Crematogaster evallans

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Crematogaster evallans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Crematogaster
Species: C. evallans
Binomial name
Crematogaster evallans
Forel, 1907

Crematogaster evallans casent0628099 p 1 high.jpg

Crematogaster evallans casent0628099 d 1 high.jpg


Crematogaster evallans is found in wet forest habitats. Like other relatives of Crematogaster acuta, it appears to have large colonies that are at low density and infrequently encountered. In Costa Rica I have observed it several times in Corcovado and Manuel Antonio national parks, usually as a rapid column of workers descending a tree and fanning out onto the ground or low vegetation. In one case I saw worn trails in the moss on a tree trunk, suggesting a large colony with regularly used trunk trails. I have seen only one nest, which was at a site near Santa Marta in Colombia, along a road edge. Multiple dead branches were lodged in a vine tangle about 4m high in a small tree. A large colony occupied all the dead branches. The branches had been hollowed out by termites, and abandoned termite carton filled the interiors. Workers and alate queens were thinly scattered throughout the branches. There were few large aggregations of workers, and few of the nests contained any brood. There was no obvious colony center, and it is likely that these branches contained only part of a much larger colony that occurred higher in the tree. The nests contained numerous inquiline beetles and at least one silverfish (Atelurinae). Nothing is known of colony founding, but queens exhibit a morphology often associated with social parasitism. (Longino 2003)


Longino (2003) - Crematogaster evallans and the similar species Crematogaster acuta share a unique combination of characters: largely punctate face, erect tibial pilosity, and abundant clear to whitish (not amber, as in arcuata) long erect setae on the face and mesosomal dorsum. The two species may be distinguished by several characters (see Key), but perhaps the most discrete is the acute ventral postpetiolar tooth on acuta, contrasted with a bluntly rounded lobe on evallans.

Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Brazil (type locality), Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb






The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • evallans. Crematogaster evallans Forel, 1907e: 6 (footnote) (w., not q. as stated) BRAZIL. Forel, 1912f: 218 (w.). Combination in C. (Eucrema): Emery, 1922e: 137. Senior synonym of carbonescens: Longino, 2003a: 66.
  • carbonescens. Crematogaster evallans var. carbonescens Forel, 1913l: 233 (w.) BRAZIL. Combination in C. (Eucrema): Emery, 1922e: 137. Junior synonym of evallans: Longino, 2003a: 66.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Longino (2003) - HL 0.686, 0.634, 0.667; HW 0.742, 0.686, 0.693; HC 0.688, 0.631, 0.662; SL 0.664, 0.624, 0.655; EL 0.170, 0.152, 0.152; A11L 0.279; A11W 0.116; A10L 0.133; A10W 0.101; A09L 0.090; A09W 0.075; A08L 0.058; A08W 0.063; WL 0.791, 0.731, 0.758; SPL 0.202, 0.185, 0.188; PTH 0.193, 0.178, 0.182; PTL 0.277, 0.231, 0.241; PTW 0.213, 0.199, 0.195; PPL 0.198, 0.185, 0.189; PPW 0.292, 0.251, 0.254; CI 108, 108, 104; OI 25, 24, 23; SI 97, 98, 98; PTHI 70, 77, 76; PTWI 77, 86, 81; PPI 147, 136, 134; SPI 26, 25, 25; ACI 0.14.

Color dark red brown to black.

Head subquadrate, posterior margin emarginate, with compound eyes projecting beyond lateral margins in full face view; mandibles striate; clypeus emarginate anteriorly, convex, with faint microareolate surface sculpture and widely spaced weak rugulae that converge anteromedially; face punctate over much of surface, with variably developed anteromedian strip on face smooth and shiny; scape surface etched, subopaque; scape with abundant erect setae, setae as long as width of scape or greater; antennal club not well defined, terminal 3-5 segments gradually lengthening and becoming increasingly densely pubescent, often appearing distinctly 3-segmented; face with abundant long erect fine whitish setae, both on dorsal surface and projecting from sides; malar spaces and ventral surface of head with abundant short erect to suberect setae.

In lateral view, dorsal profile of promesonotum moderately convex, mesonotum differentiated from pronotum, projecting and forming elevated anterior boss; propodeal suture a deep crease medially, visible in dorsal view, but thin lateral carinulae bridge suture, such that in lateral view suture appears broad, shallowly impressed; dorsal and posterior faces of propodeum not well differentiated, together in nearly the same plane as mesonotal dorsum; propodeal spines thin, long, sharp; side of pronotum evenly punctate and medially impressed; anepisternum and katepisternum evenly punctate; side of propodeum faintly microareolate to smooth and shining, always with much weaker sculpture than side of pronotum and katepisternum; promesonotal dorsum uniformly punctate, sometimes overlaying faint traces of clathrate rugae; dorsal and posterior faces of propodeum faintly microareolate, often fading to smooth and shiny posteriorly; promesonotum and dorsal face of propodeum with abundant long whitish setae; legs with combination of abundant suberect and decumbent setae.

Petiole in side view subtriangular, uniformly punctate; anteroventral tooth a shallow, obtuse gibbosity, not produced or angulate; dorsal face rectangular, about twice as long as wide, smooth and shiny on anterior two thirds, grading to faintly microaerolate posteriorly; postpetiole with short, blunt ventral tooth, postpetiole in dorsal view subquadrate, wider than long, with longitudinal median sulcus, posterior margin emarginate; anterolateral margin nearly perpendicular to stem of helcium, node of postpetiole separated from helcium by a distinct sulcus; fourth abdominal tergite with faint microareolate sculpture; abundant erect long whitish setae on posterodorsal petiole, postpetiole, and fourth abdominal tergite.


Longino (2003) - In lateral profile dorsal face of propodeum sloping obliquely from postscutellum, such that most of propodeum is posterior to scutellum (in contrast to normal queens, in which dorsal face of propodeum drops steeply from postscutellum and much of propodeum appears ventral to scutellum and postscutellum); entire body, including scape, mandible, face, mesosoma, petiole, postpetiole, and fourth abdominal tergite smooth and shiny; propodeal spines long, acute; petiole and postpetiole robust, generally similar to worker in shape but completely lacking anteroventral petiolar tooth of any kind, and petiole relatively shorter, dorsal face only slightly longer than broad; appendages, dorsal surfaces of head, mesosoma, and postpetiole, and posterodorsal surface of petiole with abundant erect whitish setae; queens from Colombia, Dept. Magdalena relatively less pilose, with setae very sparse on fourth abdominal tergite; queens from Dept. Huila much more pilose, almost lanose over entire body, including fourth abdominal tergite; also, queens from Dept. Magdalena have relatively larger heads then queens from Dept. Huila; size characters as in Figures.

Type Material

Longino (2003) - Syntype workers: Rio de Janeiro (Naegeli) Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa (examined, MHNG worker here designated LECTOTYPE).


  • Emery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B: 95-206 (page 137, Combination in C. (Eucrema))
  • Forel, A. 1907h. Formiciden aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg. II. Teil. Neueingänge seit 1900. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 24: 1-20 (page 6, (footnote) worker described)
  • Forel, A. 1912g. Formicides néotropiques. Part III. 3me sous-famille Myrmicinae (suite). Genres Cremastogaster et Pheidole. Mém. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 19: 211-237 (page 218, worker described)
  • Longino, J.T. 2003a. The Crematogaster of Costa Rica. Zootaxa 151: 1-150. (page 66, Senior synonym of carbonescens, worker, queen described)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Forel A. 1912. Formicides néotropiques. Part III. 3me sous-famille Myrmicinae (suite). Genres Cremastogaster et Pheidole. Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 19: 211-237.
  • Gallego-Ropero M.C., R.M. Feitosa & J.R. Pujol-Luz, 2013. Formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Associadas a Ninhos de Cornitermes cumulans Kollar (Isoptera, Termitidae) no Cerrado do Planalto Central do Brasil. EntomoBrasilis, 6(1): 97-101.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Longino, J.T. 2003. The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica. Zootaxa 151:1-150
  • Luederwaldt H. 1918. Notas myrmecologicas. Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 29-64.
  • Pires de Prado L., R. M. Feitosa, S. Pinzon Triana, J. A. Munoz Gutierrez, G. X. Rousseau, R. Alves Silva, G. M. Siqueira, C. L. Caldas dos Santos, F. Veras Silva, T. Sanches Ranzani da Silva, A. Casadei-Ferreira, R. Rosa da Silva, and J. Andrade-Silva. 2019. An overview of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the state of Maranhao, Brazil. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 59: e20195938.
  • Ribas C. R., F. A. Schmidt, R. R. C. Solar, R. B. F. Campos, C. L. Valentim, and J. H. Schoereder. 2012. Ants as Indicators of the Success of Rehabilitation Efforts in Deposits of Gold Mining Tailings. Restoration Ecology 20(6): 712–722.
  • Ribeiro L. F., R. R. C. Solar, T. G. Sobrinho, D. C. Muscardi, J. H. Schoereder, and A. N. Andersen. 2019. Different trophic groups of arboreal ants show differential responses to resource supplementation in a neotropical savanna. Oecologia 190(2): 433-443.
  • Ulyssea M. A., and C. R. F. Brandao. 2013. Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 217–224.
  • Ulysséa M. A., C. R. F. Brandão. 2013. Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 217-224.
  • da Silva de Oliveira A. B., and F. A. Schmidt. 2019. Ant assemblages of Brazil nut trees Bertholletia excelsa in forest and pasture habitats in the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(2): 329-344.