Myrmoteras toro

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Myrmoteras toro
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Myrmoteratini
Genus: Myrmoteras
Species: M. toro
Binomial name
Myrmoteras toro
Moffett, 1985

Myrmoteras toro casent0903241 p 1 high.jpg

Myrmoteras toro casent0903241 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

The type material was found in rainforest leaf-litter. The type series apparently represents a complete colony consisting of 22 workers and one queen, which was collected between loose leaves in the leaf litter on the forest floor. In captivity the ants foraged solitarily for various soft bodied invertebrate prey, which they captured with their trap-like jaws. (Moffett 1985)


Moffett (1985) - Can be distinguished from Myrmoteras wolasi and Myrmoteras morowali by its larger size, the lack of granulate sculpture on the clypeus, and the relatively more rounded propodeum.

Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Indonesia (type locality), Sulawesi.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 22 (Moffet, 1986; Beckers et al., 1989)
  • Foraging behaviour: solitary forager (Moffet, 1986; Beckers et al., 1989)



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • toro. Myrmoteras (Myagroteras) toro Moffett, 1985b: 49, figs. 1, 39, 43, 46, 47 (w.q.) INDONESIA (Sulawesi). See also: Moffett, 1986b: 85.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Holotype (HW 1.01 mm) and paratypes: TL 5.2 to 5.6, HW 0.97 to 1.05, HL 0.97 to 1.03 (CI 100 to 102), ML 1.48 to 1.58 (MI 153 to 154), SL 1.07 to 1.15 (SI 109 to 110), EL 0.58 to 0.62, HFL 1.13 to 1.18 (TWI 19 to 22), WL 1.35 to 1.56 mm (eight measured). A medium-sized species. Frontal sulcus narrow (0.01 to 0.02 mm wide), anterior to antennal bases weak and difficult to distinguish from the heavy sculpturing. Frontal area poorly demarcated, unlike Myrmoteras morowali. Mandibles with 11 to 13 teeth (usually 12) and two to three preapical denticles. Apical denticles tiny and not greatly different in size; the most apical is closely applied to the apical tooth. Mandibles dorsally without any trace of feeble grooves found in Myrmoteras wolasi.

Pronotum low and convex; propodeum evenly convex (except for somewhat abrupt declivity), summit virtually level with mesonotum. Metanotal groove conspicuously impressed. Node of petiole with vertical anterior slope and steep but more curving posterior slope; node narrow. Petiole feebly convex beneath node.

Dorsum of head densely packed with very wavy, ca. 0.02 mm wide rugae, which encircle antennal bases and proceed otherwise more or less longitudinally; back of head (behind ocelli) feebly rugulose, with rugae radiating out from along dorsal and lateral margins of occipital lobe, and with similar rugae on the lobe itself, particularly mesad; clypeus with feeble longitudinal rugae laterally, smoother medially, without granulate sculpture; frontal area feebly irregular. Finely longitudinally rugose on sides below eyes; smooth beneath head. Pronotum with very irregular, sinuous rugae, thicker and more widely separated than those on head. Mesothorax and propodeum with rugae ca. 0.03 to 0.04 mm apart, these mostly more or less longitudinal (oblique laterally on mesothorax), katepisternum, mesonotum, and dorsum of propodeum with rugae less distinct; declivity of propodeum with irregular transverse rugae near summit, below that virtually smooth. Pilosity very dense, with more than 40 hairs breaking dorsal margin of trunk when viewed in profile. Hairs rising 0.10 to 0.12 mm on head, trunk and gaster; two to three hairs on or near each metathoracic tubercle and five to nine on node of petiole. Most workers uniformly very dark orange red; mandibles, tarsi, and trochanters yellowish orange. Two teneral individuals have orange yellow to reddish yellow heads, trunks and legs, gasters brownish orange, and antennae, mandibles, trochanters and tarsi orange yellow.


TL 5.5, HW 1.03, and other measurements within the range shown by workers. Dorsum of trunk granulate, with the mesonotum and scutellum longitudinally granulo-rugose; pleura relatively smooth; propodeum transversely rugose.

Type Material

Holotype. Worker deposited in Museum of Comparative Zoology from Indonesia: Central Sulawesi: Lore Lindu National Park at Toro, 82 km south of Palu, disturbed rainforest, single cluster of ants in loose leaf litter, 15.VII. 1983 (M. W. Moffett). Paratypes. Workers and dealate queen from same colony (MCZ, The Natural History Museum, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa).


The specific name is a noun in apposition after the type locality.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Moffett M.W. 1985. Revision of the genus Myrmoteras. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 151: 1-53.
  • Moffett M.W. 1986. Trap-jaw predation and other observations on two species of Myrmoteras. Insectes Sociaux 33: 85-99.
  • Zettel H., and Sorger, D. M. 2011. New Myrmoteras ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the southeastern Philippines. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 59:61-67.