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Temporal range: 59–47 Ma Thanetian, Paleocene to Lutetian, Middle Eocene
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Protopone
Dlussky, 1988
Type species
Protopone primigena
7 fossil species
(Species Checklist)



This taxon is known from Messel, Germany (Lutetian, Middle Eocene) and Sakhalin amber, Ukraine (Thanetian, Paleocene).



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • PROTOPONE [incertae sedis in Ponerinae]
    • Protopone Dlussky, 1988: 52. Type-species: †Protopone primigena, by original designation.


  • Barden, P. 2017. Fossil ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): ancient diversity and the rise of modern lineages. Myrmecological News 24: 1-30.
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 164, Protopone in Ponerinae, Ponerini)
  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 369, Protopone in Ponerinae, Ponerini; incertae sedis in Ponerinae)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 172, Protopone incertae sedis in Ponerinae)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1988a. Ants of Sakhalin amber (Paleocene?) Paleontol. Zh. 1988(1 1: 50-61 (page 52, Protopone in Ponerinae)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. (page 78, Protopone in Ponerinae, Ponerini)