Anochetus rugosus

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Anochetus rugosus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Anochetus
Species group: rugosus
Species: A. rugosus
Binomial name
Anochetus rugosus
(Smith, F., 1857)

Anochetus rugosus casent0281877 p 1 high.jpg

Anochetus rugosus casent0281877 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels



A member of the rugosa group. Brown (1978) defined the group: Large to medium-sized forms with single, serially dentate inner margins; mesonotal disc with a raised anterior rim; petiole bluntly pointed or narrowly rounded at apex. Male (of princeps) without pygidial spine.

Satria et al. (2017) – The species of the rugosus group differ by the following characters: Anochetus mixtus - Dorsum of head in full-face view largely smooth and shiny, but frons distinctly striate obliquely and longitudinally; mesopleuron smooth and shiny; petiolar node with its basal half weakly striate. Anochetus muzziolii - Pronotal disc smooth and shiny; mandible short (MdI < 60). Anochetus princeps - Pronotal disc smooth and shiny; mesosoma relatively slender; petiole in lateral view with a relatively long anterior peduncle. Anochetus rugosus - Head in full-face view largely striated; lateral face of head partly striated; ventral face of head smooth and shiny; mesosoma relatively short and stout; petiolar node in lateral view with anterior face sinuate and posterior face weakly convex; anterior third of mesopleuron finely sculptured; propodeum coarsely rugose; petiolar node largely coarsely rugose.

Species discrimination based on male genitalia and associated sclerites (no males known for A. muzziolii). Anochetus mixtus is easily distinguished from the other species in the Anochetus rugosus group by the following characters: abdominal sternum IX much longer than broad with obtuse posterolateral corners (in A. princeps much longer than broad, without posterolateral corners; in A. rugosus slightly longer than broad, without posterolateral corners); dorsal outline of paramere weakly convex (in A. rugosus straight, gradually sloping downward to angulate distidorsal part); distiventral part of valviceps produced but shorter than broad, truncate distally (in A. princeps forming an acute, pointed and slightly downcurved projection which is much longer than broad; in A. rugosus forming a subrectangular lobe which is longer than broad); valviceps with 23−24 denticles on the ventral margin (in A. princeps with 13−14 denticles on the ventral margin, and with ca. 10 denticles on the dorsodistal margin; in A. rugosus strongly concave with 19 denticles on the ventral margin, and 9 denticles on the distal margin of the lobe). See figures in male caste section below.

Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore (type locality).
Oriental Region: Thailand.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb







The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • rugosus. Odontomachus rugosus Smith, F. 1857a: 65 (w.) SINGAPORE. Wheeler,G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1976: 61 (l.). Combination in Anochetus: Emery, 1911d: 109. Senior synonym of beccarii: Brown, 1964d: 214; of ineditus, menozzii: Brown, 1978c: 558. See also: Brown, 1978c: 575.
  • beccarii. Anochetus beccarii Emery, 1884a: 379 (diagnosis in key) (w.) INDONESIA (Sumatra). Junior synonym of rugosus: Brown, 1964d: 214.
  • jacobsoni. Anochetus jacobsoni Menozzi, 1939b: 178, fig. 3 (w.) INDONESIA (Sumatra). [Junior primary homonym of jacobsoni Forel, above.] First replacement name: menozzii Donisthorpe, 1941k: 237. Second (unnecessary) replacement name: ineditus Baroni Urbani, 1971b: 360.
  • menozzii. Anochetus menozzii Donisthorpe, 1941k: 237. Replacement name for jacobsoni Menozzi, 1939b: 178. [Junior primary homonym of jacobsoni Forel, 1911b: 193.] Junior synonym of rugosus: Brown, 1978c: 558.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Satria et al. (2017) – Description of male genitalia and associated sclerites. Abdominal tergum VIII without a median spine. Abdominal sternum IX (subgenital plate) slightly longer than broad, triangular, tapering toward subrectangular apex, without posterolateral corners. Dorsal outline of paramere straight, gradually sloping downward to angulate distidorsal part. Distiventral part of valviceps forming a subrectangular lobe which is longer than broad. Ventral margin of valviceps to the anterodistal corner of the lobe strongly concave, with 19 denticles; distal margin of the lobe very short and straight, with 9 denticles. Dorsodistal margin of valviceps weakly sinuate, without denticles.

Type Material

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

Odontomachus rugosus

The specimen labelled as type by Donisthorpe in Oxford University Museum of Natural History is not type-material. Its pin bears two locality labels, one of which is “SAR” (= Sarawak), and the other “Gilolo” (= Halmahera). The type-locality given by Smith (1857a: 65) is Singapore. This is the only Smith coll. specimen of rugosus detected in Oxford University Museum of Natural History or The Natural History Museum. Possibility that the labels have been switched at some date after 1857?


  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1964m. Synonymy and variation of some species of the ant genus Anochetus. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 37: 212-215 (page 214, senior synonym of beccarii)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1978c. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section B. Genus Anochetus and bibliography. Stud. Entomol. 20: 549-638 (page 558, senior synonym of ineditus and menozzii, also see page 575)
  • Emery, C. 1890b. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887 - Avril 1888). Formicides. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (6)(10): 55-76 (page 63, worker described)
  • Emery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125 (page 109, Combination in Anochetus)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1964f. The ants of the genus Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) in Brazil (Hym., Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 7: 237-246 (page 238, junior synonym of emarginatus)
  • Mann, W. M. 1916. The Stanford Expedition to Brazil, 1911, John C. Branner, Director. The ants of Brazil. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 60: 399-490 (page 418, male described)
  • Satria, R., Viet, B.T., Eguchi, K. 2017. New synonymy and redescription of Anochetus mixtus Radchenko, 1993, and distinction from the other members of the Anochetus rugosus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Asian Myrmecology 9: e009006 (DOI 10.20362/am.009006).
  • Smith, F. 1857a. Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 2: 42-88 (page 65, worker described)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1952c. The ant larvae of the subfamily Ponerinae - Part II. Am. Midl. Nat. 48: 604-672 (page 645, larva described [unresolved junior secondary homonym of Odontomachus rugosus Smith, 1857])
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976a. Supplementary studies on ant larvae: Ponerinae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 102: 41-64 (page 61, larva described)