Tetramorium zonacaciae

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Tetramorium zonacaciae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Tetramorium
Species: T. zonacaciae
Binomial name
Tetramorium zonacaciae
(Weber, 1943)

Tetramorium zonacaciae P casent0217065.jpg

Tetramorium zonacaciae D casent0217065.jpg

Specimen Label

Tetramorium zonacaciae seems to be widely distributed in East Africa but is also known from one collection event from Cameroon. Nonetheless, it appears to be relatively rare considering that only few specimens are known from each locality.


The unique bizarre pilosity of Tetramorium zonacaciae isolates it clearly from all other species in the group. It differs conspicuously from all other species of the complex in having thick, blunt, and dorso-ventrally flattened hairs that are usually appressed to decumbent. Not considering this key feature it can be set morphologically relatively near Tetramorium edouardi.

A member of the Afrotropical edouardi species complex, which is part of the weitzeckeri species group.

Keys including this Species


Known from Cameroun, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 4.112954° to -43.71666667°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • zonacaciae. Xiphomyrmex zonacaciae Weber, 1943c: 376, pl. 16, fig. 34 (w.) SUDAN. Combination in Tetramorium: Bolton, 1980: 234. See also: Hita Garcia, Fischer & Peters, 2010b: 41.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Hita Garcia et al. (2010) - HL 0.789 - 0.878 (0.835); HW 0.767 - 0.867 (0.822); SL 0.611 - 0.667 (0.641); EL 0.167 - 0.200 (0.186); PW 0.528 - 0.622 (0.584); WL 0.889 - 1.122 (1.007); PSL 0.222 - 0.267 (0.245); PTL 0.194 - 0.244 (0.216); PTH 0.317 - 0.400 (0.361); PTW 0.228 - 0.289 (0.260); PPL 0.222 - 0.289 (0.251); PPH 0.300 - 0.378 (0.333); PPW 0.289 - 0.378 (0.334); CI 96 - 100 (98); SI 75 - 81 (78); OI 22 - 25 (23); PSLI 27 - 32 (29); PeNI 37 - 47 (45); LPeI 53 - 67 (60); DPeI 114 - 128 (121); PpNI 54 - 61 (57); LPpI 69 - 83 (75); DPpI 120 - 142 (133); PPI 118 - 141 (129) (15 measured).

Head slightly longer than wide to as long as wide (CI 96 - 100). Anterior clypeal margin with distinct median impression. Frontal carinae well developed, less strongly behind eye level, not reaching posterior margin of head. Antennal scrobe shallow, narrow, and without sharply defined posterior and ventral margins, ending before posterior margin of head. Antennal scape moderate, not reaching posterior margin of head (SI 75 - 81). Eyes of medium size (OI 22 - 25), with 8 to 11 ommatidia in longest row. In profile metanotal groove impressed. Propodeal spines long and spinose (PSLI 27 - 32). Propodeal lobes small, triangular and acute. Petiolar node high nodiform, in dorsal view only slightly wider than long (DPeI 114 - 128), in profile around 1.5 to 1.8 times higher than long (LPeI 49 - 67). Postpetiole in dorsal view between 1.2 to 1.5 times wider than long (DPpI 120 - 142); in lateral view rounded, around 1.2 to 1.4 times higher than long (LPpI 69 - 83). Mandibles longitudinally rugose. Clypeus usually irregularly rugose, sometimes longitudinally, median ruga rarely unbroken and strong. Head mostly longitudinally rugose with 9 to 12 widely spaced longitudinal rugae between frontal carinae, most running unbroken to posterior margin of head. Mesosoma generally with longitudinal rugulation, often irregularly, leaving unsculptured areas, especially on pronotal dorsum. Spaces between rugae and propodeal declivity smooth and shiny. Petiole and postpetiole generally smooth and shiny, sometimes weakly rugose; gaster completely unsculptured, smooth and shiny. All dorsal surfaces with abundant hairs, generally appressed to decumbent except for several pairs on cephalic dorsum and gastral apex; hairs on cephalic and mesosomal dorsum directed towards the midline; hairs on mesosoma and especially on first gastral tergite thick, blunt, and dorso-ventrally flattened. Pubescence on antennal scapes and tibiae appressed. Colour medium to dark brown.


Hita Garcia et al. (2010) - Syntype workers, SUDAN, Imatong Mts, 7100 ft (2160m), 25.VII.1939, no. 1315, leg. N.A. Weber (Museum of Comparative Zoology) [examined].


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bolton B. 1980. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Ethiopian zoogeographical region. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 40: 193-384.
  • Garcia F.H., Wiesel E. and Fischer G. 2013.The Ants of Kenya (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)—Faunal Overview, First Species Checklist, Bibliography, Accounts for All Genera, and Discussion on Taxonomy and Zoogeography. Journal of East African Natural History, 101(2): 127-222
  • Hita Garcia F., G. Fischer, and M. K. Peters. 2010. Taxonomy of the Tetramorium weitzeckeri species group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Afrotropical zoogeographical region. Zootaxa 2704: 1-90.
  • Hita Garcia, F., G. Fischer, M.K. Peters, R.R. Snelling and H.W. Wagele. 2009. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Kakamega Forest (Kenya). Journal of East African Natural HIstory 98(2): 147-165.
  • IZIKO South Africa Museum Collection
  • Nsengimana V., K. A. Beth, F. Frederic, K. M. M. Lombart, D. Wouter, and N. Donat. 2018. Use of soil and litter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as biological indicators of soil quality under different land uses in Southern Rwanda. Environmental Entomology 47(6): 1394-1401.
  • Weber N. A. 1943. The ants of the Imatong Mountains, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 93: 263-389.