Bequaert (1922) reported Cataulacus bequaerti as "nesting in empty lepidopterous galls on a tree."
A member of the intrudens group. Of the species closely related to Cataulacus intrudens, bequaerti may immediately be separated by its marked abundance of short, stout hairs, especially evident upon the head capsule, The sculpturation is reasonably distinctive, the fine and dense but very strong reticulate-puncturation being immediately noticeable. In intrudens and other related species this sculpturation is never so emphasized, except on the mesonotum of some forms. (Bolton 1974)
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Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
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Much of the information concerning the biology of Cataulacus species is anecdotal and fragmentary. Arnold (1917) wrote a succinct general overview of Cataulacus biology that still remains quite informative. Arnold reports "all the species of this genus are tree-ants, usually forming medium sized nests in hollow twigs and stems, or more rarely, under the bark. They are timid and slow-moving insects, often feigning death or dropping rapidly to the ground when disturbed. As Bingham has remarked in connection with this genus (Fauna Brit. India, Formicidae), these ants have the habit of wandering over the trunks of trees and the leaves in what appears to be a very aimless and languid manner. I have occasionally seen them breaking open the earthen tunnels constructed by termites over the trunks of trees and attack the inmates."
Bolton (1974) expands upon this earlier account - "All known Cataulacus species are arboreal or subarboreal nesters and they predominantly forage on the trees and shrubs in which the nests are situated. Very few appear to come down to ground level but in West Africa the small species Cataulacus pygmaeus and Cataulacus brevisetosus may be found foraging in leaf litter or crossing the ground to ascend a tree other than the one in which the nest is situated. The nests themselves are usually constructed in small hollow twigs or stems by the smaller species and in rotten branches or rotted portions of the tree trunk by the larger species. This is rather a generalization as some small species are known which nest in and under rotten bark (e.g. Cataulacus vorticus) and undoubtedly some of the larger forms will eventually be found inhabiting relatively small cavities in plants.
Various species of the genus in Africa are known to inhabit a variety of galls, acacias and bushes as well as large trees. Numerous species have been found nesting in, and have therefore been often collected from, cocoa in Africa. Some of these species are Cataulacus guineensis, Cataulacus pygmaeus, Cataulacus mocquerysi, Cataulacus egenus, Cataulacus vorticus, Cataulacus brevisetosus, Cataulacus kohli and Cataulacus theobromicola. Feeding habits in the genus are mostly unknown but the present author has noted C. guineensis tending aphids and small coccids.
On the plants ants of the genus Cataulacus often occur together with Oecophylla or species of Crematogaster, and appear to be mostly tolerated (at least they are not evicted) by the majority of these forms. Their defence against attackers of these genera lies primarily in their armoured exterior, but their ultimate escape reaction is to curl up and release their grip on the plant, falling to the ground and thus making their escape. The decision to remain immobile and present an armoured surface or to drop from the plant appears to depend upon the size or persistence of the aggressor; larger attackers usually precipitate the latter reaction, but it has also been noted as a result of persistent and unwanted attention by a series of workers of a small Crematogaster species.
The majority of species are forest-dwelling forms, with relatively few adapted to savannah or veldt conditions. Those which do, however, occur in these zones tend to be very successful in their chosen habitat and often possess a wide distribution. A few species are apparently able to exist in any region of Africa providing the basic essentials of nesting-site and food supply are met with, but on the whole the fauna may be divided into forest and non-forest forms."
Some species have nests that can be protected by a single worker's head, as its shape matches the nest entrance and forms an effective plug.
It has more recently been discovered that some species of Cataulacus are efficient gliders (Cataulacus erinaceus, Cataulacus guineensis, Cataulacus mocquerysi and Cataulacus tardus). Workers exhibit directed movement while in freefall that allows them to glide back to regain a hold on the same tree trunk. (Yanoviak et al. 2005, 2007, 2008)
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- bequaerti. Cataulacus bequaerti Forel, 1913b: 316 (w.) DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO. See also: Bolton, 1974a: 40.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Bolton (1974) - TL 4.5 – 5.1, HL 1.20 – 1.30, HW 1.22 – 1.30, CI 100- 102, EL 0.50 – 0.52, OI 40 - 41, IOD 1.00 – 1.04, SL 0.60 – 0.62, SI 47 - 49, PW 0.90 – 0.98, AL 1.26 – 1.40, MTL 0.66 – 0.70 (3 measured).
Occipital crest absent; occipital corners with a short, broadly rounded or a poorly developed, acute tooth and with a narrower but more acute tooth on the occipital margin close to the corners. Sides of head behind eyes crenulate or denticulate. Pronotum marginate laterally, the edges denticulate. Remainder of alitrunk denticulate laterally. Propodeum with a pair of broad, dorsoventrally flattened spines. Dorsal alitrunk without any trace of sutures. Subpetiolar process broad, the anteroventral corner extended into a broad, blunt spur, whilst the posteroventral corner forms an obtuse angle. Subpostpetiolar process simple, with a short, rounded, anteromedian prominence. First gastral tergite not marginate laterally.
Dorsal surfaces of head, alitrunk and gaster finely but very strongly and closely reticulate-punctate. The head and alitrunk also possess rugae, which on the head and pronotum form a reticulum, finer and closer upon the former than the latter. On the remainder of the alitrunk the cross-meshes tend to disappear and the rugae acquire a marked longitudinal trend. Apart from a few basigastric rugulae the first gastral tergite is entirely reticulate-punctate. Stout, blunt, erect hairs numerous on all dorsal surfaces, abundant upon the head.
Syntype workers, ZAIRE: Katanga, Kabanza (Kikondja), Riv. Lovoi, 21.x.1911 (Bequaert) (MHN, Geneva; MRAC, Tervuren; MNHU, Berlin) [examined].
- Bequaert, J. 1922. IV. Ants in their diverse relations to the plant world. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45:333-583.
- Bolton, B. 1974a. A revision of the Palaeotropical arboreal ant genus Cataulacus F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 30: 1-105 (page 40, see also)
- Forel, A. 1913b. Formicides du Congo Belge récoltés par MM. Bequaert, Luja, etc. Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 2: 306-351 PDF