(Smith, F., 1857)
A member of the rugosa group. Brown (1978) defined the group: Large to medium-sized forms with single, serially dentate inner margins; mesonotal disc with a raised anterior rim; petiole bluntly pointed or narrowly rounded at apex. Male (of princeps) without pygidial spine.
Satria et al. (2017) – The species of the rugosus group differ by the following characters: Anochetus mixtus - Dorsum of head in full-face view largely smooth and shiny, but frons distinctly striate obliquely and longitudinally; mesopleuron smooth and shiny; petiolar node with its basal half weakly striate. Anochetus muzziolii - Pronotal disc smooth and shiny; mandible short (MdI < 60). Anochetus princeps - Pronotal disc smooth and shiny; mesosoma relatively slender; petiole in lateral view with a relatively long anterior peduncle. Anochetus rugosus - Head in full-face view largely striated; lateral face of head partly striated; ventral face of head smooth and shiny; mesosoma relatively short and stout; petiolar node in lateral view with anterior face sinuate and posterior face weakly convex; anterior third of mesopleuron finely sculptured; propodeum coarsely rugose; petiolar node largely coarsely rugose.
Species discrimination based on male genitalia and associated sclerites (no males known for A. muzziolii). Anochetus mixtus is easily distinguished from the other species in the Anochetus rugosus group by the following characters: abdominal sternum IX much longer than broad with obtuse posterolateral corners (in A. princeps much longer than broad, without posterolateral corners; in A. rugosus slightly longer than broad, without posterolateral corners); dorsal outline of paramere weakly convex (in A. rugosus straight, gradually sloping downward to angulate distidorsal part); distiventral part of valviceps produced but shorter than broad, truncate distally (in A. princeps forming an acute, pointed and slightly downcurved projection which is much longer than broad; in A. rugosus forming a subrectangular lobe which is longer than broad); valviceps with 23−24 denticles on the ventral margin (in A. princeps with 13−14 denticles on the ventral margin, and with ca. 10 denticles on the dorsodistal margin; in A. rugosus strongly concave with 19 denticles on the ventral margin, and 9 denticles on the distal margin of the lobe). See figures in male caste section below.
Keys including this Species
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 5.833333492° to 0.666667°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
|Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.|
|Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.|
Images from AntWeb
|Holotype of Anochetus beccarii. Worker. Specimen code casent0905743. Photographer Will Ericson, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences.||Owned by MSNG, Genoa, Italy.|
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- rugosus. Odontomachus rugosus Smith, F. 1857a: 65 (w.) SINGAPORE.
- Type-material: holotype worker.
- Type-locality: Singapore: (A.R. Wallace).
- Type-depository: OXUM.
- [Note; the specimen labelled as type by Donisthorpe in OXUM bears two locality labels, one of which is “SAR” (= Sarawak), and the other “Gilolo” (= Halmahera), whereas the type-locality given by Smith (1857a: 65) is Singapore. This is the only Smith collection specimen of rugosus detected in OXUM or BMNH. Identity of the specimen appears correct; the labels may have been switched at some date after 1857.]
- Wheeler,G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1976: 61 (l.).
- Combination in Anochetus: Emery, 1911d: 109.
- Status as species: Smith, F. 1858b: 79; Roger, 1861a: 27; Roger, 1863b: 21; Mayr, 1863: 437; Smith, F. 1871a: 319; Dalla Torre, 1893: 52; Emery, 1911d: 109; Donisthorpe, 1932c: 447; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 41; Brown, 1964d: 214; Brown, 1978c: 558, 575; Bolton, 1995b: 65; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005: 13; Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 55; Satria, Bui & Eguchi, 2017: 12.
- Senior synonym of beccarii: Brown, 1964d: 214; Brown, 1978c: 575; Bolton, 1995b: 65.
- Senior synonym of ineditus: Brown, 1978c: 575; Bolton, 1995b: 65.
- Senior synonym of jacobsoni Menozzi: Brown, 1978c: 575; Bolton, 1995b: 65.
- Senior synonym of menozzii: Brown, 1978c: 575; Bolton, 1995b: 65.
- Distribution: Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah), Singapore, Thailand.
- beccarii. Anochetus beccarii Emery, 1884a: 379 (diagnosis in key) (w.) INDONESIA (Sumatra).
- Type-material: holotype worker.
- Type-locality: Indonesia: Sumatra, Ajer Mantcior (Beccari).
- [Note: type-locality from Emery, 1887b: 427.]
- Type-depository: MSNG.
- Status as species: Emery, 1887b: 427; Dalla Torre, 1893: 47; Emery, 1911d: 108; Forel, 1911d: 382; Forel, 1912n: 51; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 39.
- Junior synonym of rugosus: Brown, 1964d: 214; Brown, 1978c: 575; Bolton, 1995b: 63.
- ineditus. Anochetus ineditus Baroni Urbani, 1971b: 360.
- Unnecessary (second) replacement name for Anochetus jacobsoni Menozzi, 1939b: 178 (Bolton, 1995b: 64).
- Junior synonym of rugosus: Brown, 1978c: 575; Bolton, 1995b: 65.
- jacobsoni. Anochetus jacobsoni Menozzi, 1939b: 178, fig. 3 (w.) INDONESIA (Sumatra).
- Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated, “diverse examples”).
- Type-locality: Indonesia: Sumatra, Anai Kloof, 300 m. (E. Jacobson).
- Type-depository: IEUB.
- [Junior primary homonym of Anochetus jacobsoni Forel, 1911b: 193.]
- Replacement name: Anochetus menozzii Donisthorpe, 1941k: 237.
- Unnecessary (second) replacement name: ineditus Baroni Urbani, 1971b: 360 (Brown, 1978c: 575; Bolton, 1995b: 64).
- Junior synonym of rugosus: Brown, 1978c: 558; Bolton, 1995b: 65.
- menozzii. Anochetus menozzii Donisthorpe, 1941k: 237.
- Replacement name for Anochetus jacobsoni Menozzi, 1939b: 178. [Junior primary homonym of Anochetus jacobsoni Forel, 1911b: 193.]
- Junior synonym of rugosus: Brown, 1978c: 558; Bolton, 1995b: 65.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Satria et al. (2017) – Description of male genitalia and associated sclerites. Abdominal tergum VIII without a median spine. Abdominal sternum IX (subgenital plate) slightly longer than broad, triangular, tapering toward subrectangular apex, without posterolateral corners. Dorsal outline of paramere straight, gradually sloping downward to angulate distidorsal part. Distiventral part of valviceps forming a subrectangular lobe which is longer than broad. Ventral margin of valviceps to the anterodistal corner of the lobe strongly concave, with 19 denticles; distal margin of the lobe very short and straight, with 9 denticles. Dorsodistal margin of valviceps weakly sinuate, without denticles.
The specimen labelled as type by Donisthorpe in Oxford University Museum of Natural History is not type-material. Its pin bears two locality labels, one of which is “SAR” (= Sarawak), and the other “Gilolo” (= Halmahera). The type-locality given by Smith (1857a: 65) is Singapore. This is the only Smith coll. specimen of rugosus detected in Oxford University Museum of Natural History or The Natural History Museum. Possibility that the labels have been switched at some date after 1857?
- Brown, W. L., Jr. 1964m. Synonymy and variation of some species of the ant genus Anochetus. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 37: 212-215 (page 214, senior synonym of beccarii)
- Brown, W. L., Jr. 1978c. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section B. Genus Anochetus and bibliography. Stud. Entomol. 20: 549-638 (page 558, senior synonym of ineditus and menozzii, also see page 575)
- Cantone S. 2017. Winged Ants, The Male, Dichotomous key to genera of winged male ants in the World, Behavioral ecology of mating flight (self-published).
- Cantone S. 2018. Winged Ants, The queen. Dichotomous key to genera of winged female ants in the World. The Wings of Ants: morphological and systematic relationships (self-published).
- Emery, C. 1890b. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887 - Avril 1888). Formicides. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (6)(10): 55-76 (page 63, worker described)
- Emery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125 (page 109, Combination in Anochetus)
- Kempf, W. W. 1964f. The ants of the genus Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) in Brazil (Hym., Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 7: 237-246 (page 238, junior synonym of emarginatus)
- Khachonpisitsak, S., Yamane, S., Sriwichai, P., Jaitrong, W. 2020. An updated checklist of the ants of Thailand (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 998, 1–182 (doi:10.3897/zookeys.998.54902).
- Mann, W. M. 1916. The Stanford Expedition to Brazil, 1911, John C. Branner, Director. The ants of Brazil. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 60: 399-490 (page 418, male described)
- Satria, R. 2017. Taxonomy of the ant genus Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) in the Indo-Chinese and Indo-Malayan subregions. Ph.D. thesis, Tokyo Metropolitan University.
- Satria, R., Viet, B.T., Eguchi, K. 2017. New synonymy and redescription of Anochetus mixtus Radchenko, 1993, and distinction from the other members of the Anochetus rugosus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Asian Myrmecology 9: e009006 (DOI 10.20362/am.009006).
- Smith, F. 1857a. Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 2: 42-88 (page 65, worker described)
- Wang, W.Y., Soh, E.J.Y., Yong, G.W.J., Wong, M.K.L., Benoit Guénard, Economo, E.P., Yamane, S. 2022. Remarkable diversity in a little red dot: a comprehensive checklist of known ant species in Singapore (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with notes on ecology and taxonomy. Asian Myrmecology 15: e015006 (doi:10.20362/am.015006).
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1952c. The ant larvae of the subfamily Ponerinae - Part II. Am. Midl. Nat. 48: 604-672 (page 645, larva described [unresolved junior secondary homonym of Odontomachus rugosus Smith, 1857])
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976a. Supplementary studies on ant larvae: Ponerinae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 102: 41-64 (page 61, larva described)
- Yamane, S., Tanaka, H.O., Hasimoto, Y., Ohashi, M., Meleng, P., Itioka, T. 2021. A list of ants from Lambir Hills National Park and its vicinity, with their biological information: Part II. Subfamilies Leptanillinae, Proceratiinae, Amblyoponinae, Ponerinae, Dorylinae, Dolichoderinae, Ectatomminae and Formicinae. Contributions from the Biological Laboratory, Kyoto University 31, 87–157.
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Brown Jr., W.L. 1978. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, Tribe Ponerini, Subtribe Odontomachiti, Section B. Genus Anochetus and Bibliography. Studia Entomologia 20(1-4): 549-XXX
- Brown W. L. Jr. 1964. Synonymy and variation of some species of the ant genus Anochetus. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 37: 212-215.
- Brown W. L., Jr. 1964. Synonymy and variation of some species of the ant genus Anochetus. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 37: 212-215.
- CSIRO Collection
- Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
- Emery C. 1887. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine). [concl.]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 25(5): 427-473.
- Emery C. 1911. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125.
- Emery, C. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine)." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 5, no. 25 (1887): 427-473.
- Forel A. 1912. Einige neue und interessante Ameisenformen aus Sumatra etc. Zool. Jahrb. Suppl. 15: 51-78.
- Hashimoto Y., Y. Morimoto, and M. Mohamed. 2003. Species List of Ground and Leaf Litter Ants Collected in Lower Kinabatangan. Pp 13-18. In Lower Kinabatangan Scientific Expedition 2002, 176 pp. ISBN-13: 983-2369-11-8
- Jaitrong W., and T. Ting-Nga. 2005. Ant fauna of Peninsular Botanical Garden (Khao Chong), Trang Province, Southern Thailand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 1(2): 137-147.
- Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58
- Satria R, B. T. Viet, and K. Eguchi. 2017. New synonymy and redescription of Anochetus mixtus Radchenko, 1993, and distinction from the other members of the Anochetus rugosus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Asian Myrmecology 9: e009006
- Sukimin S., M. Mohamed, and H. Aris. 2010. Ant diversity of Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 6:89-101.
- Yamane S.; Nona, A. R. 1994. Ants from Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak. Pp. 222-226 in: Inoue, T.; Hamid, A. A. (eds.) 1994. Plant reproductive systems and animal seasonal dynamics. Long-term study of dipterocarp forests in Sarawak. Kyoto: Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, vii + 255 pp.