Pheidole aper

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Pheidole aper
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Pheidole
Species: P. aper
Binomial name
Pheidole aper
Forel, 1912

Pheidole aper casent0904451 p 1 high.jpg

Pheidole aper casent0904451 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Rosumek (2017) assessed trophic resource use and period of activity within the ant community in a southern Brazil Atlantic forest. He found this species, relative to other Pheidole sampled in this study, used more "melezitose (a honeydew analog) over other resources. Since honeydew is the only reliable source of this sugar in nature, interaction with sap-sucking insects should be important for this species."


See the description in the nomenclature section.

Keys including this Species


Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, Brazil. (Wilson 2003)

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: -25.2221° to -29.65°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Brazil (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.





Images from AntWeb

Pheidole aper casent0904452 h 1 high.jpgPheidole aper casent0904452 p 1 high.jpgPheidole aper casent0904452 d 1 high.jpgPheidole aper casent0904452 l 1 high.jpg
Syntype of Pheidole aperWorker. Specimen code casent0904452. Photographer Will Ericson, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by MSNG, Genoa, Italy.
Pheidole aper casent0908307 h 1 high.jpgPheidole aper casent0908307 p 1 high.jpgPheidole aper casent0908307 d 1 high.jpgPheidole aper casent0908307 l 1 high.jpg
Paralectotype of Pheidole aperWorker. Specimen code casent0908307. Photographer Will Ericson, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by MHNG, Geneva, Switzerland.


Images from AntWeb

Pheidole aper casent0908306 h 1 high.jpgPheidole aper casent0908306 p 1 high.jpgPheidole aper casent0908306 d 1 high.jpgPheidole aper casent0908306 l 1 high.jpg
Lectotype of Pheidole aperWorker (major/soldier). Specimen code casent0908306. Photographer Will Ericson, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by MHNG, Geneva, Switzerland.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • aper. Pheidole aper Forel, 1912f: 227 (s.w.q.) BRAZIL. Combination in P. (Trachypheidole): Emery, 1915i: 190. See also: Wilson, 2003: 655.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.


From Wilson (2003): DIAGNOSIS Similar in various traits to Pheidole bambusarum, Pheidole brevicona, Pheidole dyctiota, Pheidole laeviventris, Pheidole lutzi, Pheidole risii, Pheidole rugatula, Pheidole senilis, Pheidole sigillata, Pheidole trachyderma and Pheidole traini, differing as follows.

Major: all of head except for frontal triangle and mid-clypeus but including occiput and all of pro no tum rugoreticulate; seen from the side, frontal lobes and genal comers extended as triangular processes; postpetiole from above conulate.

Minor: all of posterior half of head and all of promesonotum rugoreticulate; occiput broad, lacking a nuchal collar.

MEASUREMENTS (mm) Lectotype major: HW 1.46, HL 1.56, SL 0.66, EL 0.14, PW 0.80. Paralectotype minor: HW 0.64, HL 0.66, SL 0.66, EL 0.10, PW 0.46.

COLOR Major: gaster brownish yellow; rest of body medium reddish brown, tending toward dark reddish brown at anterior margin of head capsule; mandibles dark reddish brown; antennae medium reddish brown; legs brownish yellow.

Minor: head and mesosoma light reddish brown; waist, gaster, and appendages brownish yellow.

Pheidole aper Wilson 2003.jpg

Figure. Upper: lectotype, major. Lower: paralectotype, minor. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Lectotype Specimen Labels

Type Material

BRAZIL: Colonia Alpina, Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro. Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève - as reported in Wilson (2003)


L aper, wild boar, allusion uncertain, but may refer to tusk-like protrusion on head of major. (Wilson 2003)


  • Emery, C. 1915g. Noms de sous-genres et de genres proposés pour la sous-famille des Myrmicinae. Modifications à la classification de ce groupe (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1915: 189-192 (page 190, Combination in P. (Trachypheidole))
  • Forel, A. 1912g. Formicides néotropiques. Part III. 3me sous-famille Myrmicinae (suite). Genres Cremastogaster et Pheidole. Mém. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 19: 211-237 (page 227, soldier, worker, queen described)
  • Rosumek, F. B. 2017. Natural History of Ants: What We (do not) Know about Trophic and Temporal Niches of Neotropical Species. Sociobiology. 64:244-255. doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v64i3.1623
  • Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (page 655, fig. major, minor described)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Favretto M. A., E. Bortolon dos Santos, and C. J. Geuster. 2013. Entomofauna from West of Santa Catarina State, South of Brazil. EntomoBrasilis 6 (1): 42-63.
  • Fleck M. D., E. Bisognin Cantarelli, and F. Granzotto. 2015. Register of new species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Rio Grande do Sul state. Ciencia Florestal, Santa Maria 25(2): 491-499.
  • Kempf W. W. 1978. A preliminary zoogeographical analysis of a regional ant fauna in Latin America. 114. Studia Entomologica 20: 43-62.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Rosa da Silva R. 1999. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) do oeste de Santa Catarina: historico das coletas e lista atualizada das especies do Estado de Santa Catarina. Biotemas 12(2): 75-100.
  • Santschi F. 1929. Nouvelles fourmis de la République Argentine et du Brésil. Anales de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina. 107: 273-316.
  • Ulyssea M.A., C. E. Cereto, F. B. Rosumek, R. R. Silva, and B. C. Lopes. 2011. Updated list of ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) recorded in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, with a discussion of research advances and priorities. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 55(4): 603-–611.