Polyrhachis rugifrons

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Polyrhachis rugifrons
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Polyrhachis
Subgenus: Myrmhopla
Species: P. rugifrons
Binomial name
Polyrhachis rugifrons
Smith, F., 1860

Polyrhachis rugifrons casent0901826 p 1 high.jpg

Polyrhachis rugifrons casent0901826 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Specimens have been collected from various forest habitats and from 140-1080 m in elevation.


A member of the Polyrhachis sexspinosa species group.

Kohout (2008) - The two sexspinosa-group species known from Sulawesi are distinguished as follows:

  • Pronotal spines short, straight, directed laterally in virtually right angle to main axis of body . . . . . Polyrhachis rugifrons
  • Pronotal spines bull-horn shaped, curving laterally and anteriorly . . . . . Polyrhachis spinosa


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia (type locality), Malaysia, Sulawesi.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb





The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • rugifrons. Polyrhachis rugifrons Smith, F. 1860a: 70 (w.q.) INDONESIA (Sulawesi). Combination in P. (Myrmhopla): Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 130. Subspecies of sexspinosa: Emery, 1897d: 591. Revived status as species: Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 130; Emery, 1925b: 191; Karavaiev, 1927e: 25. See also: Bolton, 1975c: 11.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.


Type Material

Kohout (2008) - Syntype worker, queen. Type locality: INDONESIA, SULAWESI, Makassar (A. R. Wallace), Oxford University Museum of Natural History (examined).

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

One worker syntype and one dealate queen syntype in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi), the queen with a Donisthorpe type-label.


  • Bolton, B. 1975c. The sexspinosa-group of the ant genus Polyrhachis F. Smith (Hym. Formicidae). J. Entomol. Ser. B 44: 1-14.
  • Emery, C. 1897e. Viaggio di Lamberto Loria nella Papuasia orientale. XVIII. Formiche raccolte nella Nuova Guinea dal Dott. Lamberto Loria. [concl.]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 38[=(2(18): 577-594 (page 591, Subspecies of sexspinosa)
  • Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 191, Revived status as species)
  • Karavaiev, V. 1927f. Ameisen aus dem Indo-Australischen Gebiet. III. Zb. Prats Zool. Muz. 3:3-52 [= Tr. Ukr. Akad. Nauk Fiz.-Mat. Vidd. 7:3-52]. (page 25, Revived status as species)
  • Kohout, R.J. 2008a. A review of the Polyrhachis ants of Sulawesi with keys and descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 52:255-317. PDF
  • Smith, F. 1860a. Descriptions of new species of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace at Celebes. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 5(17b)(suppl. to vol. 4 4: 57-93 (page 70, worker, queen described)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1919f. The ants of Borneo. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 63: 43-147 (page 130, Combination in P. (Myrmhopla), Revived status as species)