(Wheeler, W.M., 1903)
In Colorado Pheidole inquilina was found by Wheeler with the host species P. pilifera (“subspecies coloradensis”) at about 2000 m, under rocks most likely in pinyon-cedar-oak woodland. The species is the least anatomically modified of the pheidoline social parasites. It is therefore not very surprising that both the major and minor workers have been discovered in addition to the usual queens and males. However, these castes are evidently in a state of evolutionary decline. In 19 infested nests of the host species excavated by A. C. Cole (1965), 8 contained a few individuals of inquilina; and of these, one nest yielded only a single minor worker of inquilina, while another contained one minor and one major. M. R. Smith (1940) noted the close resemblance of the worker castes between the two species, and suggested that inquilina was derived in evolution from pilifera or a related species. In other words, Emery’s rule that social parasites are close relatives of their hosts is exemplified. (Wilson 2003)
|At a Glance||• Inquiline|
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
See the description in the nomenclature section.
Keys including this Species
Colorado, Nebraska, and Nevada: rare (Wheeler 1910; M. R. Smith 1940; Gregg 1963; D. R. Smith 1979). In Colorado, inquilina occurs at about 2000 m. (Wilson 2003)
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Association with Other Organisms
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- inquilina. Epipheidole inquilina Wheeler, W.M. 1903f: 664, fig. 5 (gynandromorph) U.S.A. Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 15 (q.m.); Smith, M.R. 1940a: 106 (w.); Cole, 1965: 174 (s.). [Also described as new by Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 15.] Combination in Pheidole: Cole, 1965: 174. See also: Wilson, 2003: 580.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
From Wilson (2003): DIAGNOSIS A permanent social parasite of Pheidole pilifera (including “subspecies coloradensis”). The queen is very small, and easily recognized by her subangulate occipital corners. Aside from these two traits, and possibly the rounded tips of the propodeal spines, inquilina queens are little modified in general from typical queens of other, non-parasitic species of Pheidole.
MEASUREMENTS (mm) Syntype queen: HW 0.70, HL 0.70, SL 0.64, EL 0.24, PW (not measured).
COLOR Queen: light brown.
Figure. Syntype, queen. Majors and minors have been discovered but are not figured. Scale bars = 1 mm.
COLORADO: Broadmoor, Colorado Springs, 2000 m, col. William M. Wheeler. Museum of Comparative Zoology - as reported in Wilson (2003)
L inquilina, temporary guest, lodger. (Wilson 2003)
- Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (page 580, fig. queen described)
- Baroni Urbani, C. 1964b. Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. II. Formiche di Sicilia. Atti Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. (6) 16: 25-66 (page 50, figs. 15, 16 worker described)
- Bolton, B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 54: 263-452 (page 291, junior synonym of pallidula)
- Cole, A. C., Jr. 1965. Discovery of the worker caste of Pheidole (P.) inquilina, new combination (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58: 173-175. (page 174, soldier described, Combination in Pheidole)
- Ferreira, A., Martins, M., Feitosa, R. 2016. Rediscovery of the morphologically remarkable social parasite Pheidole acutidens (Bruch), with the first records for Brazil. Sociobiology 63, 1069. (doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v63i4.1263).
- Gregg, R. E. 1963. The Ants of Colorado, With Reference to their Ecology, Taxonomy, and Geographic Distribution. Boulder: U. of Colorado Press, xvi + 792 pp.
- Smith, M. R. 1940a. The discovery of the worker caste of an inquilinous ant, Epipheidole inquilina Wheeler. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 42: 104-109 (page 106, worker described)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1903h. Some new gynandromorphous ants, with a review of the previously recorded cases. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 19: 653-683 (page 664, fig. 5 gynandromorph)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1904a. Three new genera of inquiline ants from Utah and Colorado. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 20: 1-17 (page 15, also described as new)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1904a. Three new genera of inquiline ants from Utah and Colorado. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 20: 1-17 (page 15, queen, male described)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- La Rivers I. 1968. A first listing of the ants of Nevada. Biological Society of Nevada, Occasional Papers 17: 1-12.
- Wheeler G. C., and J. Wheeler. 1986. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp.
- Wilson, E.O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Genus. Harvard University Press