Pseudoneoponera tridentata

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Pseudoneoponera tridentata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Pseudoneoponera
Species: P. tridentata
Binomial name
Pseudoneoponera tridentata
Smith, F., 1858

Pachycondyla tridentata casent0217571 p 1 high.jpg

Pachycondyla tridentata casent0217571 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

At a Glance • Gamergate  




Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo (type locality), Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb


Queens and gamergates can cohabit in the same colonies of P. tridentata (Sommer & Hölldobler 1992; Sommer et al. 1994). Some dealated queens do not lay eggs because they are behaviourally dominated by gamergates.


Winged queens are similar in body size to workers.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • tridentata. Pachycondyla tridentata Smith, F. 1858b: 106 (w.) BORNEO. Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 142 (m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1976a: 45; Imai, Brown, et al. 1984: 67 (k.). Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera): Emery, 1900d: 667; in Bothroponera: Mayr, 1872: 149; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 55; in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 311; in Bothroponera: Joma & Mackay, 2013: 2; in Pseudoneoponera: Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 135. Current subspecies: nominal plus debilior, exasperans.

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

Ponera tridentata

Two worker syntypes in The Natural History Museum, one worker syntype in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Of the The Natural History Museum specimens, one has two data discs, “SAR.” and “Borneo. 57/36.” Acc. Reg.: “1857 no. 36 (May 2) Borneo. Purchased of Stevens.” The second is labelled as “P. tridentata Sm. type” and has a note in Donisthorpe’s handwriting, “Borneo. Sarawak.”

The Oxford University Museum of Natural History syntype, labelled only “SAR.” has been remounted in the past by cutting short the large pin through the thorax, and driving it through a piece of card. In the The Natural History Museum specimens the original pin is the only one present.



  • 2n = 28 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983) (as Pachycondyla tridentata).


  • Baltazar, C. R. 1966. A catalogue of Philippine Hymenoptera (with a bibliography, 1758-1963). Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 1-488 (page 241, listed)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1995a. [Untitled. Taxonomic changes in Pachycondyla attributed to Brown.] Pp. 302-311 in: Bolton, B. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 311, combination in Pachycondyla)
  • Emery, C. 1900c. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. [part]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 40[=(2(20): 661-688 (page 667, Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera))
  • Imai, H. T.; Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kubota, M.; Yong, H.-S.; Tho, Y. P. 1984. Chromosome observations on tropical ants from western Malaysia. II. Annu. Rep. Natl. Inst. Genet. Jpn. 34: 66-69 (page 67, karyotype described)
  • Mayr, G. 1872. Formicidae Borneenses collectae a J. Doria et O. Beccari in territorio Sarawak annis 1865-1867. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 2: 133-155 (page 149, Combination in Bothroponera)
  • Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1).
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 106, worker described)
  • Sommer K, Holldobler B (1992) Coexistence and dominance among queens and mated workers in the ant Pachycondyla tridentata. Naturwissenschaften 79:470–472
  • Sommer, K.; Hölldobler, B.; Jessen, K. 1994. The unusual social organization of the ant Pachycondyla tridentata (Formicidae, Ponerinae). J. Ethol. 12: 175-185 (page 175, see also)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976a. Supplementary studies on ant larvae: Ponerinae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 102: 41-64 (page 45, larva described)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1919f. The ants of Borneo. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 63: 43-147 (page 142, male described)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1919f. The ants of Borneo. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 63: 43-147 (page 55, Combination in Bothroponera)