Pashaei Rad et al. (2018) found this species in Iran on the ground in areas with at least moderate rainfall.
Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - C. sanctus is a large species of Tanaemyrmex with broad head, moderate ground sculpture (the major worker is mostly shiny), and prismatic hind tibia ventrally with a row of bristles.
The C. sanctus worker is similar to Camponotus oasium syntypes in size and color pattern, but differs from them by its smaller eye, distinctly shorter mesosoma, scape and legs; generally larger and more abundant punctures on gena; feebler ground sculpture; presence of erect setae on ventral head surface; and more abundant pilosity (mesosoma dorsum with 12–14 erect setae in C. sanctus, as opposed to 9–10 in C. oasium). One to four erect setae on the ventral surface of the head were found in all syntypes of C. sanctus, Camponotus maculatus thoracicus sanctoides Forel and Camponotus compressus sanctus var. confellah Santschi, and in examined specimens misidentified by Tohmé and Tohmé (2000: 387) as C. oasium (“oasium” morph), and in all the examined gyne, as well as in 150 workers from 50 localities. Three specimens from one nest series from Mount Hermon lack such setae. They have relatively large eyes and an infuscate body similar to C. compressus sanctus var. confellah. They are similar to Camponotus oasium ninivae Pisarski from Iraq in habitus, but differ from it by the larger eye, longer scape and leg, less accentuated sculpture of the mesosoma pleura, distinctly more abundant body pilosity, and darker color.
This is a variable species, in which were described five varieties (Santschi, 1939) distinguished by head shape and width, eye length, mesosoma length and height, and body color. However, comparison of a larger sample of specimens from Israel, Lebanon, and Syria, some of them identified in the past as C. sanctus and C. compressus sanctus var. sanctoides, and the respective syntypes, showed variation of these features among and within the nest series.
C. sanctus and C. compressus cosensis Finzi are indistinguishable morphologically, and may be synonyms.
Keys including this Species
Near East (Wheeler and Mann, 1916; Santschi, 1939) to Iran and Afghanistan (Radchenko, 1997b).
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- sanctus. Camponotus maculatus r. sanctus Forel, 1904c: 18 (s.w.q.m.) ISRAEL. Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 98. Subspecies of compressus: Emery, 1920c: 6; Santschi, 1921a: 116. Raised to species: Collingwood, 1961a: 76; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 59. Senior synonym of cosensis, symiensis: Borowiec & Salata, 2013: 382. See also: Tohmé & Tohmé, 2000: 390.
- cosensis. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) compressus var. cosensis Finzi, 1939c: 159 (s.w.) GREECE. [First available use of Camponotus maculatus r. sanctus var. cosensis Forel, 1904c: 20; unavailable name (Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 61).] Finzi, 1932: 25 (q.m.). Junior synonym of sanctus: Borowiec & Salata, 2013: 382.
- symiensis. Camponotus maculatus subsp. symiensis Forel, 1910a: 26 (w.) GREECE. Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 98. Subspecies of compressus: Emery, 1920c: 6. Junior synonym of sanctus: Borowiec & Salata, 2013: 382.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - TL = 8.0–15.6, HL = 1.76–4.34, HW = 1.25–4.38, EL = 0.46–0.78, SL = 2.29–3.59, ML = 2.89–5.32, PW = 1.09–2.46, mTbL = 1.88–3.31, hTbL = 2.81–4.65 (n = 120).
- Agosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987a. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 60: 51-62 (page 59, raised to species)
- Borowiec, L. & Salata, S. 2013. Ants of Greece – additions and corrections (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 24, 335-401.
- Collingwood, C. A. 1961a . The third Danish Expedition to Central Asia. Zoological Results 27. Formicidae (Insecta) from Afghanistan. Vidensk. Medd. Dan. Naturhist. Foren. 123: 51-79 (page 76, raised to species)
- Emery, C. 1920d. Studi sui Camponotus. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 52: 3-48 (page 6, subspecies of compressus)
- Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 98, combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex))
- Forel, A. 1904d. Miscellanea myrmécologiques. Rev. Suisse Zool. 12: 1-52 (page 18, soldier, worker, queen, male described)
- Ionescu-Hirsch, A. 2010 (2009). An annotated list of Camponotus of Israel, with a key and descriptions of new species. Israel Journal of Entomology. 39:57-98.
- Pashaei Rad, S., Taylor, B., Torabi, R., Aram, E., Abolfathi, G., Afshari, R., Borjali, F., Ghatei, M., Hediary, F., Jazini, F., Heidary Kiah, V., Mahmoudi, Z., Safariyan, F., Seiri, M. 2018. Further records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 64, 145-159 (doi:10.1080/09397140.2018.1442301).
- Santschi, F. 1921a. Notes sur les fourmis paléarctiques. II. Fourmis d'Asie Mineure récoltées par M. H. Gadeau de Kerville. Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 21: 110-116 (page 116, subspecies of compressus)
- Tohmé, G.; Tohmé, H. 2000b. Redescription de Camponotus oasium Forel, 1890, de C. fellah Emery, 1908, de C. sanctus Forel, 1904 et description de C. palmyrensis n. sp., quatre fourmis du Liban et de la Syrie. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 105: 387-394 (page 391, redescription)