Smith, M.R., 1962
|Relationships among selected species of Ponera by Branstetter & Longino (2019). The focus of this study was the species Ponera exotica and Ponera pennsylvanica.|
This species occurs in a variety of habitats, including mesic floodplain forests, dry upland forests, and prairies (Johnson 1987). Nests are small, typically with less than 60 workers.
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
Taylor (1967) - Exotica is similar to Ponera leae, from which it is distinguished by the characters in the species key. This couplet unequivocally separates all specimens studied here; its complexity reflects the close similarity between these species. exotica is easily distinguished from the sympatric Ponera pennsylvanica by its much smaller size, 4-segmented antennal club; lack of a mesometanotal suture, and much paler coloration.
This species is distinguished from the other North American species of Ponera by its small size (length about 2 mm) and disproportionately large antennal club.
Keys including this Species
North Carolina south into Florida, west into Oklahoma and southwestern Texas (Mackay and Anderson 1991). In Florida in occurs south into Highlands County. As its name implies, P. exotica was assumed to be introduced, primarily because of its apparent close relationship to Indo-Australian species (Smith 1962). The late date of the first specimens (1959) and its appearance following a huge amount of poorly regulated (from the standpoint of introduction of species) air traffic in the latter part of World War II also seem to have helped Marion Smith decide that this species is exotic. Robert Taylor, in his 1967 revision of Ponera, agreed that the species must be exotic, and evidently had discussed this with Marion Smith before the species was described. As a final, convincing bit of evidence, P. exotica is apparently so similar to the widely distributed, sometimes exotic species Ponera leae, not to be confused with Hypoponera lea, that Taylor (1967) wondered whether it could be a slight variant of that species. Clifford Johnson (1987), after considering the wide distribution of the species in undisturbed habitats, its absence from disturbed habitats, and the lack of any specimens from the Indo-Australian region, decided that the species is probably native. Its late discovery is not that unusual for a small, litter-inhabiting ant in southeastern North America. We provisionally accept this decision, assuming this to be an old genus with a relict distribution outside of the Indo-Australian region (like Cryptopone). There could easily be more species of tiny and cryptobiotic Ponera that await discovery to fill in the gaps between southern North America and the similar species on the other side of the globe.
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Taylor (1967) - These records are all from Berlese funnel samples of leaflitter or leafmold. All except one (Beaufort Co., N. C., D. L. Wray) were gathered by Carter. The Beaufort Co. collection represents the first record of this species; it is dated September 1950. Carter's North Carolina records were made in June through early September 1960; the Oklahoma ones in July and August, 1963.
Conditions at each North Carolina collection site were reviewed in detail by M. R. Smith (1962). I quote here from Carter’s (1962b) summary of the ecology of this species in North Carolina.
“Specimens were collected in a xeric piedmont post oak — blackjack forest near Hillsboro and in a dry, sunny post oak — blackjack oak stand southeast of Charlotte. The coastal plain collections were obtained from well-shaded mesic forests of loblolly pine — hardwood — beech, loblolly pine, pine — dogwood, pine — hardwood, and oak — loblolly pine.”
It may be significant that higher elevation records on the piedmont plateau were from more xeric, less heavily shaded stations, with thinner leafmold and litter than the lower lying coastal plain sites. It would be interesting if an elevational shift in the ecological preferences could be demonstrated.
Carter gives the following descriptions of the Oklahoma stations (pers. Comm.). “Payne County is characterized by large areas of tall or mixed grass prairie with scrub oak forests on certain highland areas. These oak forests are quite xeric. Mesic forests of oaks and other hardwoods are found in stream floodplains and in deep ravines. All the Payne County collections were from mesic forests. The McCurtain County sites were also mesic in condition.”
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- exotica. Ponera exotica Smith, M.R. 1962b: 378, fig. 1 (w.q.) U.S.A. See also: Taylor, 1967a: 96; Johnson, C. 1987: 358.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Taylor (1967) - M. R. Smith (1962) noted the apparent relationship between exotica and the Indo-Australian Ponera species. He concluded that the exotica was probably introduced into the United States by man. These conclusions were based on his own studies, and on opinions ventured by the author (pers. comm.). I still subscribe to these views, though it would be desirable to see larvae of exotica. If they have 4 pairs of dorsal abdominal glutinous tubercles, as in pennsylvanica, I would assume them to be descended from the coarctata species group. If this is so, the resemblance between exotica and leae would represent an almost unbelievable case of convergent evolution.
Taylor (1967) - Little data additional to the original description is necessary, apart from the discussion of worker variation. The palpal formula of both queen castes is Maxillary 2: Labial 2 (3 Oklahoma workers and a queen dissected). Immature stages, males, and the queen wing venation are not known.
Taylor (1967) - Croatan National Forest, North Carolina, United States (Holotype and Paratype examined - National Museum of Natural History).
- Branstetter, M.G., Longino, J.T. 2019. Ultra-conserved element phylogenomics of New World Ponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) illuminates the origin and phylogeographic history of the endemic exotic ant Ponera exotica. Insect Systematics and Diversity 3(2): 1; 1–13 (doi:10.1093/isd/ixz001).
- Deyrup, M., Davis, L. & Cover, S. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126, 293-325.
- Ipser, R.M., Brinkman, M.A., Gardner, W.A., Peeler, H.B. 2004. A survey of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Georgia. Florida Entomologist 87: 253-260.
- Johnson, C. 1987. Biogeography and habitats of Ponera exotica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 22: 358-361 (page 358, see also)
- Smith, M. R. 1962b. A new species of exotic Ponera from North Carolina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Acta Hymenopterol. 1: 377-382 (page 378, fig. 1 worker, queen described)
- Taylor, R. W. 1967a. A monographic revision of the ant genus Ponera Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pac. Insects Monogr. 13: 1-112 (page 96, see also)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2944
- Del Toro, I. 2010. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION. MUSEUM RECORDS COLLATED BY ISRAEL DEL TORO
- Deyrup, M. 2003. An updated list of Florida ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 86(1):43-48.
- Forster J.A. 2005. The Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama. Master of Science, Auburn University. 242 pages.
- General D., and L. Thompson. 2008. New distributional records of ants in Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 62: 148-150.
- General D.M. & Thompson L.C. 2008. New Distributional Records of Ants in Arkansas for 2008. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 63: 182-184
- Ivanov K., L. Hightower, S. T. Dash, and J. B. Keiper. 2019. 150 years in the making: first comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Virginia, USA. Zootaxa 4554 (2): 532–560.
- Johnson C. 1987. Biogeography and habitats of Ponera exotica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Entomological Science 22: 358-361.
- Longino J. T. L., and M. G. Branstetter. 2018. The truncated bell: an enigmatic but pervasive elevational diversity pattern in Middle American ants. Ecography 41: 1-12.
- Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at https://sites.google.com/site/admacsite/
- MacGown J. A., J. G. Hill, R. L. Brown, T. L. Schiefer, J. G. Lewis. 2012. Ant diversity at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge in Oktibbeha, Noxubee, and Winston Counties, Mississippi. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Bulletin 1197: 1-30
- MacGown J. A., J. G. Hill, and M. Deyrup. 2009. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Little Ohoopee River Dunes, Emanuel County, Georgia. J. Entomol. Sci. 44(3): 193-197.
- MacGown J. A., J. G. Hill, and R. L. Brown. 2010. Native and exotic ant in Mississippi state parks. Proceedings: Imported Fire Ant Conference, Charleston, South Carolina, March 24-26, 2008: 74-80.
- MacGown J. A., and R. L. Brown. 2006. Survey of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Tombigbee National Forest in Mississippi. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 79(4):325-340.
- MacGown, J.A and J.A. Forster. 2005. A preliminary list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama, U.S.A. Entomological News 116(2):61-74
- MacGown, J.A. and R.L. Brown. 2006. Survey of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Tombigbee National Forest in Mississippi. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 79(4):325-340.
- MacGown, J.A., J.G. Hill, R.L. Brown and T.L. 2009. Ant Diversity at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge in Oktibbeha, Noxubee, and Winston Counties, Mississippi Report #2009-01. Schiefer. 2009.
- Mackay, W.P. and E. Mackay. XXXX. The Ants of New Mexico
- Nuhn, T.P. and C.G. Wright. 1979. An Ecological Survey of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Landscaped Suburban Habitat. American Midland Naturalist 102(2):353-362
- O'Keefe S. T., J. L. Cook, T. Dudek, D. F. Wunneburger, M. D. Guzman, R. N. Coulson, and S. B. Vinson. 2000. The Distribution of Texas Ants. The Southwestern Entomologist 22: 1-92.
- Scott-Santos, C.P., F.A. Esteves, C.R.F. Brandao. 2008. Catalogue of "Poneromorph" ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 48(11):75-88.
- Smith M. R. 1962. A new species of exotic Ponera from North Carolina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Acta Hymenopterologica 1: 377-382.
- Taylor R. W. 1967. A monographic revision of the ant genus Ponera Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 13: 1-112.
- Wheeler G. C., and J. Wheeler J. 1989. A checklist of the ants of Oklahoma. Prairie Naturalist 21: 203-210.