(Wheeler, W.M., 1904)
Pheidole elecebra is a workerless inquiline within the nests of Pheidole ceres. Wheeler (1904a, 1910b), from an examination of a living host colony and its elecebra guests, concluded that the inquiline behaves like Tetramorium atratulum of Europe in preventing the host colony from producing new reproductives (queens and males) of its own. Contrary evidence was obtained by Stefan Cover, who rediscovered the species in 1994. One mixed colony he collected near North Cheyenne, Colorado, contained a dealate elecebra queen, many winged elecebra queens, and queen pupae of the parasite, but also abundant host (ceres) minor and major brood, along with 400–600 adult host minors and majors; this combination constitutes virtual proof that a reproducing host queen was also present. A second colony contained beyond 200–300 adult host minors and majors, only adult parasite males and parasite male pupae. This combination suggests the absence of a host queen. (Wilson 2003)
|At a Glance||• Workerless Inquiline|
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Caste
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
See the description in the nomenclature section.
Keys including this Species
From Wilson (2003): Known from several records in Colorado between 2000 and 2200 m; the preferred habitat is the same as that of its host, that is, primarily pinyon-cedar-oak woodland (Gregg 1963).
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 40.015° to 37.7661°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.
Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.
This species is a workerless parasite.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- elecebra. Sympheidole elecebra Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 8, pl. 2, figs. 8-11 (q.m.) U.S.A. Combination in Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1370. See also: Wilson, 1984: 328; Wilson, 2003: 576.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
From Wilson (2003): DIAGNOSIS A very small member of the pilifera group, a permanent, workerless social parasite of Pheidole ceres, distinguishable at once by the enormous curved, hornlike lateral extensions of the postpetiolar node; otherwise overall normal in appearance for a Pheidole queen.
MEASUREMENTS (mm) Syntype queen: HW 0.58, HL 0.60, EL 0.22 (SL and PW not measured).
COLOR Queen: light brown.
Figure. Queen. COLORADO: 2.2 km north of North Cheyenne, Colorado Springs, 2200 m, col. Stefan Cover, compared with syntype. Scale bars = 1 mm.
Manitou, Colorado, 2130 m, col. W. M. Wheeler. Museum of Comparative Zoology - as reported in Wilson (2003)
L elecebra, freeloaders, a social parasite. (Wilson 2003)
- Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (page 576, fig. queen described)
- Ferreira, A., Martins, M., Feitosa, R. 2016. Rediscovery of the morphologically remarkable social parasite Pheidole acutidens (Bruch), with the first records for Brazil. Sociobiology 63, 1069. (doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v63i4.1263).
- Gregg, R. E. 1963. The Ants of Colorado, With Reference to their Ecology, Taxonomy, and Geographic Distribution. Boulder: U. of Colorado Press, xvi + 792 pp.
- Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. (page 1370, Combination in Pheidole)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1904a. Three new genera of inquiline ants from Utah and Colorado. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 20: 1-17 (page 8, pl. 2, figs. 8-11 queen, male described)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: Their Structure, Development and Behavior. New York: Columbia U. Press, xxv + 663 pp.
- Wilson, E. O. 1984b. Tropical social parasites in the ant genus Pheidole, with an analysis of the anatomical parasitic syndrome (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insectes Soc. 31: 316-334 (page 328, see also)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Gregg, R.T. 1963. The Ants of Colorado.
- Wilson, E.O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Genus. Harvard University Press