 pages.
  • Bonaric J. C. 1971. Étude systématique et ecologique des fourmis de l’Hérault (fin). Ann. Soc. Hortic. Hist. Nat. Hérault 111: 169-176.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2012. Ants of Greece - Checklist, comments and new faunistic data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus 23(4): 461-563.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2017. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Polish Journal of Entomology 86: 193-236.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2018. Notes on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Samos Island, Greece. Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-13.
  • Borowiec M. L. 2007. Camponotus truncatus (Spinola, 1808) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - ant species new to Poland. Polish Journal of Entomology 76: 41-45.
  • Bracko G. 2007. Checklist of the ants of Slovenia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Natura Sloveniae 9: 15-24
  • Bracko G., H. C. Wagner, A. Schulz, E. Gioahim, J. Maticic, and A. Tratnik. 2014. New investigation and a revised checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Republic of Macedonia. North-Western Journal of Zoology 10(1): 10-24.
  • Bracko G., K. Kiran, C. Karaman, S. Salata, and L. Borowiec. 2016. Survey of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Greek Thrace. Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7945. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e7945
  • Bracko G., M. Gomboc, B. Lupse, R. Maric, and U. Pristovsek. 2014. New faunistic data on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the southern part of Montenegro. Natura Slovaniae 16(1): 41-51.
  • Bracko, G. 2006. Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Croatia. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 14(2): 131-156.
  • Bracko, G.. "Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Croatia." Acta Entomologica Slovenica Vol 14 st (2006): 131-156.
  • Cagniant, H. 1968. Liste preliminaire de fourmis forestieres d'Algerie. Resultats obtenus de 1963 a 1964. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 104: 138-147
  • Cagniant, H. 2006. Liste actualisée des fourmis du Maroc. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8: 193-200.
  • Cagniant, H., and X. Espadaler. "Liste des espèces de fourmis du Maroc." Actes des Colloques Insectes Sociaux 8 (1993): 89-93.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Les Camponotus du Maroc (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): clé et catalogue des espèces." Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 32 (1996): 87-100.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Liste actualisee des fourmis du Maroc (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8 (2006): 193-200.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Étude de quelques fourmis marocaines. Statistique provisoire des Formicidae du Maroc." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 53 (1964): 83-118.
  • Cagniant, H.. Les peuplements de fourmis des forêts algériennes: écologie, biocénotique, essai biologique. Universite de Toulouse, 1973.
  • Cammell, M. E., M. J. Way, and M. R. Paiva. "Diversity and structure of ant communities associated with oak, pine, eucalyptus and arable habitats in Portugal." Insectes Sociaux 43 (1996): 37-46.
  • Carpintero, S., A. Tinaut, J. Reyes, and L. Arias. "Estudio faunístico de los formícidos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del Parque Nacional de Doñana." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 25 (1-2) (2001): 133-152.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J. 1990. Etude Systematique de la Myrmecofaune Corse (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), deuxieme partie. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. Paris. 4eme serie 12, section A(2): 415-442.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and C. Galkowski. 2009. Liste actualisee des Fourmis de France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 114: 475-510.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and M. Prost. 1991. Fourmis de la Côte-d'Or présentes dans les collections du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Dijon. Bulletin Scientifique de Bourgogne 44: 53-72.
  • Castracani C., D. A. Grasso, A. Fanfani, and A. Mori. 2010. The ant fauna of Castelporziano Presidential Reserve (Rome, Italy) as a model for the analysis of ant community structure in relation to environmental variation in Mediterranean ecosystems. J Insect Conserv 14: 585–594.
  • Ceballos, G.. "Catálogo de los Himenópteros de España.", 295-321. Vol. Catálogo de los Himenópt. Madrid: Instituto Español de Entomologia, 1956.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1956. Ant hunting in France. Entomologist 89: 106-108.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1971. A synopsis of the Formicidae of north Europe. Entomologist 104: 150-176
  • Collingwood C., and A. Prince. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5: 1-49.
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1993. A Comparitive Study of the Ant Fauna of Five Greek Islands. Biologia Gallo-hellenica. 20,1:191-197
  • Collingwood, C. A., and I. H. H. Yarrow. "A survey of Iberian Formicidae." EOS (Revista española de entomología) 44 (1969): 53-101.
  • Collingwood, C. A.. "A comparative study of the ant fauna of five Greek islands." Biologia Gallo-Hellenica 20 (1993): 191-197.
  • Comín del Río, P., and Andrés de Haro. "Datos iniciales para un estudio ecológico de las hormigas de Menorca." Bolletí de la Societat d´Historia Natural de les Balears 24 (1980): 23-48.
  • Comín del Río, P.. "Los Formícidos de Menorca. Contribución al estudio taxonómico, geográfico y biológico." Tesina de licenciatura Universida (1977): 135 pp.
  • Comín del Río, P.. Estudio de los formícidos de Baleares: Contribución al estudio taxonómico, geográfìco y biológico. Palma de Mallorca: Universidad de las Islas Baleares, 1988.
  • Consani M., and P. Zangheri. 1952. Fauna di Romagna. Imenotteri - Formicidi. Memorie della Societa Entomologica Italiana 31: 38-48.
  • Csosz S., B. Marko, K. Kiss, A. Tartally, and L. Galle. 2002. The ant fauna of the Ferto-Hansag National Park (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: Mahunka, S. (Ed.): The fauna of the Fert?-Hanság National Park. Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, pp. 617-629.
  • Csősz S. and Markó, B. 2005. European ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the ant collection of the Natural History Museum of Sibiu (Hermannstadt/Nagyszeben), Romania II. Subfamily Formicinae. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 97: 225-240.
  • Csősz S., B. Markó, and L. Gallé. 2001. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Stana Valley (Romania): Evaluation of the effectiveness of a myrmecological survey. – Entomologica Romanica 6 : 121-126.
  • Csősz S., B. Markó, and L. Gallé. 2011. The myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Hungary: an updated checklist. North-Western Journal of Zoology 7: 55-62.
  • Czechowski W., A. Radchenko, W. Czechowska and K. Vepsäläinen. 2012. The ants of Poland with reference to the myrmecofauna of Europe. Fauna Poloniae 4. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 1-496 pp
  • De Stefani T. 1889. Miscellanea imenotterologica sicula. Nat. Sicil. 8: 140-145.
  • Della Santa E. 1995. Fourmis de Provence. Faune Provence 16: 5-37.
  • Dlussky G. M., O. S. Soyunov, and S. I. Zabelin. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp.
  • Du Merle P. 1978. Les peuplements de fourmis et les peuplements d'acridiens du Mont Ventoux II. - Les peuplements de fourmis. Terre Vie 32(1): 161-218.
  • Dubovikoff D. A., and Z. M. Yusupov. 2018. Family Formicidae - Ants. In Belokobylskij S. A. and A. S. Lelej: Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Proceedingss of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 6: 197-210.
  • Dvorak, L., P. BOGUSCH, I. MALENOVSKÝ, P. BEZDÌÈKA, K. BEZDÌÈKOVÁ, K. HOLÝ, P. LIŠKA, J. MACEK, L. ROLLER, M. RÍHA et al. "Hymenoptera of Hády Hill, near the city of Brno (Czech Republic), collected during the Third Czech-Slovak Hymenoptera meeting." Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae (Brno) 93 (2008): 53-92.
  • Eidmann, H.. "Die Ameisenfauna der Balearen." Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 6 (1926): 694-742.
  • Eidmann, H.. "Zur Kenntnis der Insektekfauna der Balearischen Inseln." Entomologische Mitteilungen 16 (1927): 24-37.
  • Emery C. 1869. Enumerazione dei formicidi che rinvengonsi nei contorni di Napoli con descrizioni di specie nuove o meno conosciute. Ann. Accad. Aspir. Nat. Secunda Era 2: 1-26.
  • Emery C. 1916. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47: 79-275.
  • Emery, C.. "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der palaearktischen Ameisen." Öfversigt af Finska Vetenskaps-Societetens Förhandlingar (Helsinki) 20 (1898): 124-151.
  • Emery, C.. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte seconda. Formiche dell'Europa e delle regioni limitrofe in Africa e in Asia." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 12 (1878): 43-59.
  • Emery, C.. "Spicilegio mirmecologico." Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana 33 (1901): 57-63.
  • Espadaler X. F. Garcia, K. Gomez, S. Serrano, and R. Vila. 2009. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Mont-Rebei gorge (Pallars Jussà). Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 44: 393–399.
  • Espadaler X., F. Garcia, X. Roig, and R. Vila. 2013. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Castell de Montesquiu park (Osona, north-east of the Iberian Peninsula). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.) 53: 223-227.
  • Espadaler X., X. Roig, K. Gómez, and F. García. 2011. Formigues de les Planes de Son i mata de València (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Treballs de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural 16: 609-627.
  • Espadaler, X. and Cagniant, H. Plagiolepis Xene Starcke, The First Inquiline Ant From The Balearic Islands (Spain). Psyche. 98:351-354.
  • Espadaler, X. and H. Cagniant. 1991. Psyche. 98: 351-354.
  • Espadaler, X., J. Pujade-Villar, and A. Bernadou. "Contribució al coneixement de la taxonomia i la fenologia de les formigues (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) d'Andorra." Butlletí de l' Institució Catalana d'Història Natural 74 (2006): 81-90.
  • Espadaler, X., and H. Cagniant. "Plagiolepis xene Starckë, the first inquiline ant from the Balearic Islands (Spain)." Psyche 98 (4) (1992): 351-354.
  • Espadaler, X., and J. L. Nieves. "Hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) pobladoras de agallas abandonadas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) sobre Quercus sp. en la Península Ibérica." Boletín de la Estación Central de Ecología 12 (1983): 89-93.
  • Espadaler, X., and L. Lopez Soria. "Rareness of certain Mediterranean ant species: fact or artifact?" Insectes Sociaux 38 (1991): 365-377.
  • Espadaler, X.. "Formicidos de las sierras de Cazorla, del Pozo y Segura (Jaén, España)." Ecología 11 (1997): 489-499.
  • Forel A. 1890. Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34: lxi-lxxvi.
  • Forel A. 1909. Études myrmécologiques en 1909. Fourmis de Barbarie et de Ceylan. Nidification des Polyrhachis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 45: 369-407.
  • Forel A. 1911. Fourmis nouvelles ou intéressantes. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 47: 331-400.
  • Forel, A. 1894. Les formicides de la province d'Oran (Algerie). Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 30: 1-45.
  • Forel, A.. "Ameisen aus den Sporaden, den Cykladen und Griechenland, gesammelt 1887 von Herrn von Oertzen." Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 32 (1889): 255-265.
  • Forel, A.. "Fourmis d'Espagne récoltées par M. O. Vogt et Mme Cécile Vogt, Docteurs en médecine." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 53 (1909): 103-106.
  • Forel, A.. "Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algerie orientale recoltees et decrites par Auguste Forel." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34 (1890): lxi-lxxvi.
  • Forel, A.. "Nouvelles fourmis de Grèce récoltées par M. E. von Oertzen." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 30 (1886): clix-clxviii.
  • GRETIA. 2017. Bilan annuel de l'enquete sur la repartition des fourmis armoricaines. 23 pages.
  • Galkowski C. 2011. Une liste des fourmis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) récoltées dans la région de Grasse, avec la mention d’une nouvelle espèce de la faune de France. Bulletin de la Société linnéenne de Provence, 62 : 41-44.
  • Galkowski C. 2013. Nouvelles données sur la répartition de Strongylognathus huberi Forel, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) en France. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux (n.s.) 41: 167-174.
  • Galkowski C., and C. Foin. 2013. Nouvelles données sur la répartition de Strongylognathus huberi Forel, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) en France. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux (n.s.) 41: 167-174.
  • Galle L. 1981. The Formicoid fauna of the Hortobagy. Pp. 307-311 in: Mahunka, S. (ed.) 1981. The fauna of the Hortobágy National Park. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 415 pp.
  • Galle L. 1997. Contribution to the ant fauna of Slovenia with special reference to the submediterranean and eudinaric regions. Annals for Istrian and Mediterranean studies 11: 209-214.
  • Gallé L., B. Markó, K. Kiss, E. Kovács, H. Dürgő, K. Kőváry, and S. Csősz. 2005. Ant fauna of Tisza river basin (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). — In: Gallé, L. (szerk.): Vegetation and Fauna of Tisza River Basin I. Tiscia Monograph Series 7; Szeged, pp. 149-197.
  • Garcia Garcia F., and A. D. Cuesta-Esgura. 2017. First catalogue of the ants of Burgos province, Spain (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 60: 245–258.
  • García F., X. Espadaler, P. Echave, and R. Vila. 2011. Hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de los acantilados de l'Avenc de Tavertet (Osona) Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 47: 363-367.
  • Gasperini, R.. "Notizia sulla fauna imenotterologadalmata, III, Supplemento agli Hymenoptera aculeata Gerst." Anuario Dalmatico 5 (1889): 57-71.
  • Glaser F. 2009. Die Ameisen des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Amtlicher Lehrmittelverlag, Vaduz, 2009 (Naturkundliche Forschung im Fürstentum Liechtenstein; Bd. 26).
  • Goetsch, W.. "Beiträge zur Biologie spanischer Ameisen." EOS (Revista española de entomología) 18 (1942): 175-241.
  • Gomez K. 2017. Two species of exotic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) new to Malta. Boletin de la Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa (S.E.A.) 61: 233-235.
  • Gomez K., D. Martinez, and X. Espadaler. 2018. Phylogeny of the ant genus Aphaenogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberian Peninsula, with the description of a new species. Sociobiology 65: 215-224.
  • González Martín J. D., and X. Espadaler. 2011. Formicidos del País Vasco (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Nuevas aportaciones. Heteropterus Revista de Entomologia 11(1): 109-122.
  • Grandi G. 1935. Contributi alla conoscenza degli Imenotteri Aculeati. XV. Boll. R. Ist. Entomol. Univ. Studi Bologna 8: 27-121.
  • Gratiashvili N., Barjadze S. 2008. Checklist of the ants (Formicidae Latreille, 1809) of Georgia. Proceedings of the Institute of Zoology (Tbilisi) 23: 130-146.
  • Hosoishi, S., S. Yamane and K. Ogata. 2010. Subterranean species of the ant genus Crematogaster in Asia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological Science 13:345-350.
  • IZIKO South Africa Museum Collection
  • Ionescu-Hirsch A. 2009. An annotated list of Camponotus of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key and descriptions of new species. ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY 39: 57–98.
  • Izhaki I., B. Idelovich, R. Laster, and Y. Ofer. 2009. The impact of macro- vs micro environmental factors on the structure of ant communities inhabiting East-Mediterranean Aleppo pine forests. Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 129-146.
  • Karaman C., N. Aktac, and K. Kiran. 2009. Ants of the genus CamponotusMayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Kaz Mountains, Turkey, with descriptions of sexuals of Camponotus candiotes Emery, 1894 and Camponotus ionius Emery, 1920. Tubitak 35(2): 183-197.
  • Karaman M. G. 2001. Contribution to the knowledge of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Demir Kapija Crag (Vardar River, Macedonia), second contribution. Protection of nature 53(2): 49-61.
  • Karaman M. G. 2004. Checklist of known species of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the fauna of Montenegro. Natura Montenegrina 3: 83-92.
  • Karaman M. G. 2009. An introduction to the ant fauna of Macedonia (Balkan Peninsula), a check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Natura Montenegrina 8(3): 151-162.
  • Karaman M. G. 2011. A catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Montenegro. Podgorica: Catalogues 3, Volume 2, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, 140 pp.
  • Karaman, M. G.. "Zoogeography, diversity and altitudinal distribution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Mediterranean and the oro-Mediterranean parts of Montenegro." NORTH-WESTERN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY 7, no. 1 Article No.: 101105 (2010): 1-9.
  • Karavaiev V. 1912. Ameisen aus dem paläarktischen Faunengebiete. Rus. Entomol. Obozr. 12: 581-596.
  • Karavaiev V. 1926. Beiträge zur Ameisenfauna des Kaukasus, nebst einigen Bemerkungen über andere palaearktische Formen. (Schluss). Konowia 5: 187-199.
  • Karavaiev V. 1927. Übersicht der Ameisenfauna der Krim nebst einigen Neubeschreibungen. Konowia 5: 281-303.
  • Kiran K., and N. Aktac. 2006. The vertical distribution of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Samanh Mountains, Turkey. Linzer Biol. Beitr. 38(2): 1105-1122.
  • Kofler A. 1995. Nachtrag zur Ameisenfauna Osttirols (Tirol, Österreich) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 1: 14-25.
  • Korlevic, A.. "Prilozi fauni hrvatskih opnokrilaca." Glasn. Hrv. Narav. Dr. 5 (1890): 189-250.
  • Kugler J. 1988. The zoogeography of Israel. 9. The zoogeography of social insects of Israel and Sinai. Monographiae biologicae 62: 251-275.
  • Lapeva-Gjonova, L., V. Antonova, A. G. Radchenko, and M. Atanasova. "Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria." ZooKeys 62 (2010): 1-124.
  • Lauterer P. 1968. Notes on the occurrence of four rare species of ants in Moravia. Ac. Rer. Natur. Mus. Nat. Slov., Bratislava 54(1): 95-98.
  • Lebas C., C. Galkowski, P. Wegnez, X. Espadaler, and R. Blatrix. 2015. The exceptional diversity of ants on mount Coronat (Pyrénées-Orientales), and Temnothorax gredosi(Hymenoptera, Formicidae) new to France. R.A.R.E., T. XXIV (1): 24 – 33
  • Legakis A. 1983. The Zoological Museum of the University of Athens 2. The collection of ants from Greece. Biologia Gallo-Hellenica 11(1): 85-87.
  • Legakis Collection Database
  • Luque-García, G., J. L. Reyes-López, and J. Fernández-Haeger. "Estudio faunístico de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la cuenca del río Guadiamar: Primeras aportaciones." Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 30 (2002): 153-159.
  • Marko B. 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of the myrmecofauna of the River Somes valley. In: Sárkány-Kiss, A., Hamar, J. (szerk.): The Somes/Szamos River Valley. A study of the geography, hydrobiology and ecology of the river system and its environment. Tiscia Monograph Series 3, Szolnok-Szeged-Tîrgu Mure?, pp. 297-302.
  • Marko B. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the “Sand Dunes of Foieni” Protected Area and Its Surroundings (Satu Mare County, Romania), and a New Species for the Romanian Fauna. Acta Scientiarum Transylvanica 16(3): 87-99.
  • Markó B., A. Ionescu-Hirsch, and A. Szász-Len. 2009. Genus Camponotus Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Romania: distribution and identification key to the worker caste. Entomologica Romanica 14: 29-41.
  • Markó B., B. Sipos, S. Csősz, K. Kiss, I. Boros, and L. Gallé. 2006. A comprehensive list of the ants of Romania (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 9: 65-76.
  • Martinez J. J. 2008. Firebreaks in planted pine forests in Israel: patches for Mediterranean Bata ants. Vie et Milieu 58(3/4): 233-236.
  • Menozzi, C.. "Zur Kenntnis der Ameisenfauna der Balearen." Zoologischer Anzeiger 66 (1926): 180-182.
  • Müller, G.. "Le formiche della Venezia Guilia e della Dalmazia." Bollettino della Società Adriatica di Scienze Naturali in Trieste 28 (1923): 11-180.
  • Neumeyer R., and B. Seifert. 2005. Commented check list of free living ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species of Switzerland. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique Suisse 78: 1-17.
  • Ottonetti L., L. Tucci, and G. Santini. 2006. Recolonization Patterns of Ants in a Rehabilitated Lignite Mine in Central Italy: Potential for the Use of Mediterranean Ants as Indicators of Restoration Processes. Restoration Ecology 14(1): 60–66.
  • Paraschivescu D. 1978. Elemente balcanice in mirmecofauna R. S. Romania. Nymphaea 6: 463- 474.
  • Petrov I. Z. 2002. Contribution to the myrmecofauna (Formicidae,Hymenoptera) of Vojvodina (Serbia). Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 54, (3–4)27P–28P.
  • Petrov I. Z. 2004. A list of currently known ant species (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Serbia. Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade 56(3-4): 121-125.
  • Petrov I. Z. 2007. Contribution to knowledge of the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Belgrade, Serbia. Archives of Biological Sciences 59: 11-12.
  • Petrov I. Z. 2008. Notes on the currently known ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Montenegro. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum 1: 243-254.
  • Petrov I. Z., and A. Legakis. 1996. Contribution to the Myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Greece. Archives of biological sciences, Belgrade, 48 (3-4): 31-32.
  • Petrov I. Z., and C. A. Collingwood. 1992. Survey of the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Yugoslavia. Archives of Biological Sciences (Belgrade) 44: 79-91.
  • Poldi B., M. Mei, and F. Rigato. 1995. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Vol 102. Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana: 1-10.
  • Retana J., and X. Cerdá X. 2000. Patterns of diversity and composition of Mediterranean ground ant communites tracking spatial and temporal variability in the thermal environment. Oecologia 123: 436-444.
  • Rigato S., and I. Toni. 2011. Short notes 21. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Pp. 873-882 in: Nardi, G.; Whitmore, D.; Bardiani, M.; Birtele, D.; Mason, F.; Spada, L.; Cerretti, P. (eds.) 2011. Biodiversity of Marganai and Montimannu (Sardinia). Research in the framework of the ICP Forests network. Conservazione Habitat Invertebrati, 5. Sommacampagna, Verona: Cierre Edizioni, 896 pp.
  • Roig X., X. Espadaler, R. Cusco, F. Garcia, K. Gomez, S. Serrano, and R. Vila. 2008. Ants in gypsum areas. First record from Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula) of Cardiocondyla batesii Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with an updated list of Catalan Formicidae. Boletin Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa 42: 189-192.
  • Salata S., L. Borowiec, and A.Trichas. 2018. Taxonomic Revision of the Cretan Fauna of the Genus Temnothorax Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with Notes on the Endemism of Ant Fauna of Crete. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 68(4): 769-808.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2018. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Greek ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-51.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2019. Preliminary division of not socially parasitic Greek Temnothorax Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with a description of three new species. ZooKeys 877: 81-131.
  • Sanchez-Gil Jimeno R., and J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2016. Study of ants species of the Sierra de San Carlos del Valle (Ciudad Real) and updating the provincial check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 40 (1-2): 93-109.
  • Santschi F. 1929. Fourmis du Maroc, d'Algerie et de Tunisie. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belge 69: 138-165.
  • Santschi, F.. "Fourmis de Tunisie capturées en 1906." Revue Suisse de Zoologie 15 (1907): 305-334.
  • Santschi, F.. "Fourmis du Maroc, d'Algérie et de Tunisie." Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique (Bruxelles) 69 (1929): 138-165.
  • Santschi, F.. "Trois notes sur quelques fourmis du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique." Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 15 (1939): 1-15.
  • Santschi, F. 1907. Fourmis de Tunisie capturées en 1906. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 15: 305-334.
  • Schembri, Stephen P. and Cedric A. Collingwood. A Revision of the Myrmecofauna of the Maltese Islands. 417-442.
  • Schlick-Steiner B. C., and F. M. Steiner. 1999. Faunistisch-ökologische Untersuchungen an den freilebenden Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Wiens. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 3: 9-53.
  • Schmitz H. 1950. Formicidae quaedam a cl. A. Stärcke determinatae, quas in Lusitania collegit. Brotéria Ser. Cienc. Nat. 19: 12-16.
  • Seifert B. 1994. Die freilebenden Ameisenarten Deutschlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) und Angaben zu deren Taxonomie und Verbreitung. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 67(3): 1-44.
  • Seifert B. 1998. Rote Liste der Ameisen. - in: M. Binot, R. Bless, P. Boye, H. Gruttke und P. Pretscher: Rote Liste gefährdeter Tiere Deutschlands. Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1998: 130-133.
  • Sellier Y., C. Galkowski, C. Lebas, and P. Wegnez. 2016. Découverte de Temnothorax pardoi (Tinaut, 1987) dans la réserve naturelle nationale du Pinail (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Revue de l’Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie 25(2): 106-113.
  • Sommer F. 1984. Etude de la myrmécofaune de la réserve de la Massane. Laboratoire Arago, Banyuls sur Mer (66), 29 pages.
  • Sommer F., and H. Cagniant. 1988. Peuplements de fourmis des Albères Orientales (Pyrénées-Orientales, France) (Première partie). Vie Milieu 38: 189-200.
  • Soyer B. 1951. Les fourmis des collines des environs de Marseille. Bull Soc Linn Provence 18: 3-6.
  • Steiner F. M., S. Schödl, and B. C. Schlick-Steiner. 2002. Liste der Ameisen Österreichs (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Stand Oktober 2002. Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik 3: 17-25.
  • Suchocka H., W. Czechowski, and A. Radchenko. 2008. Second report on the occurrence of Camponotus truncatus (Spinola) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Poland, with a key to the Polish species of the genus Camponotus Mayr. Fragmenta Faunistica (Warsaw) 51: 9-13.
  • Taheri A., J. Reyes-Lopez, and N. Bennas. 2014. Contribution a l'etude de la fauna myrmecologique du parc national de Talassemtane (nord du Maroc): biodiversite, biogeographie et especes indicatrices. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 54: 225–236.
  • Tausan I. 2016. First record of Camponotus lateralis (Olivier, 1792)(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Dobrogea (Romania). Brukenthal. Acta Musei, 11: 443-446.
  • Tausan I., M. M. Jerpel, I. R. Puscasu, C. Sadeanu, R. E. Brutatu, L. A. Radutiu, and V. Giurescu. 2012. Ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Sibiu County (Transylvania, Romania). Brukenthal. Acta Musei 7(3): 499-520.
  • Tinaut A. 2016. Ants of the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Mountains Natural Park (Andalusia, Spain) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent., 40 (1-2): 125-159.
  • Tinaut, A.. "Contribución al conocimiento de los formícidos del Parque Nacional de Doñana." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 15 (1991): 57-63.
  • Tohme G. 1996. Formicidae. Etude de la diversité biologique n° 4 . Ministère de l’Agriculture à Beyrouth (Eds.). P85-87.
  • Vesni? A. 2011: Revidirani sistematski prijegled mrava Bosne i Hercegovine. Unutar : S. Lelo (urednik), Fauna Bosne i Hercegovine – Biosistematski pregledi. 7. izmijenjeno i popravljeno interno izdanje Udruženja za inventarizaciju i zaštitu životinja, Ilijaš, Kanton Sarajevo, pp: 205-207.
  • Vogrin, V.. "Prilog fauni Hymenoptera - Aculeata Jugoslavije." Zast. Bilja 31(suppl.) (1955): 1-74.
  • Vonshak M., and A. Ionescu-Hirsch. 2009. A checklist of the ants of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 33-55.
  • Wiezick M. 2008. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of forest-steppe habitats at southern and South-Western slopes of Plesivecka a Planina plateau at Slovensky Kras Karst. Natura Carpatica 49: 85-94.
  • Zimmermann, S.. "Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Ameisenfauna Süddalmatiens." Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanisch Gesellschaft in Wien 84 (1935): 1-65.
  • de Haro, Andrés, C. A. Collingwood, and P. Comín del Río. "Prospección mirmecológica por Ibiza y Formentera (Baleares)." Orsis 2 (1986): 115-120.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por Extremadura (España) y Sao Brás-Almodovar, Alcácer do Sal, Serra da Estrela (Portugal)." Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia Suplemento 3(1) (1992): 95-104.