Found from northeastern to midwestern North America, this species exclusively raids nests of Formica incerta.
|At a Glance||• Dulotic|
- 1 Photo Gallery
- 2 Identification
- 3 Distribution
- 4 Biology
- 5 Castes
- 6 Nomenclature
- 7 References
- 8 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
Trager (2013): Polyergus lucidus is most likely to be confused with the broadly sympatric Polyergus montivagus, from which it can be distinguished by shorter scapes, greater abundance of vertex and pronotal pilosity, and conspicuously greater shininess. Though I have not seen types, I follow Smith (1947) in the characterization of this species. Smith redescribed the species based on a worker at PMNH, with the same data and collector (Norton) as those described by Mayr.
Keys including this Species
Trager (2013): Polyergus lucidus is widely distributed from southern New England to Wisconsin, south to the mountain meadows and balds of the Carolinas and the tallgrass prairies of Missouri, matching most of the distribution of its unique host, Formica incerta (but not seen from Nebraska and Kansas).
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Trager (2013): This species has been studied on Long Island, New York by Topoff and his students. Cool-Kwait and Topoff (1983, 1984) published on its raid organization and emigrations, reporting behavioral patterns familiar throughout the genus. At the same study site, Goodloe and Sanwald (1985) later studied host specificity in what I here report to be lucidus and sanwaldi with their distinct hosts, Formica incerta and Formica dolosa (reported as nitidiventris and schaufussi), respectively. These authors made the important finding that gynes arising from colonies with one of these hosts were not successfully adopted by the other host species, an early hint to me of their heterospecificity.
Association with Other Organisms
This slave-making species enslaves the following species:
- Formica archboldi (King & Trager, 2007)
- Formica dolosa (Goodloe & Sanwald, 1985; King & Trager, 2007)
- Formica incerta (Goodloe & Sanwald, 1985)
- Formica pallidefulva (King & Trager, 2007)
This species is a host for the fungus Laboulbenia formicarum (a pathogen) (Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012).
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- lucidus. Polyergus lucidus Mayr, 1870b: 952 (w.q.m.) U.S.A. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1968: 214 (l.); Wheeler, W.M. 1903f: 659 (gynandromorph). Subspecies of rufescens: Forel, 1886f: 200; Emery, 1893i: 666. Revived status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 214; Wheeler, W.M. 1917i: 465; Smith, M.R. 1947g: 152; Creighton, 1950a: 557. See also: Talbot, 1968: 299; Trager, 2013: 524.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
- Syntype, worker, queen, male, near Farmington?, Connecticut, United States, Norton, (presumably at NMW, Trager (2013)).
Trager (2013) - (N=38) HL 1.40–1.76 (1.59), HW 1.38–1.76 (1.53), SL 1.19–1.36 (1.27), ½ VeM 5–12 (7.25), ½ PnM 0–6 (2.67), WL 2.32–2.86 (2.49), GL 2.00–2.68 (2.32), HFL 1.72–2.04 (1.89), CI 93–100 (96), SI 75–91 (84), HFI 114–131 (123), FSI 140–158 (148), LI 3.72–4.62 (4.08), TL 5.72–7.12 (6.40).
Head subrectangular to narrowly subtrapezoidal, HL greater than HW, and often widest about half way from eye to vertex (narrowing closer to eye in other lucidus group species); with conspicuous vertex pilosity of 10–16 macrosetae (rarely up to 24); scapes not reaching vertex corners by 1–2X maximum widths of scape, scape notably clavate in the apical third; pronotum with 1–8 (12) erect setae; mesonotal profile weakly convex; propodeal profile evenly rounded; petiole with convex sides; petiolar dorsum convex; first tergite lacking pubescence; first tergite pilosity sparse, straight, shorter than the distance separating the setae.
Head somewhat to very shiny; mesonotum shiny; gaster shiny.
Color red, often with infuscation of portions of legs and gastral tip.
Trager (2013) - Latin “lucidus” means shining, an appropriate name for Mayr’s species, the shiniest of all Polyergus.
- Cool-Kwait, C., Topoff, H. 1984. Raid organization and behavioral development in the slave-making ant Polyergus lucidus Mayr. Insectes Sociaux 31: 361-374 (doi:10.1007/BF02223653).
- Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 1-585 (page 557, Revived status as species;, Senior synonym of montivagus)
- Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 214, Revived status as species)
- Espadaler, X., Santamaria, S. 2012. Ecto- and Endoparasitic Fungi on Ants from the Holarctic Region. Psyche Article ID 168478, 10 pages (doi:10.1155/2012/168478).
- Forel, A. 1886h. Études myrmécologiques en 1886. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 30: 131-215 (page 200, Race of rufescens)
- Greenberg, L., Johnson, C.A., Trager, J.C., McElfresh, J. S., Rodstein, J., Millar, J.G. 2018. Sex attractant pheromones of virgin aueens of sympatric slave-making ant species in the genus Polyergus, and their possible roles in reproductive isolation. Journal of Chemical Ecology 44, 547–555 (doi:10.1007/s10886-018-0966-9).
- King, J.R., Trager, J.C. 2007. Natural history of the slave making ant, Polyergus lucidus, sensu lato in northern Florida and its three Formica pallidefulva group hosts. Journal of Insect Science 7(42): 1-14.
- Mayr, G. 1870b. Neue Formiciden. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 20: 939-996 (page 952, worker, queen, male described)
- Ruano, F., Sanllorente, O., Lenoir, A., Tinaut, A. 2013. Rossomyrmex, the slave-maker ants from the arid steppe environments. Psyche: A Journal of Entomology 2013, 1–7 (doi:10.1155/2013/541804).
- Smith, M. R. 1947g. A study of Polyergus in the United States, based on the workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Am. Midl. Nat. 38: 150-161 (page 152, Revived status as species)
- Talbot, M. 1968 . Slave-raids of the ant Polyergus lucidus Mayr. Psyche (Camb.) 74: 299-313 (page 299, see also)
- Trager, J.C. 2013. Global revision of the dulotic ant genus Polyergus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Formicinae, Formicini). Zootaxa 3722, 501–548.
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1968a. The ant larvae of the subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): supplement. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 61: 205-222 (page 214, larva described)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1903h. Some new gynandromorphous ants, with a review of the previously recorded cases. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 19: 653-683 (page 659, gynandromorph described)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1917g. Jamaican ants collected by Prof. C. T. Brues. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 61: 457-471 (page 465, Revived status as species)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Carroll T. M. 2011. The ants of Indiana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Master's Thesis Purdue university, 385 pages.
- Carroll T. M. 2011. The ants of Indiana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Master's thesis Purdue University.
- Colby, D. and D. Prowell. 2006. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Wet Longleaf Pine Savannas in Louisiana. Florida Entomologist 89(2):266-269
- Coovert G. A. 2005. The Ants of Ohio (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ohio Biological Survey, Inc. 15(2): 1-207.
- Coovert, G.A. 2005. The Ants of Ohio (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin New Series Volume 15(2):1-196
- Davis W. T., and J. Bequaert. 1922. An annoted list of the ants of Staten Island and Long Island, N. Y. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 17(1): 1-25.
- Del Toro, I. 2010. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION. MUSEUM RECORDS COLLATED BY ISRAEL DEL TORO
- Deyrup M., C. Johnson, G. C. Wheeler, J. Wheeler. 1989. A preliminary list of the ants of Florida. Florida Entomologist 72: 91-101
- Deyrup, M. 2003. An updated list of Florida ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 86(1):43-48.
- Dubois, M.B. and W.E. Laberge. 1988. An Annotated list of the ants of Illionois. pages 133-156 in Advances in Myrmecology, J. Trager
- General D.M. & Thompson L.C. 2007. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Arkansas Post National Memorial. Journal of the Arkansas Acaedemy of Science. 61: 59-64
- Gregg, R.T. 1963. The Ants of Colorado.
- Guénard B., K. A. Mccaffrey, A. Lucky, and R. R. Dunn. 2012. Ants of North Carolina: an updated list (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3552: 1-36.
- Ipser R. M. 2004. Native and exotic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Georgia: Ecological Relationships with implications for development of biologically-based management strategies. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of Georgia. 165 pages.
- Ivanov K. 2019. The ants of Ohio (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): an updated checklist. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 70: 65–87.
- Ivanov K., L. Hightower, S. T. Dash, and J. B. Keiper. 2019. 150 years in the making: first comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Virginia, USA. Zootaxa 4554 (2): 532–560.
- Johnson R. Personnal Database. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/resources.htm
- Jones J. W. 1943. Known distribution of the shining slave maker ant Polyergus lucidus Mayr. American Midland Naturalist 29: 185
- King J. R., and J. C. Trager. 2007. Natural history of the slave making ant, Polyergus lucidus, sensu lato in northern Florida and its three Formica pallidefulva group hosts. Journal of Insect Science 7: Article 42 (available online: insectscience.org/7.42): 14 pp.
- Lynch J. F. 1988. An annotated checklist and key to the species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Chesapeake Bay region. The Maryland Naturalist 31: 61-106
- Mackay W. P., and E. E. Mackay. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp.
- Munsee J. R., W. B. Jansma, and J. R. Schrock. 1986. Revision of the checklist of Indiana ants with the addition of five new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Indiana Academy of Science 95: 265-274.
- Smith M. A., J. V. McDonald, M. Kent, E. Morris, and J. C. Trager. 2017. The use of social media to document a range extension of an iconic social parasite. J. ent. Soc. Ont. 148: 1–5.
- Smith M. R. 1947. A study of Polyergus in the United States, based on the workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). American Midland Naturalist 38: 150-161.
- Smith M.R. 1947. A Study of Polyergus in the Unites States. Based on the Workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) American Midland Naturalist. 38: 150-161
- Sturtevant A. H. 1931. Ants collected on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Psyche (Cambridge) 38: 73-79
- Talbot M. 1968. Flights of the ant Polyergus lucidus Mayr. Psyche 75: 46-52.
- Talbot M. 1976. A list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Edwin S. George Reserve, Livingston County, Michigan. Great Lakes Entomologist 8: 245-246.
- Trager J. C. 2013. Global revision of the dulotic ant genus Polyergus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Formicinae, Formicini). Zootaxa 3722(4): 501-548.
- Trager, J. and C.Johnson. 1985. A slave-making ant in Florida: Polyergus lucidus with observations on the natural history of its host Formica archboldi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Florida Entomologist 68(2):261-266.
- Warren, L.O. and E.P. Rouse. 1969. The Ants of Arkansas. Bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station 742:1-67
- Wheeler G. C., J. N. Wheeler, and P. B. Kannowski. 1994. Checklist of the ants of Michigan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist 26(4): 297-310
- Wheeler W. M. 1905. An annotated list of the ants of New Jersey. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 21: 371-403.
- Wheeler, G.C., J. Wheeler and P.B. Kannowski. 1994. CHECKLIST OF THE ANTS OF MICHIGAN (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE). Great Lakes Entomologist 26:1:297-310