Solenopsis virulens

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Solenopsis virulens
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Solenopsidini
Genus: Solenopsis
Species group: virulens
Species: S. virulens
Binomial name
Solenopsis virulens
(Smith, F., 1858)

Solenopsis virulens casent0902349 p 1 high.jpg

Solenopsis virulens casent0902349 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels



The only member of the Solenopsis virulens species-group. Monomorphic workers.


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 5.338305556° to -25.31416667°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Brazil (type locality), Colombia, Ecuador.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Associations with other Insects

Solenopsis virulens nests have been found harboring moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Pereira et al. 2015. The adult flies of Trichomyia myrmecophila, Quatiella truncata and Trichomyia annae were found in nest fragments of 12 S. virulens nests in Brazil.


Images from AntWeb

Solenopsis virulens casent0902458 h 1 high.jpgSolenopsis virulens casent0902458 d 1 high.jpgSolenopsis virulens casent0902458 p 1 high.jpg
Syntype of Solenopsis virulensWorker. Specimen code casent0902458. Photographer Will Ericson, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by NHMUK, London, UK.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • virulens. Myrmica virulens Smith, F. 1858b: 132 (w.) BRAZIL (Amazonas).
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Brazil: Ega (= Tefé) (H.W. Bates).
    • Type-depository: BMNH.
    • Combination in Solenopsis: Dalla Torre, 1893: 76.
    • Junior synonym of geminata: Mayr, 1886c: 360; Mayr, 1886d: 460; Dalla Torre, 1893: 76; Pergande, 1893: 35; Emery, 1922e: 197; Borgmeier, 1927c: 104; Creighton, 1930b: 59; Creighton, 1950a: 231; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1385; Zhou, 2001b: 88 (error).
    • As nomen oblitum: Kempf & Brown, 1968: 99; Kempf, 1972a: 233.
    • Status as species: Mayr, 1863: 436; Ettershank, 1966: 144; Trager, 1991: 155 (redescription); Bolton, 1995b: 391; Bezděčková, et al. 2015: 122; Fernández & Serna, 2019: 816.
    • Senior synonym of bondari: Trager, 1991: 155; Bolton, 1995b: 391.
    • Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru.
  • bondari. Solenopsis bondari Santschi, 1925d: 236 (w.) BRAZIL (Bahia).
    • Type-material: 15 syntype workers.
    • Type-locality: Brazil: Bahia (Bondar).
    • Type-depositories: LACM, NHMB.
    • Status as species: Borgmeier, 1927c: 102; Creighton, 1930b: 46 (redescription); Ettershank, 1966: 140; Kempf & Brown, 1968: 99; Kempf, 1970b: 334; Kempf, 1972a: 233.
    • Junior synonym of virulens: Trager, 1991: 155; Bolton, 1995b: 386.



References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Araujo L. M., and G. W. Fernandes. 2003. Altitudinal patterns in a tropical ant assemblage and variation in species richness between habitats. Lundiana 4(2): 103-109.
  • Bezdeckova K., P. Bedecka, and I. Machar. 2015. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Zootaxa 4020 (1): 101–133.
  • Creighton W. S. 1930. The New World species of the genus Solenopsis (Hymenop. Formicidae). Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 66: 39-151.
  • Donoso D. A., G. Onore, G. Ramon, and J. E. Lattke. 2014. Invasive ants of continental Ecuador, a first account. REMCB 35: 133-141.
  • Escalante Gutiérrez J. A. 1993. Especies de hormigas conocidas del Perú (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Peruana de Entomología 34:1-13.
  • Fichaux M., B. Bechade, J. Donald, A. Weyna, J. H. C. Delabie, J. Murienne, C. Baraloto, and J. Orivel. 2019. Habitats shape taxonomic and functional composition of Neotropical ant assemblages. Oecologia 189(2): 501-513.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, F. Fernandez, F. Petitclerc, B. Corbara, M. Leponce, R. Cereghino, and A. Dejean. 2017. Litter-dwelling ants as bioindicators to gauge the sustainability of small arboreal monocultures embedded in the Amazonian rainforest. Ecological Indicators 82: 43-49.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, F. Fernandez, M. Leponce, J. Orivel, R. Silvestre, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, and A. Dejean. 2013. Leaf-litter ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a pristine Guianese rainforest: stable functional structure versus high species turnover. Myrmecological News 19: 43-51.
  • Groc S., J. Orivel, A. Dejean, J. Martin, M. Etienne, B. Corbara, and J. H. C. Delabie. 2009. Baseline study of the leaf-litter ant fauna in a French Guianese forest. Insect Conservation and Diversity 2: 183-193.
  • Harada A. Y., P. R. Silva Farias, L. de Fatima Campos Lopes, A. G. da Silva, A. D. de Sousa Brandao. 2013. Assessment of ant communities in secondary forest in the eastern Amazon. Comunicata Scientiae 4(2): 186-194.
  • Kempf W. W. 1978. A preliminary zoogeographical analysis of a regional ant fauna in Latin America. 114. Studia Entomologica 20: 43-62.
  • Kempf W. W., and W. L. Jr. Brown. 1968. Report on some Neotropical ant studies. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 22: 89-102.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Mertl A. L., J. F. A. Traniello, K. Ryder Wilkie, and R. Constantino. 2012. Associations of two ecologically significant social insect taxa in the litter of an amazonian rainforest: is there a relationship between ant and termite species richness? Psyche doi:10.1155/2012/312054
  • Pires de Prado L., R. M. Feitosa, S. Pinzon Triana, J. A. Munoz Gutierrez, G. X. Rousseau, R. Alves Silva, G. M. Siqueira, C. L. Caldas dos Santos, F. Veras Silva, T. Sanches Ranzani da Silva, A. Casadei-Ferreira, R. Rosa da Silva, and J. Andrade-Silva. 2019. An overview of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the state of Maranhao, Brazil. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 59: e20195938.
  • Resende J. J., G. M. de M. Santos, I. C. do Nascimento, J. H. C. Delabie, and E. M. da Silva. 2011. Communities of ants (Hymenoptera – Formicidae) in different Atlantic rain forest phytophysionomies. Sociobiology 58(3): 779-799.
  • Trager J. C. 1991. A revision of the fire ants, Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 99: 141-198