Buniapone amblyops

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Buniapone amblyops
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Buniapone
Species: B. amblyops
Binomial name
Buniapone amblyops
(Emery, 1887)

Pachycondyla amblyops casent0172431 profile 1.jpg

Pachycondyla amblyops casent0172431 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


Very little is known about the habits of Buniapone, other than that they are hypogeic. They are presumably predatory, though their prey preferences are unknown. One of us (CS) observed large numbers of Buniapone amblyops workers congregated at a palm oil bait sunk into the ground, suggesting that they are not strictly carnivorous and that they may employ some kind of nestmate recruitment to food sources, like their sister genus Paltothyreus (Schmidt and Shattuck 2014). Subedi (2021) collected specimens from animal dung on the ground alongside Dolichoderus, Brachyponera, Carebara and Pheidole species, which were most likely foraging in the dung. They were collected from soil under a stone in Singapore (Yong et al. 2017). Brassard et al. (2020) found this species in the soil at the depth of 50 cm, along with Pheidole, Carebara, and Solenopsis within the same quadrat. Bharti et al. (2017) recorded them in the secondary forest, whereas Eguchi et al. (2014) collected them in well-developed forests by digging the ground.


Buniapone is a morphologically distinctive genus and its workers are readily identified by the following combination of characters: long and narrow toothed mandibles, blunt medial clypeal projection, greatly reduced eyes, obsolete metanotal groove, ovoid propodeal spiracles, complex metapleural gland orifice, and squamiform petiole. Superficially, Buniapone most closely resembles Centromyrmex, Promyopias, and certain Neotropical Cryptopone species, but Buniapone has eyes, lacks the anterolateral position of the metapleural gland orifice of Centromyrmex, lacks the linear mandibles of Promyopias, and lacks the small closely approximated frontal lobes and circular propodeal spiracles of Cryptopone. Though Buniapone shares several apomorphies with its sister genus Paltothyreus, they are superficially very different and unlikely to be confused. Myopias also has a blunt medial clypeal projection, but it is much more pronounced than in Buniapone, and Myopias lacks the other characters diagnostic of Buniapone. (Schmidt and Shattuck 2014)


Buniapone is restricted to Southern and Southeast Asia, ranging from southern China to the islands of southern Indonesia and as far west as India.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 30.4966° to -6.5975°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia (type locality), Malaysia, Singapore.
Oriental Region: Bangladesh, India, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • amblyops. Ponera amblyops Emery, 1887b: 434 (w.) INDONESIA (Java, Sumatra).
    • Type-material: >2 syntype workers.
    • Type-localities: unstated number of workers Indonesia: Sumatra, Ajer Mantcior (O. Beccari), 2 workers Indonesia: Java, Buitenzorg (= Bogor) (Solms).
    • Type-depository: MSNG.
    • Emery, 1889b: 497 (q.); Santschi, 1928h: 122 (m.).
    • Combination in Trapeziopelta: Emery, 1889b: 497;
    • combination in Belonopelta: Emery, 1897d: 553;
    • combination in Pachycondyla (Pseudoponera): Emery, 1900d: 668;
    • combination in Pseudoponera: Bingham, 1903: 92; Emery, 1911d: 87; Santschi, 1928h: 122;
    • combination in Euponera (Pseudoponera): Forel, 1905c: 6;
    • combination in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 302;
    • combination in Buniapone: Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, 2014: 83.
    • Status as species: Emery, 1889b: 497; Dalla Torre, 1893: 43; Emery, 1895k: 461; Forel, 1900d: 320; Emery, 1900d: 668; Bingham, 1903: 92; Forel, 1905c: 6; Emery, 1911d: 87; Forel, 1913k: 8; Viehmeyer, 1916a: 115; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 143; Karavaiev, 1925b: 127; Santschi, 1928h: 122; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 74; Radchenko, 1993a: 80; Bolton, 1995b: 302; Xu, 1995b: 104 (in key); Mathew & Tiwari, 2000: 283; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005: 30; Zhou & Ran, 2010: 107; Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 57; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 60; Bharti, Guénard, et al. 2016: 49; Khachonpisitsak, et al. 2020: 140; Wang, W.Y., Soh, et al. 2022: 116.
    • Distribution
    • Malesian: Indonesia (Java, Mentawai, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsula, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore.
    • Oriental: Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • Current subspecies: nominal plus oculatior.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Bingham (1903): Somewhat silky brownish yellow all over, covered with fairly abundant erect pale hairs, and a tine sericeous golden pubescence, dense on the front of the head and the antennae and legs. Head and thorax very finely and densely punctured, opaque; node of the pedicel as finely but not so closely punctured, somewhat shining. Head emarginate posteriorly; mandibles longitudinally striate; a distinct but very narrow and short impressed line vertically on the front between the antennal carinae; eyes minute, concolorous with the surface of the head, not black. For the rest the characters of the genus.

Length: 6 mm


Bingham (1903): "Wings hyaline shaded with yellow: for the rest as in the worker" (Forel).

Length: 7 mm

Emery 1887 p. 434.png


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

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  • Emery, C. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine)." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 5, no. 25 (1887): 427-473.
  • Emery, C. "Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 20, no. 40 (1900): 661-722.
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