Odontomachus malignus

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Odontomachus malignus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Odontomachus
Species: O. malignus
Binomial name
Odontomachus malignus
Smith, F., 1859

Odontomachus malignus casent0270620 p 1 high.jpg

Odontomachus malignus casent0270620 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

A coastal species with an affinity for the intertidal zone.

At a Glance • Intertidal zone  

 

Identification

Sorger & Zettel (2011) - This is a unique species, morphologically defined by group characters, and ecologically defined by living in intertidal zones.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Sorger & Zettel (2011) - Widely distributed in the Western Pacific area, with records from Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Palau, New Guinea, New Britain, and Solomon Islands (Wilson 1959, Brown 1976, Olsen 2009). Brown (1976) presents the first records from the Philippines: Tawi-Tawi and Jolo Island in the country's extreme south. Here we present more northern records from the central Philippines, i.e., Bantayan and Bohol.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea (type locality), Philippines, Solomon Islands.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Wilson (1959), Brown (1976), and Olsen (2009) describe the unusual habitat preference of O. malignus in intertidal zones. On Bantayan Island, the second author observed foraging workers in the intertidal zone of coral reef flats during low tide. On Bohol Island, one nest entrance was found in a mangrove close to the open sea. (Sorger & Zettel 2011)

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • malignus. Odontomachus malignus Smith, F. 1859a: 144 (w.) INDONESIA (Aru Is).
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Indonesia: Aru Is, “Aru 55” (A.R. Wallace).
    • Type-depository: OXUM.
    • Status as species: Roger, 1861a: 28; Smith, F. 1863: 19; Roger, 1863b: 21; Mayr, 1863: 437; Smith, F. 1871a: 319; Emery, 1887b: 429; Emery, 1892d: 560 (in key); Dalla Torre, 1893: 51; Emery, 1911d: 113; Viehmeyer, 1914a: 112; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 61; Santschi, 1932b: 13; Donisthorpe, 1932c: 455; Donisthorpe, 1940c: 107; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 44; Wilson, 1959a: 495; Wilson, 1962c: 15; Brown, 1976a: 104, 159; Taylor, 1976a: 81; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 56; Sorger & Zettel, 2011: 155 (redescription); Sarnat, et al. 2013: 73; Wang, W.Y. et al. 2020: 157 (redescription).
    • Senior synonym of retrolatior: Brown, 1976a: 104; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Sorger & Zettel, 2011: 156; Wang, W.Y. et al. 2020: 157.
    • Senior synonym of tuberculatus: Emery, 1887b: 429; Emery, 1892d: 560 (in key); Dalla Torre, 1893: 51; Emery, 1911d: 113; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 61; Wilson, 1959a: 495; Brown, 1976a: 104; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Sorger & Zettel, 2011: 156; Wang, W.Y. et al. 2020: 157.
    • Distribution: Indonesia (Aru Is, Martabello, Misool, Sulawesi), Malaysia (Sarawak), Papua New Guinea (+ New Britain), Philippines (Bantayan, Bohol, Luzon, Sulu Archipelago), Singapore, Solomon Is.
  • retrolatior. Odontomachus retrolatior Viehmeyer, 1914a: 113 (w.) NEW GUINEA (Papua New Guinea).
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated, “several”).
    • Type-locality: Papua New Guinea: Monumbo.
    • Type-depository: MNHU.
    • Junior synonym of malignus: Brown, 1976a: 104; Bolton, 1995b: 297; Sorger & Zettel, 2011: 156; Wang, W.Y. et al. 2020: 157.
  • tuberculatus. Odontomachus tuberculatus Roger, 1861a: 28 (w.) (no state data).
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: unknown (“aus Asien stammt”).
    • Type-depository: MNHN or MNHU.
    • [Note: Roger says that he was sent a single worker from Paris, but does not say if he returned it.]
    • Status as species: Mayr, 1862: 711; Roger, 1863b: 22; Mayr, 1863: 437; Mayr, 1872: 149.
    • Subspecies of malignus: Mann, 1919: 305; Wheeler, W.M. 1935g: 16.
    • Junior synonym of malignus: Emery, 1887b: 429; Emery, 1892d: 560 (in key); Dalla Torre, 1893: 51; Emery, 1911d: 113; Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 61; Wilson, 1959a: 495; Brown, 1976a: 104; Bolton, 1995b: 297; Sorger & Zettel, 2011: 156; Wang, W.Y. et al. 2020: 157.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Sorger & Zettel (2011) - Worker with smallest HW: CI 81, HL 2.25, HW 1.82, MdI 64, MdL 1.43, MsL 3.57, PnW 1.03, PtH 0.87, PtL 0.83, PtW 0.56, SI 128, SL 2.33, TL 10.00; worker with largest HW: CI 82, HL 2.82, HW 2.32, MdI 63, MdL 1.78, MsL 4.57, SI 123, SL 2.85, PnW 1.33, PtH 1.12, PtL 1.12, PtW 0.66, TL 11.13.

Structures: Mandibles long, reaching beyond midpoint of head, similar to O. infandus group. Head roughly rectangular, longer than wide, broadest at level of eyes. Conspicuous tubercles on both sides of median furrow dorso-posteriorly. Eyes located in first third of head. Dorsum of head striate, not reaching nuchal carina. Mesosoma elongate, broadest at level of pronotum. Pronotum rounded, metanotal groove in lateral view present. Very fine longitudinally oriented sculpture on pronotum; metanotum and propodeum with coarse transverse sculpture. Petiole short, truncated; short petiolar spine, anterior and posterior face flat; smooth and shiny, some fine striation may occur laterally. Gaster rounded to oval. Microsculpture on mesosoma and head finely granulate; ant appears matte.

Pilosity: Fine, loose semi-appressed white pubescence on head, mesosoma and petiole; gaster void of pubescence (some isolated hairs may occur), legs and antennae with dense white pubescence. Head with two standing setae, pronotum with some standing setae (2 - 3), setae on gaster increasing in number and length towards apex of abdomen.

Colour: Almost uniformly reddish brown, only head slightly lighter than rest.

Type Material

Smith Types

Holotype Specimen Labels

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

Odontomachus malignus

Holotype worker in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “Aru 55,” and bearing a Donisthorpe type-label. Two other workers, similarly mounted, are in Oxford University Museum of Natural History; one is from “M” (= Mysol I.), the other is from “Mat” (= Martabello I.).

Description

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Brown W. L., Jr. 1976. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section A. Introduction, subtribal characters. Genus Odontomachus. Stud. Entomol. 19: 67-171.
  • CSIRO Collection
  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Emery C. 1887. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine). [concl.]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 25(5): 427-473.
  • Emery C. 1892. Voyage de M. Ch. Alluaud dans le territoire d'Assinie (Afrique occidentale) en juillet et août 1886. Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 60: 553-574.
  • Emery C. 1911. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125.
  • Emery, C. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine)." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 5, no. 25 (1887): 427-473.
  • Field Museum Collection, Chicago, Illinois (C. Moreau)
  • Janda M., G. D. Alpert, M. L. Borowiec, E. P. Economo, P. Klimes, E. Sarnat, and S. O. Shattuck. 2011. Cheklist of ants described and recorded from New Guinea and associated islands. Available on http://www.newguineants.org/. Accessed on 24th Feb. 2011.
  • Kutter H. 1933. Einige Ameisen von der Südküste von Neu-Britannien. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 15: 471-474.
  • Kutter H. 1933. Einige Ameisen von der Südküste von Neu-Britannien. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 15: 471-474.
  • Mann W. M. 1919. The ants of the British Solomon Islands. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 63:273-391.
  • Mann William. 1916. The Ants of the British Solomon Islands. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 63(7): 273-391
  • Mann, W.M. 1919. The ants of the British Solomon Islands. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard College 63: 273-391
  • Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58
  • Santschi F. 1932. Résultats scientifiques du voyage aux Indes orientales néerlandaises de LL. AA. RR. le Prince et la Princesse Léopold de Belgique. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Mémoires du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique. (2)4: 11-29.
  • Smith F. 1863. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the islands of Mysol, Ceram, Waigiou, Bouru and Timor. Journal and Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology 7: 6-48.
  • Sorger, D.M. and H. Zettel. 2011. On the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Philippine Islands: V. The genus Odontomachus LATREILLE, 1804. Myrmecological News. 14:141-163.
  • Viehmeyer H. 1912. Ameisen aus Deutsch Neuguinea gesammelt von Dr. O. Schlaginhaufen. Nebst einem Verzeichnisse der papuanischen Arten. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königlichen Zoologischen und Anthropologische-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 14: 1-26.
  • Viehmeyer H. 1914. Ameisen aus Perak, Bali und Ceram (Hym.) (Freiburger Molukken-Expedition), gesammelt von E. Streesemann. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin-Dahlem 3: 112-116.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1919. The ants of Borneo. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 63:43-147.
  • Wheeler W.M. 1935. Check list of the ants of Oceania. Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 11(11):1-56.
  • Wheeler, William Morton.1935.Checklist of the Ants of Oceania.Occasional Papers 11(11): 3-56
  • Wilson E. O. 1959. Studies on the ant fauna of Melanesia V. The tribe Odontomachini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 120: 483-510.
  • Wilson E.O. 1959. Adaptive shift and dispersal in a tropical ant fauna. Evolution 13(1): 122-144.
  • Wilson Edward O. 1959. Adaptive Shift and Dispersal in a Tropical Ant Fauna. Evolution 13(1): 122-144