Solenopsis pergandei prefers compact soil, arid sites and areas such as lawns and trails in forests (Thompson, 1980) or actually in dense forests. It can also be found nesting in dark brown sandy soils; or in rotting pine stumps (Smith, 1931, 1944). This species can be collected in scrubby flatwoods in Florida and can be found in the Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico. It can be collected using subterranean Vienna sausage baits.
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
Pacheco and Mackay (2013) – Worker - The worker is medium sized and light yellow. The clypeus is very narrow between the lateral carinae. The lateral clypeal teeth are well developed. It has very coarse cephalic punctures with scattered erect hairs on the dorsum of the head. The postpetiole is perfectly round when viewed from above. The notopropodeal suture is very depressed, the propodeal spiracle is large and close to the suture. Queen - The queen is a moderately sized (6-7 millimeters total length) pale yellow specimen with black eyes. The lateral clypeal teeth are developed, the extralateral teeth are poorly developed. The dorsum of the head is coarsely punctate and the scapes fail to reach the posterior lateral corner of the head. Nearly all surfaces are covered with erect or suberect hairs up to 0.12 millimeters in length. The hairs are abundant on the dorsum and ventral surfaces of the head, scape and tibiae. Viewed from above, the postpetiole is globular-shaped, similar to that of the worker.
This species is unlikely to be confused with any others in North America, based on the coarse punctures on the head, combined with the perfectly round postpetiole (seen from above). The members of the pygmaea group, also have coarse punctures on the head, as well as circular postpetioles, but have elongated heads. Solenopsis pergandei has a quadrate-shaped head and is much larger than members of the pygmaea species complex. The shape of the petiole (moderately thickened as seen in profile) suggests a close relationship of this species with Solenopsis pilosula. It can be separated by the circular postpetiole (oval in S. pilosula) and the clypeal carinae are not parallel (nearly parallel in S. pilosula).
Solenopsis puncticeps differs from the "normal" S. pergandei in having coarser punctures on the dorsum of the head, but is very similar to the condition of the types and is recognized within the variation of the same species-level taxon.
Keys including this Species
United States: North Carolina south to Florida, west Texas and New Mexico.
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- pergandei. Solenopsis pergandei Forel, 1901e: 343 (w.q.m.) U.S.A. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1960b: 21 (l.). Combination in S. (Diplorhoptrum): Smith, M.R. 1947f: 568. Senior synonym of puncticeps: Pacheco & Mackay, 2013: 258. See also: Thompson & Johnson, 1989: 698.
- puncticeps. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) puncticeps Mackay, W.P. & Vinson, 1989a: 177, figs. 5-8 (w.) U.S.A. Junior synonym of pergandei: Pacheco & Mackay, 2013: 258.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Pacheco and Mackay (2013) - Measurements (n=5). TL 1.74-1.86 (1.82); HL 0.498-0.510 (0.508); HW 0.456-0.468 (0.462); EL 0.036; ED 0.030; SL 0.360; FSL 0.162; CI 89.4-92.8 (91.0); SI 70.6-72.3 (70.9); PL 0.078-0.120 (0.102); PW 0.120-0.138 (0.133); PI 65.0-90.9 (76.4); PPL 0.132; PPW 0.150; PPI 88; WL 0.432-0.444 (0.438); PSL 0.048; PSW 0.048.
Concolorous light yellow; head nearly quadrate; eye small, round, two ommatidia; clypeus narrow; lateral clypeal teeth well developed; extralateral teeth absent; clypeal carinae weakly developed; scape extends ¾ length of head; notopropodeal suture depressed; propodeal spiracle large; petiolar peduncle with translucent tooth ventrally; postpetiole circular viewed dorsally.
Entire body densely hairy, with all hairs about equal in length; hairs scattered across head, but with center line free of hairs.
Pacheco and Mackay (2013) - Measurements (n=1). TL 6.5; HL 0.813; HW 0.900; EL 0.363; ED 0.263; SL 0.563; FSL 0.288; CI 111; SI 69; PL 0.313; PW 0.388; PI 124; PPL 0.425; PPW 0.450; PPI 106; WL 1.038; PSL 0.125; PSW 0.088.
Concolorous pale yellow with black eyes; mandible with four teeth; lateral teeth of clypeus short (0.002 mm); eye large, occupying approximately ½ length of side of head; scape failing to reach posterior lateral corner of head by approximately maximum diameter of scape; ocelli well developed, diameter of median ocellus slightly larger than distance between median ocellus and lateral ocellus; mandibles smooth and glossy with scattered punctures; dorsum of head smooth and glossy, with large punctae, separated by about 2-3 punctal diameters; mesosoma smooth and glossy, scutum covered with coarse punctae as dorsum of head; subpeduncular process poorly developed; postpetiole and gaster smooth and glossy.
Erect golden-yellow hairs present on mandibles, clypeus, dorsal and ventral surfaces of head, posterior border, scape, funiculus, mesosoma, coxae, femora, tibiae, dorsum of petiole, all surfaces of postpetiole, and all surfaces of gaster.
North Carolina, Faisons, Forel (lectotype worker, 5 paralectotype workers, 2 paralectotype queens and 3 paralectotype males Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève). Solenopsis puncticeps Texas, Brazos Co., 10 k N Kurten, 5-v-1987, W. Mackay # 9149 (27 paratype workers William and Emma Mackay Collection).
- Mackay, W. P. and E. Mackay. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY.
- Forel, A. 1901j. Variétés myrmécologiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 45: 334-382 (page 343, worker, queen, male described)
- Pacheco, J.A. & Mackay, W.P. 2013. The systematics and biology of the New World thief ants of the genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York. 501 pp.
- Sharaf, M.R., Gotzek, D., Guénard, B., Fisher, B.L., Aldawood, A.S., Al Dhafer, H.M., Mohamed, A.A. 2020. Molecular phylogenetic analysis and morphological reassessments of thief ants identify a new potential case of biological invasions. Scientific Reports 10, 12040 (doi:10.1038/s41598-020-69029-4).
- Smith, M. R. 1947f. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the United States ants, based on the workers. Am. Midl. Nat. 37: 521-647 (page 568, Combination in S. (Diplorhoptrum))
- Thompson, C. R.; Johnson, C. 1989. Rediscovered species and revised key to the Florida thief ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Fla. Entomol. 72: 697-698 (page 698, see also)
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1960b. Supplementary studies on the larvae of the Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 62: 1-32 (page 21, larva described)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Annotated Ant Species List Ordway-Swisher Biological Station. Downloaded at http://ordway-swisher.ufl.edu/species/os-hymenoptera.htm on 5th Oct 2010.
- Braman C. A., and B. T. Forschler. 2018. Survey of Formicidae attracted to protein baits on Georgia’s Barrier Island dunes. Southeastern Naturalist 17(4): 645-653.
- Dash S. T. and L. M. Hooper-Bui. 2008. Species diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana. Conservation Biology and Biodiversity. 101: 1056-1066
- Deyrup M., C. Johnson, G. C. Wheeler, J. Wheeler. 1989. A preliminary list of the ants of Florida. Florida Entomologist 72: 91-101
- Deyrup M., L. Deyrup, and J. Carrel. 2013. Ant Species in the Diet of a Florida Population of Eastern Narrow-Mouthed Toads, Gastrophryne carolinensis. Southeastern Naturalist 12(2): 367-378.
- Deyrup, M. and J. Trager. 1986. Ants of the Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 69(1):206-228
- Forel A. 1901. Variétés myrmécologiques. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 45: 334-382.
- Forster J.A. 2005. The Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama. Master of Science, Auburn University. 242 pages.
- General D.M. & Thompson L.C. 2008. New Distributional Records of Ants in Arkansas for 2008. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 63: 182-184
- Ipser R. M. 2004. Native and exotic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Georgia: Ecological Relationships with implications for development of biologically-based management strategies. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of Georgia. 165 pages.
- Johnson C. 1986. A north Florida ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insecta Mundi 1: 243-246
- MacGown J. A. 2015. Report on the ants collected on Spring Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina. A report submitted to Spring Island Nature Preserve, May 2015. Mississippi Entomological Museum Report #2015-01. 8 pp
- MacGown J. A., J. G. Hill, and M. Deyrup. 2009. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Little Ohoopee River Dunes, Emanuel County, Georgia. J. Entomol. Sci. 44(3): 193-197.
- MacGown, J.A and J.A. Forster. 2005. A preliminary list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama, U.S.A. Entomological News 116(2):61-74
- MacKay W. P., and S. B. Vinson. 1989. Two new ants of the genus Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) from eastern Texas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 91: 175-178.
- Mackay W. P., and E. E. Mackay. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp.
- Mackay, W.P. and E. Mackay. XXXX. The Ants of New Mexico
- Moreau C. S., M. A. Deyrup, and L. R. David Jr. 2014. Ants of the Florida Keys: Species Accounts, Biogeography, and Conservation (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Insect Sci. 14(295): DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/ieu157
- O'Keefe S. T., J. L. Cook, T. Dudek, D. F. Wunneburger, M. D. Guzman, R. N. Coulson, and S. B. Vinson. 2000. The Distribution of Texas Ants. The Southwestern Entomologist 22: 1-92.
- Oyama L., J. R. King, and D. G. Jenkins. 2018. Diversity and distribution of Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) thief ants belowground. Myrmecological News 27: 47-57.
- Pacheco J. A., and W. P. Mackay. 2013. The systematics and biology of the New World thief ants of the genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 501 pp.
- Smith, M. R. 1944. Additional ants recorded from Florida, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Florida Entomologist 27: 14-17.
- Trager, J. and C.Johnson. 1985. A slave-making ant in Florida: Polyergus lucidus with observations on the natural history of its host Formica archboldi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Florida Entomologist 68(2):261-266.
- Tschinkel W. R.,T. Murdock, J. R. King and C. Kwapich. 2012. Ant distribution in relation to ground water in north Florida pine flatwoods. Journal of Insect Science 12: 114
- Van Pelt A. F. 1948. A Preliminary Key to the Worker Ants of Alachua County, Florida. The Florida Entomologist 30(4): 57-67
- Van Pelt A., and J. B. Gentry. 1985. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina. Dept. Energy, Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC., Report SRO-NERP-14, 56 p.
- Wheeler W. M. 1904. The ants of North Carolina. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 20: 299-306.
- Whitcomb W. H., H. A. Denmark, A. P. Bhatkar, and G. L. Greene. 1972. Preliminary studies on the ants of Florida soybean fields. Florida Entomologist 55: 129-142.
- Wilson E. O., and A. Francoeur. 1974. Ants of the Formica fusca group in Florida. Florida Entomologist 57: 115-116.