Camponotus sanctus

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Camponotus sanctus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Camponotus
Species: C. sanctus
Binomial name
Camponotus sanctus
Forel, 1904

Camponotus sanctus casent0179882 p 1 high.jpg

Camponotus sanctus casent0179882 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


Pashaei Rad et al. (2018) found this species in Iran on the ground in areas with at least moderate rainfall.


Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - C. sanctus is a large species of Tanaemyrmex with broad head, moderate ground sculpture (the major worker is mostly shiny), and prismatic hind tibia ventrally with a row of bristles.

The C. sanctus worker is similar to Camponotus oasium syntypes in size and color pattern, but differs from them by its smaller eye, distinctly shorter mesosoma, scape and legs; generally larger and more abundant punctures on gena; feebler ground sculpture; presence of erect setae on ventral head surface; and more abundant pilosity (mesosoma dorsum with 12–14 erect setae in C. sanctus, as opposed to 9–10 in C. oasium). One to four erect setae on the ventral surface of the head were found in all syntypes of C. sanctus, Camponotus maculatus thoracicus sanctoides Forel and Camponotus compressus sanctus var. confellah Santschi, and in examined specimens misidentified by Tohmé and Tohmé (2000: 387) as C. oasium (“oasium” morph), and in all the examined gyne, as well as in 150 workers from 50 localities. Three specimens from one nest series from Mount Hermon lack such setae. They have relatively large eyes and an infuscate body similar to C. compressus sanctus var. confellah. They are similar to Camponotus oasium ninivae Pisarski from Iraq in habitus, but differ from it by the larger eye, longer scape and leg, less accentuated sculpture of the mesosoma pleura, distinctly more abundant body pilosity, and darker color.

This is a variable species, in which were described five varieties (Santschi, 1939) distinguished by head shape and width, eye length, mesosoma length and height, and body color. However, comparison of a larger sample of specimens from Israel, Lebanon, and Syria, some of them identified in the past as C. sanctus and C. compressus sanctus var. sanctoides, and the respective syntypes, showed variation of these features among and within the nest series.

C. sanctus and C. compressus cosensis Finzi are indistinguishable morphologically, and may be synonyms.

Keys including this Species


Near East (Wheeler and Mann, 1916; Santschi, 1939) to Iran and Afghanistan (Radchenko, 1997b).

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 40.48333333° to 31.766667°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Afghanistan, Greece, Iran, Israel (type locality), Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • sanctus. Camponotus maculatus r. sanctus Forel, 1904c: 18 (s.w.q.m.) ISRAEL.
    • Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 98.
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Forel, 1911d: 359.
    • Subspecies of maculatus: Forel, 1904d: 176; Emery, 1905d: 34; Emery, 1908a: 195; Emery, 1915h: 2; Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1916: 174; Hamann & Klemm, 1976: 676 (anachronism).
    • Subspecies of compressus: Emery, 1920c: 6; Emery, 1921b: 208; Santschi, 1921a: 116; Emery, 1925b: 98; Finzi, 1930c: 24; Finzi, 1932: 25; Menozzi, 1933b: 80; Santschi, 1934d: 280; Menozzi, 1936d: 300; Santschi, 1939c: 6; Santschi, 1939d: 83; Aktaç, 1977: 125.
    • [Note: Santschi, 1921a: 116, first records sanctus as a subspecies of compressus, and in the next entry at species-rank, as sanctus var. ionia. In the second entry sanctus is a misprint for samius.]
    • Status as species: Collingwood, 1961a: 76; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 59; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 284 (in key); Kugler, J. 1988: 259; Collingwood, 1993b: 195; Bolton, 1995b: 122; Radchenko, 1996b: 1202 (in key). Radchenko, 1997d: 810; Tohmé & Tohmé, 2000: 390 (redescription); Petrov, 2006: 110 (in key); Paknia, et al. 2008: 153; Vonshak, et al. 2009: 39; Ionescu-Hirsch, 2010: 86; Legakis, 2011: 32; Karaman, C. et al. 2011: 191; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 481; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2013: 382; Karaman, C. & Aktaç, 2013: 53 (in key); Borowiec, L. 2014: 41; Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, 2014: 137; Lebas, et al. 2016: 156; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 44.
    • Senior synonym of cosensis: Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2013: 382 (in text).
    • Senior synonym of symiensis: Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2013: 382 (in text).
  • cosensis. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) compressus var. cosensis Finzi, 1939c: 159.
    • [First available use of Camponotus maculatus r. sanctus var. cosensis Forel, 1904c: 20 (s.w.) GREECE (Cos I., Rhodes I.); unavailable (infrasubspecific) name (Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 61).]
    • Finzi, 1932: 25 (q.m.).
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1908a: 195; Emery, 1915h: 2; Emery, 1920c: 6; Emery, 1921b: 208; Santschi, 1921a: 116; Emery, 1925b: 98; Finzi, 1932: 25; Menozzi, 1936d: 300.
    • Subspecies of compressus: Finzi, 1939c: 159; Bolton, 1995b: 94; Legakis, 2011: 29; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 6.
    • Junior synonym of sanctus: Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2013: 382 (in text).
  • symiensis. Camponotus maculatus subsp. symiensis Forel, 1910a: 26 (w.) GREECE.
    • Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 98.
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Santschi, 1934d: 280.
    • Subspecies of compressus: Emery, 1920c: 6; Emery, 1925b: 98; Bolton, 1995b: 126; Legakis, 2011: 33; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 6.
    • Junior synonym of sanctus: Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2013: 382 (in text).

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - TL = 8.0–15.6, HL = 1.76–4.34, HW = 1.25–4.38, EL = 0.46–0.78, SL = 2.29–3.59, ML = 2.89–5.32, PW = 1.09–2.46, mTbL = 1.88–3.31, hTbL = 2.81–4.65 (n = 120).


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

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