Myrmophyma is currently a subgenus of Camponotus.
Bladder-head Carpenter Ants
Note: Santschi (1928) separated a number of species out of this subgenus, placing them in Thlipsepinotus. For this reason, two diagnoses are provided below, first being Myrmophyma sensu Emery, the second sensu Santschi.
Myrmophyma sensu Emery
Diagnosis: Emery (1925): - "Worker and queen. - Generally medium-sized species; dimorphism of workers often pronounced, largest workers (or soldiers) with very large heads, which are more-or-less vaulted in profile view. Head of majors and queens generally short, not truncated or obtuse anteriorly, wider posteriorly, posterior head margin emarginate or notched, vertex vaulted, appearing swollen; head of minors usually short and truncated posteriorly, sometimes (e.g., C. claripes, Mayr (AntWiki)) very elongated and rounded posteriorly. Clypeus produced as rounded lobe; in minors lobe indistinct; in majors and queens, anterior margin of lobe generally narrowly notched or impressed medially.
Compared with other subgenera, the cheeks become more dominant (fill more area) as described for Myrmamblys, accordingly, the structured involved undergo the same change as worker size increases: the cheeks are more prominent than the clypeus in majors than in minors, but less so than Myrmamblys.
Frontal carinae ordinary, being similar to Tanaemyrmex. Mesosomal dorsum continuous; propodeum sometimes concave posteriorly, forming saddle-like profile. Petiolar scale thin, apex narrowly edged, or scale rather thick with apex sunken and narrowly rounded (blunt).
Geographical distribution of species. - Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea.
Note: I gather in this subgenus not only the species which I had previously included in Emery (1920), but also the Australian species of the subgenus Myrmogonia, which differ markedly from the Fijian species of Myrmogonia [note: Myrmogonia now a synonym of Colobopsis]. On the other hand, I have excluded the species C. gambeyi, Emery (Antwiki), hoplites, Emery (AntWiki), luteiventris, Emery (AntWiki), and wiederkehri, Forel (AntWiki), which neatly fit the subgenus Tanaemyrmex.
Myrmophyma sensu Santschi
Diagnosis. Santschi (1928). - "Major worker (soldier). - Vertex of head voluminous, more-or-less convex, obtusely truncate and strongly punctate anteriorly (as in Myrmotrema). Clypeus weakly produced anteriorly, not or slightly carinate, without anterior lobe. Mesosoma massive, pronotum not or weakly bordered anterirorly. Meso-propodeal suture effaced laterally, much weaker than pro-mesonotal articulation [note: Santschi uses "suture" here, but the pro- and mesothoracic segments are not fused in Camponotus. Metanotum quite distinct. Propodeum elongate, low, uncompressed, with posterior face shorter than dorsal face.
Minor worker. - Head no wider than mesosoma. Eyes set at posterior angles of head, posterolateral head angles distinct. Pronotum and anterior portion of mesonotum strongly convex (former Myrmocamelus Forel), propodeum very low posteriorl, sometimes somewhat concave profile view, posterior propodeal face very short. Dorsal propodeal face united with mesonotum, forming long 'segment'. Notch low and fairly thick [unclear if Santschi referring to the petiole]."
(Translated and edited by B. E. Boudinot, 17 and 19 February 2017.)
Shattuck (2005) This is a South-east Asian and Australian subgenus containing just over 30 species (Bolton 1995). While not currently defined in any rigorous manner, all species share a similar head shape (straight-sided and either parallel or converging anteriorly) and either a compact, highly arched mesosoma (as in the aureopilus group) or an elongate body with a low propodeum (as in Camponotus ephippium and relatives).
Shattuck & McArthur (2002) recognized two species groups, those of wiederkehri and perjurus, in Australia which include taxa from Myrmophyma, Myrmosaulus, and Myrmoturba. While they disparage Emery's attempt at organizing the diversity of Camponotus, they leave further revisionary work to others.
Shattuck (2005) revised the Camponotus aureopilis species-group.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- MYRMOPHYMA [subgenus of Camponotus]
- Myrmophyma Forel, 1912i: 91 [as subgenus of Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus capito, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 81.
- [Type-species not Camponotus quadrisectus, unjustified subsequent designation by Forel, 1914a: 261.]
- Myrmophyma senior synonym of Myrmocamelus: Emery, 1920b: 257; Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 18.
- MYRMOCAMELUS [junior synonym of Myrmophyma]
- Myrmocamelus Forel, 1914a: 261 [as subgenus of Camponotus]. Type-species: Formica ephippium, by original designation.
- [Type-species not Camponotus gambeyi, unjustified subsequent designation by Forel, 1922: 101. Myrmocamelus also described as new by Forel, 1915b: 102.]
- Myrmocamelus junior synonym of Myrmophyma: Emery, 1920b: 257; Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 18.
- Arnold, G. 1922. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part V. Myrmicinae. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 14: 579-674 (page 612, Myrmophyma as subgenus of Camponotus)
- Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 115, Myrmophyma as subgenus of Camponotus)
- Emery, C. 1920b. Le genre Camponotus Mayr. Nouvel essai de la subdivision en sous-genres. Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 8: 229-260 (page 239, Myrmophyma as subgenus of Camponotus)
- Emery, C. 1920b. Le genre Camponotus Mayr. Nouvel essai de la subdivision en sous-genres. Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 8: 229-260 (page 257, Myrmophyma senior synonym of Myrmocamelus)
- Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 109, Myrmophyma as subgenus of Camponotus [Type-species not Camponotus gambeyi, unjustified subsequent designation by Forel, 1922:101.])
- Forel, A. 1912j. Formicides néotropiques. Part VI. 5me sous-famille Camponotinae Forel. Mém. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 20: 59-92 (page 91, Myrmophyma as subgenus of Camponotus)
- Forel, A. 1914a. Le genre Camponotus Mayr et les genres voisins. Rev. Suisse Zool. 22: 257-276 (page 261, Myrmophyma as subgenus of Camponotus)
- Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 250, Myrmophyma as subgenus of Camponotus)
- Shattuck, S. O.; McArthur, A. J. 2002. A taxonomic revision of the Camponotus wiederkehri and perjurus species-groups (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 126: 63-90.
- Shattuck, S.O. 2005. Review of the Camponotus aureopilus species-group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), including a second Camponotus with a metapleural gland. Zootaxa. 903:1-20. PDF
- Wheeler, W. M. 1913a. Corrections and additions to "List of type species of the genera and subgenera of Formicidae". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 23: 77-83 (page 81, Type-species: Camponotus capito, by subsequent designation [Type-species not Camponotus quadrisectus, unjustified subsequent designation by Forel, 1914a: 261.] )
- Wheeler, W. M. 1921a. Professor Emery's subgenera of the genus Camponotus Mayr. Psyche (Camb.) 28: 16-19 (page 18, Myrmophyma senior synonym of Myrmocamelus)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 706, Myrmophyma as subgenus of Camponotus)