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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Tribe: Bothriomyrmecini
Genus: Chronoxenus
Santschi, 1919
Type species
Bothriomyrmex myops, now Chronoxenus myops
9 species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Chronoxenus myops casent0103286 p 1 high.jpg

Chronoxenus myops casent0103286 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Evolutionary Relationships

  (6 genera)


  (1 species)

  (1 species)

  (4 species)

  (29 species)

  (9 species)

  (1 genus)

  (16 genera)

Based on Ward et al. 2010.


AntWeb icon 02.png See images of species within this genus



Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps


Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: ? (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: not parasitic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: omnivore (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter; arboreal (Greer et al., 2021)


Worker Morphology

 • Eyes: 11-100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: absent • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: absent • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • CHRONOXENUS [Dolichoderinae: Bothriomyrmecini]
    • Chronoxenus Santschi, 1919i: 202 [as subgenus of Bothriomyrmex]. Type-species: Bothriomyrmex myops, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1944e: 102.
    • Chronoxenus junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex: Shattuck, 1992c: 54.
    • Chronoxenus revived from synonymy and raised to genus: Dubovikov, 2005a: 92.

Taxonomic history

  • Chronoxenus in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 690; all subsequent authors to the following.
  • Chronoxenus in Dolichoderini, Iridomyrmecini, Bothriomyrmecina: Dubovikov, 2005a: 92.
  • Chronoxenus in Dolichoderinae, Bothriomyrmecini: Ward, Brady, et al. 2010: 361.
  • Chronoxenus as subgenus of Bothriomyrmex: Santschi, 1919i: 202; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 690.
  • Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex: Brown, 1973b: 179 [provisional]; Shattuck, 1992c: 54; Bolton, 1994: 26; Shattuck, 1994: 31; Bolton, 1995b: 24; Bolton, 2003: 84.
  • Chronoxenus as genus: Dubovikov, 2005a: 92.


  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 26, Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 84, Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Wash (page 179, Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex [provisional])
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1944e. A new species of Bothriomyrmex Emery (Hym. Formicidae), and some notes on the genus. Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 13: 100-103 (page 102, Chronoxenus type-species: Bothriomyrmex myops, by subsequent designation)
  • Dubovikoff, D.A. 2005. The system of taxon Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869 sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and relatives genera. Kavkazskii Entomologicheskii Byulleten 1(1): 89-94 (page 92, Combination in Iridomyrmecini;Chronoxenus revived from synonymy and raised to genus)
  • Rabeling, C. 2020. Social Parasitism. In: Starr, C. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Social Insects. Springer, Cham. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-90306-4_175-1).
  • Santschi, F. 1919i. Fourmis du genre Bothriomyrmex Emery. (Systématique et moeurs.). Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 7: 201-224 (page 202, Chronoxenus as subgenus of Bothriomyrmex)
  • Shattuck, S. O. 1992c. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 21: 1-181 (page 54, Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 690, Chronoxenus as subgenus of Bothriomyrmex)